Search Results

Author: Cohen, Alison K.
Resulting in 19 citations.
1. Abrams, Barbara
Coyle, Jeremy R.
Cohen, Alison K.
Headen, Irene
Hubbard, Alan
Ritchie, Lorrene
Rehkopf, David
Excessive Gestational Weight Gain and Subsequent Maternal Obesity at Age 40: A Hypothetical Intervention
American Journal of Public Health 107,9 (September 2017): 1463-1469.
Also: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28727522
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Gestation/Gestational weight gain; Modeling; Mothers, Health; Obesity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

OBJECTIVES: To model the hypothetical impact of preventing excessive gestational weight gain on midlife obesity and compare the estimated reduction with the US Healthy People 2020 goal of a 10% reduction of obesity prevalence in adults.

METHODS: We analyzed 3917 women with 1 to 3 pregnancies in the prospective US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, from 1979 to 2012. We compared the estimated obesity prevalence between 2 scenarios: gestational weight gain as reported and under the scenario of a hypothetical intervention that all women with excessive gestational weight gain instead gained as recommended by the Institute of Medicine (2009).

RESULTS: A hypothetical intervention was associated with a significantly reduced estimated prevalence of obesity for first (3.3 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0, 5.6) and second (3.0 percentage points; 95% CI = 0.7, 5.2) births, and twice as high in Black as in White mothers, but not significant in Hispanics. The population attributable fraction was 10.7% (95% CI = 3.3%, 18.1%) in first and 9.3% (95% CI = 2.2%, 16.5%) in second births.

CONCLUSIONS: Development of effective weight-management interventions for childbearing women could lead to meaningful reductions in long-term obesity.

Bibliography Citation
Abrams, Barbara, Jeremy R. Coyle, Alison K. Cohen, Irene Headen, Alan Hubbard, Lorrene Ritchie and David Rehkopf. "Excessive Gestational Weight Gain and Subsequent Maternal Obesity at Age 40: A Hypothetical Intervention." American Journal of Public Health 107,9 (September 2017): 1463-1469.
2. Brown, Daniel M.
Abrams, Barbara
Cohen, Alison K.
Rehkopf, David
Motherhood, Fatherhood and Midlife Weight Gain in a US Cohort: Associations Differ by Race/ethnicity and Socioeconomic Position
SSM - Population Health 3 (December 2017): 558-565.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352827317300423
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Childbearing; Ethnic Differences; Fatherhood; Motherhood; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Weight

While there is an association of greater short-term weight gain with childbearing among women, less is known about longer-term weight gain, whether men have similar gains, and how this varies by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Our cohort consisted of a nationally representative sample of 7,356 Americans with oversampling of Black and Hispanic populations. We estimated the associations between number of biological children and parental weight, measured as both change in self-reported body mass index (BMI) from age 18 and overweight/obese status (BMI ≥ 25) at age 40. We performed multivariate linear and logistic regression analysis and tested for effect modification by gender. For change in BMI, men gained on average 0.28 BMI (95% CI: (0.01, 0.55)) units per child, while women gained 0.13 units per child (95% CI: (-0.22, 0.48)). The adjusted odds ratios for overweight/obesity associated with each child were 1.32 (95% CI: (1.11, 1.58)) for men and 1.15 (95% CI: (1.01, 1.31)) for women. Stratified analyses by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position suggested that the observed full-cohort differences were driven primarily by gendered differences in low-income Hispanics and Whites – with the greatest associations among Hispanic men. For example, among low-income Hispanic men we observed a positive relationship between the number of children and weight change by age 40, with average weight change of 0.47 units per child (95%CI: (-0.65, 1.59 For low-income Hispanic women, however, the average weight change was -0.59 units per child (95%CI: (-1.70, 0.47), and the P-value for the test of interaction between gender and number of children was P < 0.001. Our findings suggest that the shared social and economic aspects of raising children play an important role in determining parental weight at mid-life.
Bibliography Citation
Brown, Daniel M., Barbara Abrams, Alison K. Cohen and David Rehkopf. "Motherhood, Fatherhood and Midlife Weight Gain in a US Cohort: Associations Differ by Race/ethnicity and Socioeconomic Position." SSM - Population Health 3 (December 2017): 558-565.
3. Chaffee, Benjamin W.
Abrams, Barbara
Cohen, Alison K.
Rehkopf, David
Socioeconomic Disadvantage in Childhood as a Predictor of Excessive Gestational Weight Gain and Obesity in Midlife Adulthood
Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 12,4 (December 2015): .
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12982-015-0026-7/fulltext.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Childhood; Gestation/Gestational weight gain; Modeling, Marginal Structural; Obesity; Physical Characteristics; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Socioeconomic Background; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Lower childhood socioeconomic position is associated with greater risk of adult obesity among women, but not men. Pregnancy-related weight changes may contribute to this gender difference. The objectives of this study were to determine the associations between: 1. childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and midlife obesity; 2. excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and midlife obesity; and 3. childhood socioeconomic disadvantage and excessive GWG, among a representative sample of childbearing women.
Bibliography Citation
Chaffee, Benjamin W., Barbara Abrams, Alison K. Cohen and David Rehkopf. "Socioeconomic Disadvantage in Childhood as a Predictor of Excessive Gestational Weight Gain and Obesity in Midlife Adulthood." Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 12,4 (December 2015): .
4. Cohen, Alison K.
The School Setting and Health Across the Lifespan: High School Student Composition and Health Outcomes in Adulthood
Presented: Miami FL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 12-14, 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM)
Keyword(s): Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; High School; Life Course; Obesity; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

I investigate the demographic composition of the high school student body and health outcomes at age 40 in a recent, nationally representative American cohort.
Bibliography Citation
Cohen, Alison K. "The School Setting and Health Across the Lifespan: High School Student Composition and Health Outcomes in Adulthood." Presented: Miami FL, Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) Annual Fall Research Conference, November 12-14, 2015.
5. Cohen, Alison K.
Chaffee, Benjamin W.
Rehkopf, David
Coyle, Jeremy R.
Abrams, Barbara
Excessive Gestational Weight Gain over Multiple Pregnancies and the Prevalence of Obesity at Age 40
International Journal of Obesity 38,5 (May 2014): 714-718.
Also: http://www.nature.com/ijo/journal/v38/n5/abs/ijo2013156a.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
Keyword(s): Births, Repeat / Spacing; Body Mass Index (BMI); Childbearing; Life Course; Mothers, Health; Obesity; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objective: Although several studies have found an association between excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and obesity later in life, to the best of our knowledge, no studies have explored the role of GWG events across the life course.

Design and methods: We describe how the prevalence of midlife obesity (BMI greater than or equal to30 at age 40 or 41) among women varies by life course patterns of GWG (using 2009 IOM guidelines) in the USA's National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort.

Results: Among women who reported 1-3 births before age 40, the prevalence of midlife obesity increased with a rising number of excessive GWG events: from none (23.4%, n=875) to one (37.6%, n=707), from none (23.4%, n=875) to two (46.8%, n=427) and from none (23.4%, n=875) to three (54.6%, n=108), P<0.00005 for trend. Obesity prevalence was similar for the same number of excessive GWG events, regardless of parity. No clear pattern emerged for the sequencing of excessive GWG event(s) and later obesity.

Conclusions: In our descriptive exploratory study, excessive GWG events appear to be associated with increased prevalence of obesity for parous women, suggesting the importance of preventive interventions regardless of timing of pregnancy-related weight changes over the life course.

Bibliography Citation
Cohen, Alison K., Benjamin W. Chaffee, David Rehkopf, Jeremy R. Coyle and Barbara Abrams. "Excessive Gestational Weight Gain over Multiple Pregnancies and the Prevalence of Obesity at Age 40." International Journal of Obesity 38,5 (May 2014): 714-718.
6. Cohen, Alison K.
Kazi, Chandni
Headen, Irene
Rehkopf, David
Hendrick, C. Emily
Patil, Divya
Abrams, Barbara
Educational Attainment and Gestational Weight Gain among U.S. Mothers
Women's Health Issues 26,4 (July-August 2016): 460-467.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1049386716300457
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Educational Attainment; Gestation/Gestational weight gain; Weight

Methods: We used data from 1979 through 2010 for women in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979) cohort (n = 6,344 pregnancies from 2,769 women). We used generalized estimating equations to estimate the association between educational attainment and GWG adequacy (as defined by 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines), controlling for diverse social factors from across the life course (e.g., income, wealth, educational aspirations and expectations) and considering effect measure modification by race/ethnicity and prepregnancy overweight status.

Results: In most cases, women with more education had increased odds of gaining a recommended amount of gestational weight, independent of educational aspirations and educational expectations and relatively robust to sensitivity analyses. This trend manifested itself in a few different ways. Those with less education had higher odds of inadequate GWG than those with more education. Among those who were not overweight before pregnancy, those with less education had higher odds of excessive GWG than college graduates. Among women who were White, those with less than a high school degree had higher odds of excessive GWG than those with more education.

Bibliography Citation
Cohen, Alison K., Chandni Kazi, Irene Headen, David Rehkopf, C. Emily Hendrick, Divya Patil and Barbara Abrams. "Educational Attainment and Gestational Weight Gain among U.S. Mothers." Women's Health Issues 26,4 (July-August 2016): 460-467.
7. Cohen, Alison K.
Nussbaum, Juliet
Weintraub, Miranda L. Ritterman
Nichols, Chloe R.
Yen, Irene H.
Association of Adult Depression With Educational Attainment, Aspirations, and Expectations
Preventing Chronic Disease 17 (27 August 2020): 200098.
Also: https://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2020/20_0098.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Educational Attainment

Introduction: Social factors across one's lifespan may contribute to the relationship between low educational attainment and depression, but this relationship has been understudied. Previous studies assessing the association between educational attainment and depression did not fully account for prior common determinants across the life course and possible interactions by sex or race/ethnicity. It is also unclear whether the link between educational attainment and depression is independent of the role of aspired educational attainment or expected educational attainment.

Methods: We used generalized linear log link models to examine the association between educational attainment at age 25 and depression at age 40 in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort, adjusting for confounders and mediators from childhood, adolescence, and adulthood.

Results: Members of each educational attainment group were less likely to be depressed at age 40 than those with less education. After adjusting for educational aspirations and educational expectations, the risk ratios became closer to the null. Neither sex nor race/ethnicity interacted with educational attainment. Additionally, low educational expectations in adolescence, but not low educational aspirations, was associated with a higher risk of depression at age 40.

Bibliography Citation
Cohen, Alison K., Juliet Nussbaum, Miranda L. Ritterman Weintraub, Chloe R. Nichols and Irene H. Yen. "Association of Adult Depression With Educational Attainment, Aspirations, and Expectations." Preventing Chronic Disease 17 (27 August 2020): 200098.
8. Cohen, Alison K.
Ozer, Emily J.
Rehkopf, David
Abrams, Barbara
High School Composition and Health Outcomes in Adulthood: A Cohort Study
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health published online (6 April 2021): DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18073799
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: MDPI (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)
Keyword(s): Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; High School; Obesity; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Background: A multitude of empirical evidence documents links between education and health, but this focuses primarily on educational attainment and not on characteristics of the school setting. Little is known about the extent to which aggregate characteristics of the school setting, such as student body demographics, are associated with adult health outcomes.

Methods: We use the U.S. nationally representative National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort to statistically assess the association between two different measures of high school student composition (socioeconomic composition, racial/ethnic composition) and two different health outcomes at age 40 (self-rated health and obesity).

Results: After adjusting for confounders, high school socioeconomic composition, but not racial/ethnic composition, was weakly associated with both obesity and worse self-rated health at age 40. However, after adding adult educational attainment to the model, only the association between high school socioeconomic composition and obesity remained statistically significant.

Conclusions: Future research should explore possible mechanisms and also if findings are similar across other populations and in other school contexts. These results suggest that education policies that seek to break the link between socioeconomic composition and negative outcomes remain important but may have few spillover effects onto health.

Bibliography Citation
Cohen, Alison K., Emily J. Ozer, David Rehkopf and Barbara Abrams. "High School Composition and Health Outcomes in Adulthood: A Cohort Study." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health published online (6 April 2021): DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18073799.
9. Cohen, Alison K.
Rehkopf, David
Deardorff, Julianna
Abrams, Barbara
Education and Obesity at Age 40 among American Adults
Social Science and Medicine 78 (February 2013): 34-41.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277953612007836
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); College Graduates; Education; Educational Attainment; High School Completion/Graduates; Obesity; Racial Differences

Although many have studied the association between educational attainment and obesity, studies to date have not fully examined prior common causes and possible interactions by race/ethnicity or gender. It is also not clear if the relationship between actual educational attainment and obesity is independent of the role of aspired educational attainment or expected educational attainment. The authors use generalized linear log link models to examine the association between educational attainment at age 25 and obesity (BMI≥30) at age 40 in the USA’s National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort, adjusting for demographics, confounders, and mediators. Race/ethnicity but not gender interacted with educational attainment. In a complete case analysis, after adjusting for socioeconomic covariates from childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, among whites only, college graduates were less likely than high school graduates to be obese (RR= 0.69, 95%CI: 0.57, 0.83). The risk ratio remained similar in two sensitivity analyses when the authors adjusted for educational aspirations and educational expectations and analyzed a multiply imputed dataset to address missingness. This more nuanced understanding of the role of education after controlling for a thorough set of confounders and mediators helps advance the study of social determinants of health and risk factors for obesity.
Bibliography Citation
Cohen, Alison K., David Rehkopf, Julianna Deardorff and Barbara Abrams. "Education and Obesity at Age 40 among American Adults." Social Science and Medicine 78 (February 2013): 34-41.
10. Cohen, Alison K.
Smith, Louisa H.
Ream, Robert K.
Glymour, M. Maria
Yen, Irene H.
Educational Attainment Trajectories of U.S. Adults: Sociodemographic Differences in When People Finish Their Schooling
Presented: San Antonio TX, American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting, April-May 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Educational Research Association
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Ethnic Differences; Household Influences; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study describes lifetime educational trajectories of members of the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth's 1979 cohort and explores differences in trajectories by race/ethnicity, sex, household circumstances, and other sociodemographic characteristics. We considered participants to have continued their education past a given age if at any time after that age their reported number of years of education increased, they reported earning a higher degree, or they were enrolled in high school or college. Two out of five people had not completed their education by age 25; one in eight had not completed by age 40. At every age after 18, Asians and whites had more education than African-Americans/blacks and Hispanics/Latinos. Causes and implications for these different trajectories are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Cohen, Alison K., Louisa H. Smith, Robert K. Ream, M. Maria Glymour and Irene H. Yen. "Educational Attainment Trajectories of U.S. Adults: Sociodemographic Differences in When People Finish Their Schooling." Presented: San Antonio TX, American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting, April-May 2017.
11. Duarte, Catherine D. P.
Wannier, S. Rae
Cohen, Alison K.
Glymour, M. Maria
Ream, Robert K.
Yen, Irene H.
Vable, Anusha M.
Lifecourse Educational Trajectories and Hypertension in Midlife: An Application of Sequence Analysis
Journals of Gerontology: Series B published online (29 August 2021): glab249.
Also: https://academic.oup.com/biomedgerontology/advance-article/doi/10.1093/gerona/glab249/6359344
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): Education, Adult; Educational Attainment; GED/General Educational Diploma/General Equivalency Degree/General Educational Development; Health, Chronic Conditions; High School Diploma; Life Course

Background: Higher educational attainment predicts lower hypertension. Yet, associations between non-traditional educational trajectories (e.g., interrupted degree programs) and hypertension are less well understood, particularly among structurally marginalized groups who are more likely to experience these non-traditional trajectories.

Methods: In National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort data (N=6,317), we used sequence and cluster analyses to identify groups of similar educational sequences -- characterized by timing and type of terminal credential -- that participants followed from age 14-48. Using logistic regression, we estimated associations between the resulting 10 educational sequences and hypertension at age 50. We evaluated effect modification by individual-level indicators of structural marginalization (race, gender, race and gender, and childhood socioeconomic status (cSES)).

Results: Compared to terminal high school (HS) diploma completed at traditional age, terminal GED (OR:1.32;95%CI:1.04,1.66; RR:1.21;95%CI:1.03,1.43) or Associate Degree after

Bibliography Citation
Duarte, Catherine D. P., S. Rae Wannier, Alison K. Cohen, M. Maria Glymour, Robert K. Ream, Irene H. Yen and Anusha M. Vable. "Lifecourse Educational Trajectories and Hypertension in Midlife: An Application of Sequence Analysis." Journals of Gerontology: Series B published online (29 August 2021): glab249.
12. Headen, Irene
Mujahid, Mahasin S.
Cohen, Alison K.
Rehkopf, David
Abrams, Barbara
Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Inadequate Gestational Weight Gain Differ by Pre-pregnancy Weight
Maternal and Child Health Journal 19,8 (August 2015): 1672-1686.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10995-015-1682-5
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Obesity; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Racial Differences; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) varies by race/ethnicity and modifies the association between gestational weight gain (GWG) and adverse pregnancy outcomes, which disproportionately affect racial/ethnic minorities. Yet studies investigating whether racial/ethnic disparities in GWG vary by pre-pregnancy BMI are inconsistent, and none studied nationally representative populations. Using categorical measures of GWG adequacy based on Institute of Medicine recommendations, we investigated whether associations between race/ethnicity and GWG adequacy were modified by pre-pregnancy BMI [underweight (<18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m2), or obese (≤30.0 kg/m2)] among all births to Black, Hispanic, and White mothers in the 1979 USA National Longitudinal Survey of Youth cohort (n = 6,849 pregnancies; range 1-10). We used generalized estimating equations, adjusted for marital status, parity, smoking during pregnancy, gestational age, and multiple measures of socioeconomic position. Effect measure modification between race/ethnicity and pre-pregnancy BMI was significant for inadequate GWG (Wald test p value = 0.08). Normal weight Black [risk ratio (RR) 1.34, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.18, 1.52] and Hispanic women (RR 1.33, 95 % CI 1.15, 1.54) and underweight Black women (RR 1.38, 95 % CI 1.07, 1.79) experienced an increased risk of inadequate GWG compared to Whites. Differences in risk of inadequate GWG between minority women, compared to White women, were not significant among overweight and obese women. Effect measure modification between race/ethnicity and pre-pregnancy BMI was not significant for excessive GWG. The magnitude of racial/ethnic disparities in inadequate GWG appears to vary by pre-pregnancy weight class, which should be considered when designing interventions to close racial/ethnic gaps in healthy GWG.
Bibliography Citation
Headen, Irene, Mahasin S. Mujahid, Alison K. Cohen, David Rehkopf and Barbara Abrams. "Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Inadequate Gestational Weight Gain Differ by Pre-pregnancy Weight." Maternal and Child Health Journal 19,8 (August 2015): 1672-1686.
13. Hendrick, C. Emily
Cohen, Alison K.
Deardorff, Julianna
Cance, Jessica Duncan
Biological and Sociocultural Factors During the School Years Predicting Women's Lifetime Educational Attainment
Journal of School Health 86,3 (March 2016): 215-224.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/josh.12368/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Family Influences; Menarche; Well-Being

BACKGROUND: Lifetime educational attainment is an important predictor of health and well-being for women in the United States. In this study, we examine the roles of sociocultural factors in youth and an understudied biological life event, pubertal timing, in predicting women's lifetime educational attainment.

METHODS: Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort (N = 3889), we conducted sequential multivariate linear regression analyses to investigate the influences of macro-level and family-level sociocultural contextual factors in youth (region of country, urbanicity, race/ethnicity, year of birth, household composition, mother's education, and mother's age at first birth) and early menarche, a marker of early pubertal development, on women's educational attainment after age 24.

RESULTS: Pubertal timing and all sociocultural factors in youth, other than year of birth, predicted women's lifetime educational attainment in bivariate models. Family factors had the strongest associations. When family factors were added to multivariate models, geographic region in youth, and pubertal timing were no longer significant.

CONCLUSION: Our findings provide additional evidence that family factors should be considered when developing comprehensive and inclusive interventions in childhood and adolescence to promote lifetime educational attainment among girls.

Bibliography Citation
Hendrick, C. Emily, Alison K. Cohen, Julianna Deardorff and Jessica Duncan Cance. "Biological and Sociocultural Factors During the School Years Predicting Women's Lifetime Educational Attainment." Journal of School Health 86,3 (March 2016): 215-224.
14. Luecke, Ellen
Cohen, Alison K.
Brillante, Miranda
Rehkopf, David
Coyle, Jeremy R.
Hendrick, C. Emily
Abrams, Barbara
Similarities in Maternal Weight and Birth Weight Across Pregnancies and Across Sisters
Maternal and Child Health Journal 23,2 (February 2019): 138-147.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10995-018-2602-2
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Body Mass Index (BMI); Gestation/Gestational weight gain; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Siblings; Sisters

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives: The current study examined how prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, and birth weight cluster between births within women and between women who are sisters.

Methods: Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort, we utilized nested, multivariable hierarchical linear models to examine the correlation of these three outcomes between births (n = 6006) to women (n = 3605) and sisters (n = 3170) so that we can quantify the clustering by sibship and by woman for these three pregnancy-related outcomes.

Results: After controlling for confounding covariates, prepregnancy BMI (intraclass correlation (ICC) 0.24, 95% CI 0.16, 0.32), gestational weight gain (ICC 0.23, 95% CI 0.16, 0.31), and infant's birthweight (ICC 0.07, 95% CI 0.003, 0.13) were correlated between sisters. Additionally, all three outcomes were significantly correlated between births for each sister, suggesting that prepregnancy BMI (ICC 0.82, 95% CI 0.81, 0.83), gestational weight gain (ICC 0.45, 95% CI 0.42, 0.49), and birth weight (ICC 0.31, 95% CI 0.28, 0.35) track between pregnancies in the same woman. .

Bibliography Citation
Luecke, Ellen, Alison K. Cohen, Miranda Brillante, David Rehkopf, Jeremy R. Coyle, C. Emily Hendrick and Barbara Abrams. "Similarities in Maternal Weight and Birth Weight Across Pregnancies and Across Sisters." Maternal and Child Health Journal 23,2 (February 2019): 138-147.
15. Rehkopf, David
Headen, Irene
Hubbard, Alan
Deardorff, Julianna
Kesavan, Yamini
Cohen, Alison K.
Patil, Divya
Ritchie, Lorrene
Abrams, Barbara
Adverse Childhood Experiences and Later Life Adult Obesity and Smoking in the United States
Annals of Epidemiology 26,7 (July 2016): 488-492.e5.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1047279716301600
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Childhood; Childhood Adversity/Trauma; Household Influences; Modeling, Instrumental Variables; Obesity; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Background: Prior work demonstrates associations between physical abuse, household alcohol abuse and household mental illness early in life with obesity and smoking. Studies, however, have not generally been in nationally representative samples and have not conducted analyses to account for bias in the exposure.

Methods: We used data from the 1979 U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to test associations between measures of adverse childhood experiences with obesity and smoking and used an instrumental variables approach to address potential measurement error of the exposure.

Results: Models demonstrated associations between childhood physical abuse and obesity at age 40 years (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.00-1.52) and ever smoking (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.56-2.16), as well as associations between household alcohol abuse (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.31-1.79) and household mental illness (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.04-1.60) with ever smoking. We find no evidence of association modification by gender, socioeconomic position or race/ethnicity. Instrumental variables analysis using a sibling's report of adverse childhood experiences demonstrated a relationship between household alcohol abuse and smoking, with a population attributable fraction of 17% (95% CI 2.0% to 37%) for ever smoking and 6.7% (95% CI 1.6% to 12%) for currently smoking.

Conclusions: Findings suggest long-term impacts of childhood exposure to physical abuse, household alcohol abuse and parental mental illness on obesity and smoking, and that the association between household alcohol abuse and smoking is not solely due to measurement error.

Bibliography Citation
Rehkopf, David, Irene Headen, Alan Hubbard, Julianna Deardorff, Yamini Kesavan, Alison K. Cohen, Divya Patil, Lorrene Ritchie and Barbara Abrams. "Adverse Childhood Experiences and Later Life Adult Obesity and Smoking in the United States." Annals of Epidemiology 26,7 (July 2016): 488-492.e5.
16. Robinson, Camille
Cohen, Alison K.
Rehkopf, David
Deardorff, Julianna
Ritchie, Lorrene
Jayaweera, Ruvani T.
Coyle, Jeremy R.
Abrams, Barbara
Pregnancy and Post-delivery Maternal Weight Changes and Overweight in Preschool Children
Preventive Medicine 60 (March 2014): 77-82.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S009174351300488X
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Gestation/Gestational weight gain; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Obesity; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Weight

Objectives: High maternal weight before and during pregnancy contributes to child obesity. To assess the additional role of weight change after delivery, we examined associations between pre- and post-pregnancy weight changes and preschooler overweight.

Methods: Sample: 4359 children from the Children and Young Adults of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) born to 2816 NLSY mothers between 1979 and 2006 and followed to age 4–5 years old. Exposures: gestational weight gain (GWG) and post-delivery maternal weight change (PDWC). Outcome: child overweight (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 85th percentile).

Results: Adjusted models suggested that both increased GWG (OR: 1.08 per 5 kg GWG, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.16) and excessive GWG (OR: 1.29 versus adequate GWG, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.56) were associated with preschooler overweight. Maternal weight change after delivery was also independently associated with child overweight (OR: 1.12 per 5 kg PDWC, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.21). Associations were stronger among children with overweight or obese mothers.

Conclusions: Increased maternal weight gain both during and after pregnancy predicted overweight in preschool children. Our results suggest that healthy post-pregnancy weight may join normal pre-pregnancy BMI and adequate GWG as a potentially modifiable risk factor for child overweight.

Bibliography Citation
Robinson, Camille, Alison K. Cohen, David Rehkopf, Julianna Deardorff, Lorrene Ritchie, Ruvani T. Jayaweera, Jeremy R. Coyle and Barbara Abrams. "Pregnancy and Post-delivery Maternal Weight Changes and Overweight in Preschool Children." Preventive Medicine 60 (March 2014): 77-82.
17. Vable, Anusha M.
Cohen, Alison K.
Leonard, Stephanie
Glymour, M. Maria
Duarte, Catherine
Yen, Irene H.
Do the Health Benefits of Education Vary by Sociodemographic Subgroup? Differential Returns to Education and Implications for Health Inequities
Annals of Epidemiology 28,11 (November 2018): 759-766.e5.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1047279718305209
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Socioeconomic Background

Methods: Using National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (N=6,158) cohort data, we evaluate education attained by age 25 and mental (MCS) and physical (PCS) health component summary scores at age 50. Race/ethnicity, sex, geography, immigration status, and childhood socioeconomic status (cSES) were evaluated as effect modifiers in birth-year adjusted linear regression models.
Bibliography Citation
Vable, Anusha M., Alison K. Cohen, Stephanie Leonard, M. Maria Glymour, Catherine Duarte and Irene H. Yen. "Do the Health Benefits of Education Vary by Sociodemographic Subgroup? Differential Returns to Education and Implications for Health Inequities." Annals of Epidemiology 28,11 (November 2018): 759-766.e5.
18. Vable, Anusha M.
Duarte, Catherine d P.
Wannier, S. Rae
Chan-Golston, Alec M.
Cohen, Alison K.
Glymour, M. Maria
Ream, Robert K.
Yen, Irene H.
Understanding the Benefits of Different Types and Timing of Education for Mental Health: A Sequence Analysis Approach
Journals of Gerontology: Series B published online (13 August 2021): gbab147.
Also: https://academic.oup.com/psychsocgerontology/advance-article/doi/10.1093/geronb/gbab147/6350335
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): College Education; Education, Adult; Educational Attainment; GED/General Educational Diploma/General Equivalency Degree/General Educational Development; Health, Mental; High School Diploma

Objectives: Individuals increasingly experience delays or interruptions in schooling; we evaluate the association between these non-traditional education trajectories and mental health.

Methods: Using year-by-year education data for 7,501 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 participants, ages 14-48 (262,535 person-years of education data), we applied sequence analysis and a clustering algorithm to identify educational trajectory groups, incorporating both type and timing to credential. Linear regression models, adjusted for early-life confounders, evaluated relationships between educational trajectories and mental health component scores (MCS) from the 12-item short form instrument at age 50. We evaluated effect modification by race, gender, and race by gender.

Bibliography Citation
Vable, Anusha M., Catherine d P. Duarte, S. Rae Wannier, Alec M. Chan-Golston, Alison K. Cohen, M. Maria Glymour, Robert K. Ream and Irene H. Yen. "Understanding the Benefits of Different Types and Timing of Education for Mental Health: A Sequence Analysis Approach." Journals of Gerontology: Series B published online (13 August 2021): gbab147.
19. Vable, Anusha M.
Duarte, Catherine
Cohen, Alison K.
Glymour, M. Maria
Ream, Robert K.
Yen, Irene H.
Does the Type and Timing of Educational Attainment Influence Physical Health? A Novel Application of Sequence Analysis
American Journal of Epidemiology published online (17 July 2020): DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwaa150.
Also: https://academic.oup.com/aje/advance-article/doi/10.1093/aje/kwaa150/5872673
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Johns Hopkins University Press
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale

Nontraditional education trajectories are common, but their influence on physical health is understudied. We constructed year-by-year education trajectories for 7,501 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 participants aged 14 to 48 years (262,535 person-years of education data from 1979 to 2014). We characterized trajectory similarity using sequence analysis and used hierarchical clustering to group similar educational trajectories. Using linear regression, we predicted physical health summary scores of the participants at age 50 years from the 12-item Short-Form Survey, adjusting for available confounders, and evaluated effect modification by sex, race/ethnicity, and childhood socioeconomic status. We identified 24 unique educational sequence clusters on the basis of highest level of schooling and attendance timing.
Bibliography Citation
Vable, Anusha M., Catherine Duarte, Alison K. Cohen, M. Maria Glymour, Robert K. Ream and Irene H. Yen. "Does the Type and Timing of Educational Attainment Influence Physical Health? A Novel Application of Sequence Analysis." American Journal of Epidemiology published online (17 July 2020): DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwaa150.