Search Results

Author: Rehkopf, David
Resulting in 25 citations.
1. Abrams, Barbara
Coyle, Jeremy R.
Cohen, Alison K.
Headen, Irene
Hubbard, Alan
Ritchie, Lorrene
Rehkopf, David
Excessive Gestational Weight Gain and Subsequent Maternal Obesity at Age 40: A Hypothetical Intervention
American Journal of Public Health 107,9 (September 2017): 1463-1469.
Also: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28727522
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Gestation/Gestational weight gain; Modeling; Mothers, Health; Obesity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

OBJECTIVES: To model the hypothetical impact of preventing excessive gestational weight gain on midlife obesity and compare the estimated reduction with the US Healthy People 2020 goal of a 10% reduction of obesity prevalence in adults.

METHODS: We analyzed 3917 women with 1 to 3 pregnancies in the prospective US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, from 1979 to 2012. We compared the estimated obesity prevalence between 2 scenarios: gestational weight gain as reported and under the scenario of a hypothetical intervention that all women with excessive gestational weight gain instead gained as recommended by the Institute of Medicine (2009).

RESULTS: A hypothetical intervention was associated with a significantly reduced estimated prevalence of obesity for first (3.3 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0, 5.6) and second (3.0 percentage points; 95% CI = 0.7, 5.2) births, and twice as high in Black as in White mothers, but not significant in Hispanics. The population attributable fraction was 10.7% (95% CI = 3.3%, 18.1%) in first and 9.3% (95% CI = 2.2%, 16.5%) in second births.

CONCLUSIONS: Development of effective weight-management interventions for childbearing women could lead to meaningful reductions in long-term obesity.

Bibliography Citation
Abrams, Barbara, Jeremy R. Coyle, Alison K. Cohen, Irene Headen, Alan Hubbard, Lorrene Ritchie and David Rehkopf. "Excessive Gestational Weight Gain and Subsequent Maternal Obesity at Age 40: A Hypothetical Intervention." American Journal of Public Health 107,9 (September 2017): 1463-1469.
2. Abrams, Barbara
Heggeseth, Brianna
Rehkopf, David
Davis, Esa M.
Parity and Body Mass Index in U.S. Women: A Prospective 25-year Study
Obesity, V.21, No. 8 (August 2013): 1514–1518.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/oby.20503/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Births, Repeat / Spacing; Body Mass Index (BMI); Childbearing; Life Course; Obesity; Racial Differences; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objective: To investigate long-term body mass index (BMI) changes with childbearing.

Design and Methods: Adjusted mean BMI changes were estimated by race-ethnicity, baseline BMI and parity using longitudinal regression models in 3943 young females over 10 and 25 year follow-up from the ongoing 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth cohort.

Results: Estimated BMI increases varied by group, ranging from a low of 2.1 BMI units for white, non-overweight nulliparas over the first 10 years to a high of 10.1 BMI units for black, overweight multiparas over the full 25-year follow-up. Impacts of parity were strongest among overweight multiparas and primaparas at ten years, ranges 1.4-1.7 and 0.8-1.3 BMI units, respectively. Among non-overweight women at 10 years, parity-related gain varied by number of births among black and whites but was unassociated in Hispanic women. After 25 years, childbearing significantly increased BMI only among overweight multiparous black women.

Conclusion: Childbearing is associated with permanent weight gain in some women, but the relationship differs by maternal BMI in young adulthood, number of births, race-ethnicity and length of follow-up. Given that overweight black women may be at special risk for accumulation of permanent, long-term weight after childbearing, effective interventions for this group are particularly needed.

Bibliography Citation
Abrams, Barbara, Brianna Heggeseth, David Rehkopf and Esa M. Davis. "Parity and Body Mass Index in U.S. Women: A Prospective 25-year Study." Obesity, V.21, No. 8 (August 2013): 1514–1518. A.
3. Bernstein, Shayna
Rehkopf, David
Tuljapurkar, Shripad
Horvitz, Carol C.
Poverty Dynamics, Poverty Thresholds and Mortality: An Age-Stage Markovian Model
PLoS ONE published online (16 May 2018): DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0195734.
Also: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0195734
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: PLOS
Keyword(s): Health and Retirement Study (HRS); Mortality; Poverty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recent studies have examined the risk of poverty throughout the life course, but few have considered how transitioning in and out of poverty shape the dynamic heterogeneity and mortality disparities of a cohort at each age. Here we use state-by-age modeling to capture individual heterogeneity in crossing one of three different poverty thresholds...at each age. We examine age-specific state structure, the remaining life expectancy, its variance, and cohort simulations for those above and below each threshold. Survival and transitioning probabilities are statistically estimated by regression analyses of data from the Health and Retirement Survey RAND data-set, and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Using the results of these regression analyses, we parameterize discrete state, discrete age matrix models.
Bibliography Citation
Bernstein, Shayna, David Rehkopf, Shripad Tuljapurkar and Carol C. Horvitz. "Poverty Dynamics, Poverty Thresholds and Mortality: An Age-Stage Markovian Model." PLoS ONE published online (16 May 2018): DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0195734.
4. Brown, Daniel M.
Abrams, Barbara
Cohen, Alison K.
Rehkopf, David
Motherhood, Fatherhood and Midlife Weight Gain in a US Cohort: Associations Differ by Race/ethnicity and Socioeconomic Position
SSM - Population Health 3 (December 2017): 558-565.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352827317300423
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Childbearing; Ethnic Differences; Fatherhood; Motherhood; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Weight

While there is an association of greater short-term weight gain with childbearing among women, less is known about longer-term weight gain, whether men have similar gains, and how this varies by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Our cohort consisted of a nationally representative sample of 7,356 Americans with oversampling of Black and Hispanic populations. We estimated the associations between number of biological children and parental weight, measured as both change in self-reported body mass index (BMI) from age 18 and overweight/obese status (BMI ≥ 25) at age 40. We performed multivariate linear and logistic regression analysis and tested for effect modification by gender. For change in BMI, men gained on average 0.28 BMI (95% CI: (0.01, 0.55)) units per child, while women gained 0.13 units per child (95% CI: (-0.22, 0.48)). The adjusted odds ratios for overweight/obesity associated with each child were 1.32 (95% CI: (1.11, 1.58)) for men and 1.15 (95% CI: (1.01, 1.31)) for women. Stratified analyses by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position suggested that the observed full-cohort differences were driven primarily by gendered differences in low-income Hispanics and Whites – with the greatest associations among Hispanic men. For example, among low-income Hispanic men we observed a positive relationship between the number of children and weight change by age 40, with average weight change of 0.47 units per child (95%CI: (-0.65, 1.59 For low-income Hispanic women, however, the average weight change was -0.59 units per child (95%CI: (-1.70, 0.47), and the P-value for the test of interaction between gender and number of children was P < 0.001. Our findings suggest that the shared social and economic aspects of raising children play an important role in determining parental weight at mid-life.
Bibliography Citation
Brown, Daniel M., Barbara Abrams, Alison K. Cohen and David Rehkopf. "Motherhood, Fatherhood and Midlife Weight Gain in a US Cohort: Associations Differ by Race/ethnicity and Socioeconomic Position." SSM - Population Health 3 (December 2017): 558-565.
5. Chaffee, Benjamin W.
Abrams, Barbara
Cohen, Alison K.
Rehkopf, David
Socioeconomic Disadvantage in Childhood as a Predictor of Excessive Gestational Weight Gain and Obesity in Midlife Adulthood
Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 12,4 (December 2015): .
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12982-015-0026-7/fulltext.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Childhood; Gestation/Gestational weight gain; Modeling, Marginal Structural; Obesity; Physical Characteristics; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Socioeconomic Background; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Lower childhood socioeconomic position is associated with greater risk of adult obesity among women, but not men. Pregnancy-related weight changes may contribute to this gender difference. The objectives of this study were to determine the associations between: 1. childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and midlife obesity; 2. excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and midlife obesity; and 3. childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and excessive GWG, among a representative sample of childbearing women.
Bibliography Citation
Chaffee, Benjamin W., Barbara Abrams, Alison K. Cohen and David Rehkopf. "Socioeconomic Disadvantage in Childhood as a Predictor of Excessive Gestational Weight Gain and Obesity in Midlife Adulthood." Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 12,4 (December 2015): .
6. Cohen, Alison K.
Chaffee, Benjamin W.
Rehkopf, David
Coyle, Jeremy R.
Abrams, Barbara
Excessive Gestational Weight Gain over Multiple Pregnancies and the Prevalence of Obesity at Age 40
International Journal of Obesity 38,5 (May 2014): 714-718.
Also: http://www.nature.com/ijo/journal/v38/n5/abs/ijo2013156a.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
Keyword(s): Births, Repeat / Spacing; Body Mass Index (BMI); Childbearing; Life Course; Mothers, Health; Obesity; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objective: Although several studies have found an association between excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and obesity later in life, to the best of our knowledge, no studies have explored the role of GWG events across the life course.

Design and methods: We describe how the prevalence of midlife obesity (BMI greater than or equal to30 at age 40 or 41) among women varies by life course patterns of GWG (using 2009 IOM guidelines) in the USA's National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort.

Results: Among women who reported 1-3 births before age 40, the prevalence of midlife obesity increased with a rising number of excessive GWG events: from none (23.4%, n=875) to one (37.6%, n=707), from none (23.4%, n=875) to two (46.8%, n=427) and from none (23.4%, n=875) to three (54.6%, n=108), P<0.00005 for trend. Obesity prevalence was similar for the same number of excessive GWG events, regardless of parity. No clear pattern emerged for the sequencing of excessive GWG event(s) and later obesity.

Conclusions: In our descriptive exploratory study, excessive GWG events appear to be associated with increased prevalence of obesity for parous women, suggesting the importance of preventive interventions regardless of timing of pregnancy-related weight changes over the life course.

Bibliography Citation
Cohen, Alison K., Benjamin W. Chaffee, David Rehkopf, Jeremy R. Coyle and Barbara Abrams. "Excessive Gestational Weight Gain over Multiple Pregnancies and the Prevalence of Obesity at Age 40." International Journal of Obesity 38,5 (May 2014): 714-718.
7. Cohen, Alison K.
Kazi, Chandni
Headen, Irene
Rehkopf, David
Hendrick, C. Emily
Patil, Divya
Abrams, Barbara
Educational Attainment and Gestational Weight Gain among U.S. Mothers
Women's Health Issues 26,4 (July-August 2016): 460-467.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1049386716300457
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Educational Attainment; Gestation/Gestational weight gain; Weight

Methods: We used data from 1979 through 2010 for women in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979) cohort (n = 6,344 pregnancies from 2,769 women). We used generalized estimating equations to estimate the association between educational attainment and GWG adequacy (as defined by 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines), controlling for diverse social factors from across the life course (e.g., income, wealth, educational aspirations and expectations) and considering effect measure modification by race/ethnicity and prepregnancy overweight status.

Results: In most cases, women with more education had increased odds of gaining a recommended amount of gestational weight, independent of educational aspirations and educational expectations and relatively robust to sensitivity analyses. This trend manifested itself in a few different ways. Those with less education had higher odds of inadequate GWG than those with more education. Among those who were not overweight before pregnancy, those with less education had higher odds of excessive GWG than college graduates. Among women who were White, those with less than a high school degree had higher odds of excessive GWG than those with more education.

Bibliography Citation
Cohen, Alison K., Chandni Kazi, Irene Headen, David Rehkopf, C. Emily Hendrick, Divya Patil and Barbara Abrams. "Educational Attainment and Gestational Weight Gain among U.S. Mothers." Women's Health Issues 26,4 (July-August 2016): 460-467.
8. Cohen, Alison K.
Rehkopf, David
Deardorff, Julianna
Abrams, Barbara
Education and Obesity at Age 40 among American Adults
Social Science and Medicine 78 (February 2013): 34-41.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277953612007836
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); College Graduates; Education; Educational Attainment; High School Completion/Graduates; Obesity; Racial Differences

Although many have studied the association between educational attainment and obesity, studies to date have not fully examined prior common causes and possible interactions by race/ethnicity or gender. It is also not clear if the relationship between actual educational attainment and obesity is independent of the role of aspired educational attainment or expected educational attainment. The authors use generalized linear log link models to examine the association between educational attainment at age 25 and obesity (BMI≥30) at age 40 in the USA’s National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort, adjusting for demographics, confounders, and mediators. Race/ethnicity but not gender interacted with educational attainment. In a complete case analysis, after adjusting for socioeconomic covariates from childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, among whites only, college graduates were less likely than high school graduates to be obese (RR= 0.69, 95%CI: 0.57, 0.83). The risk ratio remained similar in two sensitivity analyses when the authors adjusted for educational aspirations and educational expectations and analyzed a multiply imputed dataset to address missingness. This more nuanced understanding of the role of education after controlling for a thorough set of confounders and mediators helps advance the study of social determinants of health and risk factors for obesity.
Bibliography Citation
Cohen, Alison K., David Rehkopf, Julianna Deardorff and Barbara Abrams. "Education and Obesity at Age 40 among American Adults." Social Science and Medicine 78 (February 2013): 34-41.
9. Deardorff, Julianna
Abrams, Barbara
Ekwaru, J. Paul
Rehkopf, David
Socioeconomic Status and Age at Menarche: An Examination of Multiple Indicators in an Ethnically Diverse Cohort
Annals of Epidemiology 24,10 (October 2014): 727-733.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1047279714003238
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Age at Menarche; Birthweight; Body Mass Index (BMI); Family Income; Family Resources; Life Course; Mothers and Daughters; Mothers, Age at Menarche; Obesity; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Weight

Purpose: Ethnic disparities exist in US girls' ages at menarche. Overweight and low socioeconomic status (SES) may contribute to these disparities but past research has been equivocal. We sought to determine which SES indicators were associated uniquely with menarche, for which ethnic groups, and whether associations operated through overweight.

Methods: Using National Longitudinal Study of Youth data, we examined associations between SES indicators and age at menarche. Participants were 4851 girls and their mothers. We used survival analyses to examine whether SES, at various time points, was associated with menarche, whether body mass index (BMI) mediated associations, and whether race/ethnicity modified associations.

Results: Black and Hispanic girls experienced menarche earlier than whites. After adjusting for SES, there was a 50% reduction in the effect estimate for "being Hispanic" and 40% reduction for "being Black" versus "being white" on menarche. SES indicators were associated uniquely with earlier menarche, including mother's unmarried status and lower family income. Associations varied by race/ethnicity. BMI did not mediate associations.

Conclusion: Racial differences in menarche may in large part be due to SES differences. Future experimental or quasi-experimental studies should examine whether intervening on SES factors could have benefits for delaying menarche among Blacks and Hispanics.

Bibliography Citation
Deardorff, Julianna, Barbara Abrams, J. Paul Ekwaru and David Rehkopf. "Socioeconomic Status and Age at Menarche: An Examination of Multiple Indicators in an Ethnically Diverse Cohort." Annals of Epidemiology 24,10 (October 2014): 727-733.
10. Deardorff, Julianna
Berry-Millett, Rachel
Rehkopf, David
Luecke, Ellen
Lahiff, Maureen
Abrams, Barbara
Maternal Pre-pregnancy BMI, Gestational Weight Gain, and Age at Menarche in Daughters
Maternal and Child Health Journal 17,8 (October 2013): 1391-1398.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10995-012-1139-z
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Age at Menarche; Birthweight; Body Mass Index (BMI); Gestation/Gestational weight gain; Life Course; Mothers and Daughters; Obesity; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Life course theory suggests that early life experiences can shape health over a lifetime and across generations. Associations between maternal pregnancy experience and daughters’ age at menarche are not well understood. We examined whether maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG) were independently related to daughters’ age at menarche. Consistent with a life course perspective, we also examined whether maternal GWG, birth weight, and prepubertal BMI mediated the relationship between pre-pregnancy BMI and daughter’s menarcheal age. We examined 2,497 mother-daughter pairs from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Survival analysis with Cox proportional hazards was used to estimate whether maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity (BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m2) and GWG adequacy (inadequate, recommended, and excessive) were associated with risk for earlier menarche among girls, controlling for important covariates. Analyses were conducted to examine the mediating roles of GWG adequacy, child birth weight and prepubertal BMI. Adjusting for covariates, pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity (HR = 1.20, 95 % CI 1.06, 1.36) and excess GWG (HR = 1.13, 95 % CI 1.01, 1.27) were associated with daughters’ earlier menarche, while inadequate GWG was not. The association between maternal pre-pregnancy weight and daughters’ menarcheal timing was not mediated by daughter’s birth weight, prepubertal BMI or maternal GWG. Maternal factors, before and during pregnancy, are potentially important determinants of daughters’ menarcheal timing and are amenable to intervention. Further research is needed to better understand pathways through which these factors operate.
Bibliography Citation
Deardorff, Julianna, Rachel Berry-Millett, David Rehkopf, Ellen Luecke, Maureen Lahiff and Barbara Abrams. "Maternal Pre-pregnancy BMI, Gestational Weight Gain, and Age at Menarche in Daughters." Maternal and Child Health Journal 17,8 (October 2013): 1391-1398.
11. Hamad, Rita
Rehkopf, David
Poverty and Child Development: A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of the Earned Income Tax Credit
American Journal of Epidemiology 183,9 (1 May 2016): 775-784.
Also: http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/183/9/775.abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Poverty; Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Family Income; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, Instrumental Variables; Socioeconomic Factors; State-Level Data/Policy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although adverse socioeconomic conditions are correlated with worse child health and development, the effects of poverty-alleviation policies are less understood. We examined the associations of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) on child development and used an instrumental variable approach to estimate the potential impacts of income. We used data from the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 8,186) during 1986-2000 to examine effects on the Behavioral Problems Index (BPI) and Home Observation Measurement of the Environment inventory (HOME) scores.
Bibliography Citation
Hamad, Rita and David Rehkopf. "Poverty and Child Development: A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of the Earned Income Tax Credit." American Journal of Epidemiology 183,9 (1 May 2016): 775-784.
12. Hamad, Rita
Rehkopf, David
Poverty, Pregnancy, and Birth Outcomes: A Study of the Earned Income Tax Credit
Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 29,5 (September 2015): 444-452.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ppe.12211/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Breastfeeding; CESD (Depression Scale); Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Household Income; Modeling, Instrumental Variables; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Program Participation/Evaluation; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control)

The study sample includes women surveyed in the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 2985) and their children born during 1986-2000 (n = 4683). Outcome variables include utilisation of prenatal and postnatal care, use of alcohol and tobacco during pregnancy, term birth, birthweight, and breast-feeding status. We first examine the health effects of both household income and EITC payment size using multivariable linear regressions. We then employ instrumental variables analysis to estimate the causal effect of income on perinatal health, using EITC payment size as an instrument for household income.
Bibliography Citation
Hamad, Rita and David Rehkopf. "Poverty, Pregnancy, and Birth Outcomes: A Study of the Earned Income Tax Credit." Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 29,5 (September 2015): 444-452.
13. Headen, Irene
Mujahid, Mahasin S.
Cohen, Alison K.
Rehkopf, David
Abrams, Barbara
Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Inadequate Gestational Weight Gain Differ by Pre-pregnancy Weight
Maternal and Child Health Journal 19,8 (August 2015): 1672-1686.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10995-015-1682-5
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Obesity; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Racial Differences; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) varies by race/ethnicity and modifies the association between gestational weight gain (GWG) and adverse pregnancy outcomes, which disproportionately affect racial/ethnic minorities. Yet studies investigating whether racial/ethnic disparities in GWG vary by pre-pregnancy BMI are inconsistent, and none studied nationally representative populations. Using categorical measures of GWG adequacy based on Institute of Medicine recommendations, we investigated whether associations between race/ethnicity and GWG adequacy were modified by pre-pregnancy BMI [underweight (<18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m2), or obese (≤30.0 kg/m2)] among all births to Black, Hispanic, and White mothers in the 1979 USA National Longitudinal Survey of Youth cohort (n = 6,849 pregnancies; range 1-10). We used generalized estimating equations, adjusted for marital status, parity, smoking during pregnancy, gestational age, and multiple measures of socioeconomic position. Effect measure modification between race/ethnicity and pre-pregnancy BMI was significant for inadequate GWG (Wald test p value = 0.08). Normal weight Black [risk ratio (RR) 1.34, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.18, 1.52] and Hispanic women (RR 1.33, 95 % CI 1.15, 1.54) and underweight Black women (RR 1.38, 95 % CI 1.07, 1.79) experienced an increased risk of inadequate GWG compared to Whites. Differences in risk of inadequate GWG between minority women, compared to White women, were not significant among overweight and obese women. Effect measure modification between race/ethnicity and pre-pregnancy BMI was not significant for excessive GWG. The magnitude of racial/ethnic disparities in inadequate GWG appears to vary by pre-pregnancy weight class, which should be considered when designing interventions to close racial/ethnic gaps in healthy GWG.
Bibliography Citation
Headen, Irene, Mahasin S. Mujahid, Alison K. Cohen, David Rehkopf and Barbara Abrams. "Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Inadequate Gestational Weight Gain Differ by Pre-pregnancy Weight." Maternal and Child Health Journal 19,8 (August 2015): 1672-1686.
14. Headen, Irene
Mujahid, Mahasin S.
Deardorff, Julianna
Rehkopf, David
Abrams, Barbara
Associations between Cumulative Neighborhood Deprivation, Long-term Mobility Trajectories, and Gestational Weight Gain
Health and Place 52 (July 2018): 101-109.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1353829217306676
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Geocoded Data; Gestation/Gestational weight gain; Mobility; Neighborhood Effects

Existing research on neighborhood environment and gestational weight gain (GWG) focuses on point-in-time measures of neighborhood context. This precludes understanding how long-term exposure to adverse neighborhood environments influences GWG. We estimated associations between average exposure to and trajectories of long-term neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and risk of inadequate or excessive GWG. Using data from 5690 full-term, singleton pregnancies in the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we estimated associations between cumulative deprivation and GWG, overall and by race/ethnicity, controlling for individual and residential covariates. A one standard deviation unit (8-point) increase in neighborhood deprivation increased risk of inadequate GWG (Relative Risk (RR): 1.08; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.00-1.16) for all women and excessive GWG (RR: 1.11; 95% CI 1.02-1.21) for white women. Persistent low deprivation (RR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.64-0.94) and upward mobility (RR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.61-0.96), compared to persistent high deprivation, reduced risk of inadequate GWG. Persistent low deprivation also reduced risk of excessive GWG (RR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.71–0.98). Long-term neighborhood deprivation contributes to patterns of GWG over women's life course.
Bibliography Citation
Headen, Irene, Mahasin S. Mujahid, Julianna Deardorff, David Rehkopf and Barbara Abrams. "Associations between Cumulative Neighborhood Deprivation, Long-term Mobility Trajectories, and Gestational Weight Gain." Health and Place 52 (July 2018): 101-109.
15. Leonard, Stephanie
Petito, Lucia C.
Rehkopf, David
Ritchie, Lorrene
Abrams, Barbara
Maternal History of Child Abuse and Obesity Risk in Offspring: Mediation by Weight in Pregnancy
Childhood Obesity 13,4 (August 2017): 259-266.
Also: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28440693
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Body Mass Index (BMI); Childhood Adversity/Trauma; Gestation/Gestational weight gain; Health, Mental; Household Influences; Obesity; Parental Influences; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Among every 100 mothers who reported physical abuse in childhood, there were 3.7 (95% confidence interval: -0.1 to 7.5) excess cases of obesity in 2- to 5-year olds compared with mothers who did not report physical abuse. Differences in prepregnancy BMI, but not gestational weight gain, accounted for 25.7% of these excess cases. There was no evidence of a similar relationship for household alcoholism or mental illness or for obesity in older children.
Bibliography Citation
Leonard, Stephanie, Lucia C. Petito, David Rehkopf, Lorrene Ritchie and Barbara Abrams. "Maternal History of Child Abuse and Obesity Risk in Offspring: Mediation by Weight in Pregnancy." Childhood Obesity 13,4 (August 2017): 259-266.
16. Liu, Yujia
Rehkopf, David
Zhong, Jingwen
Rodriguez, Eunice
Job Loss, Unemployment Benefits, and Mental Health of Middle-Aged US Women
In: Enabling Gender Equality: Future Generations of the Global World, Research in Political Sociology 23. E. Rodriguez and B. Wejnert, eds., United Kingdom: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2015: 81-91
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Emerald
Keyword(s): Health, Mental; Labor Force Participation; Stress; Unemployment Compensation

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Financial stress has been found to contribute to mental health deterioration associated with job loss. This study examined whether specific types of income support programs (e.g., unemployment benefits and welfare) reduce the negative impacts of job loss on middle-aged women's mental health in the United States. Two samples of women previously employed before their mental health assessments in their 40s and 50s were selected from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79). We conducted regression analysis to predict their mental health scores using employment and income support program status. The model also controlled for baseline health before job loss, socioeconomic status, and demographic and family life characteristics. Compared to their continuously employed counterparts, 50 +  women who had job loss without unemployment benefits had significantly worse mental health. However, those receiving unemployment benefits did not have significantly worse mental health. Unemployment benefits' ameliorating effect was not found in the 40 +  sample; and welfare programs did not have similar mental health effects. Our findings suggest that certain types of income support policies are beneficial to the mental health of certain cohorts of middle-aged women. For different groups of women, additional and alternative measures are needed to reduce the mental health damage of job loss.
Bibliography Citation
Liu, Yujia, David Rehkopf, Jingwen Zhong and Eunice Rodriguez. "Job Loss, Unemployment Benefits, and Mental Health of Middle-Aged US Women" In: Enabling Gender Equality: Future Generations of the Global World, Research in Political Sociology 23. E. Rodriguez and B. Wejnert, eds., United Kingdom: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2015: 81-91
17. Luecke, Ellen
Cohen, Alison K.
Brillante, Miranda
Rehkopf, David
Coyle, Jeremy R.
Hendrick, C. Emily
Abrams, Barbara
Similarities in Maternal Weight and Birth Weight Across Pregnancies and Across Sisters
Maternal and Child Health Journal 23,2 (February 2019): 138-147.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10995-018-2602-2
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Body Mass Index (BMI); Gestation/Gestational weight gain; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Siblings; Sisters

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives: The current study examined how prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, and birth weight cluster between births within women and between women who are sisters.

Methods: Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort, we utilized nested, multivariable hierarchical linear models to examine the correlation of these three outcomes between births (n = 6006) to women (n = 3605) and sisters (n = 3170) so that we can quantify the clustering by sibship and by woman for these three pregnancy-related outcomes.

Results: After controlling for confounding covariates, prepregnancy BMI (intraclass correlation (ICC) 0.24, 95% CI 0.16, 0.32), gestational weight gain (ICC 0.23, 95% CI 0.16, 0.31), and infant's birthweight (ICC 0.07, 95% CI 0.003, 0.13) were correlated between sisters. Additionally, all three outcomes were significantly correlated between births for each sister, suggesting that prepregnancy BMI (ICC 0.82, 95% CI 0.81, 0.83), gestational weight gain (ICC 0.45, 95% CI 0.42, 0.49), and birth weight (ICC 0.31, 95% CI 0.28, 0.35) track between pregnancies in the same woman. .

Bibliography Citation
Luecke, Ellen, Alison K. Cohen, Miranda Brillante, David Rehkopf, Jeremy R. Coyle, C. Emily Hendrick and Barbara Abrams. "Similarities in Maternal Weight and Birth Weight Across Pregnancies and Across Sisters." Maternal and Child Health Journal 23,2 (February 2019): 138-147.
18. Margerison-Zilko, Claire E.
Rehkopf, David
Abrams, Barbara
Association of Maternal Gestational Weight Gain with Short- and Long-term Maternal and Child Health Outcomes
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 202,6 (June 2010): 574.e1-574.e8.
Also: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20132923
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Birth Outcomes; Birthweight; Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Growth; Child Health; Mothers, Health; Obesity; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Weight

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between gestational weight gain (GWG) and small- and large-for-gestational-age (SGA, LGA), cesarean delivery, child overweight, and maternal postpartum weight retention in a diverse sample of women in the Unites States.

STUDY DESIGN: We estimated associations between GWG (continuous and within categories defined by the Institute of Medicine), maternal prepregnancy body mass index, and each outcome in 4496 births in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, which was a prospective cohort.

RESULTS: GWG (kilograms) was associated with decreased risk of SGA and increased risk of LGA, cesarean delivery, postpartum weight retention, and child overweight independent of maternal demographic and pregnancy characteristics. Gain above the Institute of Medicine guidelines was associated with decreased risk of SGA and increased risk of all other outcomes.

CONCLUSION: Excessive gain may have long-term consequences for maternal and child body size, but the benefits of lower gain must be balanced against risk of SGA. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

Bibliography Citation
Margerison-Zilko, Claire E., David Rehkopf and Barbara Abrams. "Association of Maternal Gestational Weight Gain with Short- and Long-term Maternal and Child Health Outcomes." American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 202,6 (June 2010): 574.e1-574.e8.
19. Petito, Lucia C.
Leonard, Stephanie
Rehkopf, David
Ritchie, Lorrene
Abrams, Barbara
Maternal Physical Abuse in Childhood is Associated with Offspring Overweight and Obesity in Early Childhood
Presented: Miami FL, Society for Pediatric and Perinatal Epidemiologic Research Annual Meeting, June 2016
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Society for Pediatric and Perinatal Epidemiologic Research
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Childhood Adversity/Trauma; Gestation/Gestational weight gain; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mothers, Health; Obesity; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) have recently been associated with high gestational weight gain (GWG), and high GWG has been associated with child obesity. We hypothesized that maternal ACE exposures are associated with offspring obesity, partially mediated by high GWG. Our study included 4,771 mother-child pairs from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979-2012). We used log-linear regression models that accounted for the complex survey design to estimate the associations of three maternal ACE measures (physical abuse, mental illness in the household, and alcohol abuse in the household) with the outcomes: ever obese or ever overweight/ obese at ages 2-5 years, 6-11 years, or 12-19 years old. For significant associations, we then estimated the total direct effect by adding GWG (measured with z-scores standardized for gestational duration) to the adjusted regression model. Next, we estimated the natural direct effect by allowing GWG in the model to vary as it would in the absence of the exposure.
Bibliography Citation
Petito, Lucia C., Stephanie Leonard, David Rehkopf, Lorrene Ritchie and Barbara Abrams. "Maternal Physical Abuse in Childhood is Associated with Offspring Overweight and Obesity in Early Childhood." Presented: Miami FL, Society for Pediatric and Perinatal Epidemiologic Research Annual Meeting, June 2016.
20. Ranchod, Yamini K.
Headen, Irene
Petito, Lucia C.
Deardorff, Julianna
Rehkopf, David
Abrams, Barbara
Maternal Childhood Adversity, Prepregnancy Obesity, and Gestational Weight Gain
American Journal of Preventive Medicine 50, 4 (April 2016): 463-469.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749379715005231
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Body Mass Index (BMI); Childhood; Gestation/Gestational weight gain; Health, Mental; Household Influences; Obesity; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Socioeconomic Factors

Introduction: Growing evidence suggests that exposure to childhood adversity may influence obesity across the life course. High maternal weight complicates pregnancy and increases the risk of child obesity. This study examined the association between maternal childhood adversity and pregnancy-related weight in a large U.S. sample.

Methods: Data on 6,199 pregnancies from 2,873 women followed from 1979 to 2012 by the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 were analyzed in 2014. Associations between three adversity exposures before age 18 years (history of physical abuse, alcohol problems, or mental illness in the household) and two maternal weight outcomes (prepregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain) were modeled separately using survey-adjusted log-binomial models.

Results: After adjusting for race/ethnicity and early-life socioeconomic factors, childhood physical abuse was associated with a 60% increase in the risk of prepregnancy obesity (adjusted risk ratio=1.6, 95% CI=1.1, 2.2). Household alcohol abuse was associated with a 30% increase in prepregnancy obesity (adjusted risk ratio=1.3, 95% CI=1.0, 1.7), as was household mental illness (adjusted risk ratio=1.3, 95% CI=0.8, 1.9), but the mental illness exposure was not significant. Physical abuse and household alcohol abuse were associated with a significant 20% increase in the risk of excessive gestational weight gain; mental illness was not.

Conclusions: Adversity in early life may affect maternal weight before and during pregnancy. Screening and treating women of reproductive age for childhood adversity and its negative effects could significantly reduce obesity-related health outcomes for women and their children.

Bibliography Citation
Ranchod, Yamini K., Irene Headen, Lucia C. Petito, Julianna Deardorff, David Rehkopf and Barbara Abrams. "Maternal Childhood Adversity, Prepregnancy Obesity, and Gestational Weight Gain." American Journal of Preventive Medicine 50, 4 (April 2016): 463-469.
21. Rehkopf, David
Using Machine Learning to Examine Heterogeneity of the Effects of Changes in the Earned Income Tax Credit on Child Health and Development
Presented: Chicago IL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2017
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Child Development; Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Heterogeneity; Legislation; Modeling

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Traditionally, examination of the heterogeneity of treatment effects has proceeded by priors from the literature, and due to power issues generally has examined only a few potential factors leading to heterogeneous effects. At the same time, there have been considerable advances in machine learning algorithms that scan over a large number of covariates to establish models of covariates that best explain a specified outcome, penalizing for greater degrees of freedom that come from multiple comparisons. My analysis uses this approach to examine potential heterogeneity of treatment effects of the largest anti-poverty policy in the United States, the Earned Income Tax Credit. I examine the spatial and temporal changes in the generosity of the policy over time (1986 to 2012) as an exogenous exposure with effects on child development outcomes using data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Rather than examining heterogeneity of treatment effects only by basic demographic factors, I using an ensemble machine learning approach (using multiple machine learning algorithms including random forest, Elastic-Net, Least Angle Regression, Support Vector Machine, Bayesian GLM) to examine whether treatment effects differ by several dozen potential demographic, socioeconomic, environmental and behavioral factors.
Bibliography Citation
Rehkopf, David. "Using Machine Learning to Examine Heterogeneity of the Effects of Changes in the Earned Income Tax Credit on Child Health and Development." Presented: Chicago IL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 2017.
22. Rehkopf, David
Headen, Irene
Hubbard, Alan
Deardorff, Julianna
Kesavan, Yamini
Cohen, Alison K.
Patil, Divya
Ritchie, Lorrene
Abrams, Barbara
Adverse Childhood Experiences and Later Life Adult Obesity and Smoking in the United States
Annals of Epidemiology 26,7 (July 2016): 488-492.e5.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1047279716301600
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Childhood; Childhood Adversity/Trauma; Household Influences; Modeling, Instrumental Variables; Obesity; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Background: Prior work demonstrates associations between physical abuse, household alcohol abuse and household mental illness early in life with obesity and smoking. Studies, however, have not generally been in nationally representative samples and have not conducted analyses to account for bias in the exposure.

Methods: We used data from the 1979 U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to test associations between measures of adverse childhood experiences with obesity and smoking and used an instrumental variables approach to address potential measurement error of the exposure.

Results: Models demonstrated associations between childhood physical abuse and obesity at age 40 years (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.00-1.52) and ever smoking (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.56-2.16), as well as associations between household alcohol abuse (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.31-1.79) and household mental illness (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.04-1.60) with ever smoking. We find no evidence of association modification by gender, socioeconomic position or race/ethnicity. Instrumental variables analysis using a sibling's report of adverse childhood experiences demonstrated a relationship between household alcohol abuse and smoking, with a population attributable fraction of 17% (95% CI 2.0% to 37%) for ever smoking and 6.7% (95% CI 1.6% to 12%) for currently smoking.

Conclusions: Findings suggest long-term impacts of childhood exposure to physical abuse, household alcohol abuse and parental mental illness on obesity and smoking, and that the association between household alcohol abuse and smoking is not solely due to measurement error.

Bibliography Citation
Rehkopf, David, Irene Headen, Alan Hubbard, Julianna Deardorff, Yamini Kesavan, Alison K. Cohen, Divya Patil, Lorrene Ritchie and Barbara Abrams. "Adverse Childhood Experiences and Later Life Adult Obesity and Smoking in the United States." Annals of Epidemiology 26,7 (July 2016): 488-492.e5.
23. Rehkopf, David
Strully, Kate W.
The Joint Impact of Income Supplementation and Food Prices on Child and Adolescent Overweight
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Child Health; Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Obesity; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Our analysis examines the independent and joint effects of income supplementation and food prices on child overweight from the ages of 2 to 18. We examine the effects of supplementation using variation from the national expansions and changing benefits structures of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC). We examine the effects of prices using regional and temporal variation of baskets of unhealthy, healthy and fast food. We then examine whether there are interactions between income supplementation and local food pricing in determining onset of childhood overweight. These questions are examined using individual fixed effect regression models among children of participants of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 from 1990 to 2006. In aggregate we find that higher EITC benefits are associated with increased child overweight. However, among individual living in areas with the highest prices for healthy food, receipt of larger EITC benefits results in lower levels of overweight.
Bibliography Citation
Rehkopf, David and Kate W. Strully. "The Joint Impact of Income Supplementation and Food Prices on Child and Adolescent Overweight." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011.
24. Robinson, Camille
Cohen, Alison K.
Rehkopf, David
Deardorff, Julianna
Ritchie, Lorrene
Jayaweera, Ruvani T.
Coyle, Jeremy R.
Abrams, Barbara
Pregnancy and Post-delivery Maternal Weight Changes and Overweight in Preschool Children
Preventive Medicine 60 (March 2014): 77-82.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S009174351300488X
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Gestation/Gestational weight gain; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Obesity; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Weight

Objectives: High maternal weight before and during pregnancy contributes to child obesity. To assess the additional role of weight change after delivery, we examined associations between pre- and post-pregnancy weight changes and preschooler overweight.

Methods: Sample: 4359 children from the Children and Young Adults of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) born to 2816 NLSY mothers between 1979 and 2006 and followed to age 4–5 years old. Exposures: gestational weight gain (GWG) and post-delivery maternal weight change (PDWC). Outcome: child overweight (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 85th percentile).

Results: Adjusted models suggested that both increased GWG (OR: 1.08 per 5 kg GWG, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.16) and excessive GWG (OR: 1.29 versus adequate GWG, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.56) were associated with preschooler overweight. Maternal weight change after delivery was also independently associated with child overweight (OR: 1.12 per 5 kg PDWC, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.21). Associations were stronger among children with overweight or obese mothers.

Conclusions: Increased maternal weight gain both during and after pregnancy predicted overweight in preschool children. Our results suggest that healthy post-pregnancy weight may join normal pre-pregnancy BMI and adequate GWG as a potentially modifiable risk factor for child overweight.

Bibliography Citation
Robinson, Camille, Alison K. Cohen, David Rehkopf, Julianna Deardorff, Lorrene Ritchie, Ruvani T. Jayaweera, Jeremy R. Coyle and Barbara Abrams. "Pregnancy and Post-delivery Maternal Weight Changes and Overweight in Preschool Children." Preventive Medicine 60 (March 2014): 77-82.
25. Strully, Kate W.
Rehkopf, David
Xuan, Ziming
Liberal Welfare State Policies and Health: The Effect of The Earned Income Tax Credit on Child Well-Being
Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America (PAA) 2008 Annual Meeting, April 17-19, 2008
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Birth Outcomes; Birthweight; Child Development; Child Health; Children, Poverty; Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Height; Poverty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this analysis, we investigate the health effects of liberal welfare state policies by examining how enactments and expansion of state and national earned income tax credit (EITC) programs impact the health of the children of the working poor. Using two data sources — Children of the NLSY79 and U.S. Natality Data — to conduct a difference-in-difference analysis, we examine the effect of the EITC on birth weight, preterm birth, and child height.
Bibliography Citation
Strully, Kate W., David Rehkopf and Ziming Xuan. "Liberal Welfare State Policies and Health: The Effect of The Earned Income Tax Credit on Child Well-Being." Presented: New Orleans, LA, Population Association of America (PAA) 2008 Annual Meeting, April 17-19, 2008.