Search Results

Source: American Statistical Association
Resulting in 35 citations.
1. Anderson, Carolyn S.
Alienation, Labor Market Structure, and Women's Attachment to the Labor Force: The Impact of Part-Time Industries on Discontinuous Labor Force Participation
Presented: Cincinnati, OH, American Statistical Association Annual Meetings, August 1991
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Employment, Intermittent; Job Patterns; Part-Time Work; Racial Differences; Work Attachment

Data from the Mature Women cohort of the 1969-1984 NLS indicate that employment in industries that depend on part-time workers is found to have lasting effects on black and white working women's long-term attachment to the labor force. The experience of black women working in the private household services industry illustrates that workers without institutional credentials and supports must depend on personal reserves of motivation and perseverance in the face of such constraints on attachment. [Sociological Abstracts, Inc]
Bibliography Citation
Anderson, Carolyn S. "Alienation, Labor Market Structure, and Women's Attachment to the Labor Force: The Impact of Part-Time Industries on Discontinuous Labor Force Participation." Presented: Cincinnati, OH, American Statistical Association Annual Meetings, August 1991.
2. Antos, Joseph R.
Chandler, Mark D.
Sex Differences in Union Membership: The Impact of Occupation and Industry
Proceedings, Business and Economic Statistics Section, American Statistical Association, Part_II (1977): 496-500
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Collective Bargaining; Discrimination, Sex; Industrial Sector; Part-Time Work; Unions

Results confirm the hypothesis that the occupational and industrial distribution explains a significant portion of the male-female unionization gap. The role of the occupational distribution is largely independent of any variation in either human capital or the incidence of part-time work. A substantial part of the male-female unionization gap remains unexplained. Omitted variables undoubtedly account for a portion of the remaining differential. No measures of sex discrimination by unions or systematic male-female differences in tastes for unionization are available. An additional difficulty may be inadequate control for sex differences in the occupational distribution, due to the highly aggregated nature of our variables. In spite of these deficiencies, the explanatory power of occupation and industry is impressive.
Bibliography Citation
Antos, Joseph R. and Mark D. Chandler. "Sex Differences in Union Membership: The Impact of Occupation and Industry." Proceedings, Business and Economic Statistics Section, American Statistical Association, Part_II (1977): 496-500.
3. Brito, Patricia K.
Jusenius, Carol L.
Career Aspirations of Young Women: Factors Underlying Choice of a Typically Male or Female Occupation
Proceedings, Social Statistics Section, American Statistical Association (1978): 50-59
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; College Education; Educational Attainment; Family Influences; Occupational Aspirations; Work History

This paper examines the personal characteristics which influence a young woman's preference for typically male or typically female occupations. Preference formation is apparently different for women who have had or plan to have a college education and those without such expectations. The results indicate that family background is only slightly associated with occupational choice. Education, marital and childrearing experience, and labor market experience later in life have a more significant impact on whether typical or atypical occupations are chosen than childhood environment influences.
Bibliography Citation
Brito, Patricia K. and Carol L. Jusenius. "Career Aspirations of Young Women: Factors Underlying Choice of a Typically Male or Female Occupation." Proceedings, Social Statistics Section, American Statistical Association (1978): 50-59.
4. Carr, Timothy J.
An Analysis of the Duration of Unemployment
Proceedings, Business and Economic Statistics Section, American Statistical Association (1977): 644-648
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Job Search; Unemployment Duration; Wages, Reservation

This study presents an empirical test of a simple job search model where search continues until a job offer matches the searcher's previously established reservation wage. The results provide support for the model and as such conflict with other reservation wage studies which establish a negative relationship between reservation wages and the duration of unemployment. The study fits spell of unemployment data to a Weibull distribution and tests its hypotheses by examining the parameters of the distribution.
Bibliography Citation
Carr, Timothy J. "An Analysis of the Duration of Unemployment." Proceedings, Business and Economic Statistics Section, American Statistical Association (1977): 644-648.
5. Elliott, Marta E.
Parcel, Toby L.
Career Disruption Effects on Early Wages: A Comparison of Mothers and Women Without Children
Presented: Cincinnati, OH, American Statistical Association Annual Meetings, August 1991
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Dual Economic Theory; Earnings; Human Capital Theory; Labor Market, Secondary; Maternal Employment; Mothers; Occupational Segregation; Occupations; Wages, Women

This paper examines differences between mothers and non-mothers in the relative disruption of careers and the process of earnings attainment. Combining human capital and dual labor market theories, the author hypothesizes that: (1) mothers' and non-mothers' careers diverge both with respect to accumulated human capital, and to the occupational labor market characteristics of their jobs; and (2) these variations are reflected in differential patterns of earnings attainment between the two groups. These hypotheses are tested on a sample of 5,314 women drawn from the NLSY who worked at any time between 1984 and 1987 (85% of the sample). Descriptive results reveal that mothers' careers are substantially more disrupted than the careers of non-mothers, and are characterized by lower wage jobs entailing less substantively complex work in occupational labor markets more heavily dominated by women and minorities. OLS analyses of earnings run separately for mothers and non-mothers indicates that while human capital accumulation plays the most important role in determining non-mothers' wages, occupational content and labor market composition outweigh human capital as determinants of mothers' wages. The disappearance of the negative effect of number of children on mothers' wages when indicators of career disruption are controlled suggests that motherhood is detrimental to women's earnings primarily because of its effects on labor force participation patterns.
Bibliography Citation
Elliott, Marta E. and Toby L. Parcel. "Career Disruption Effects on Early Wages: A Comparison of Mothers and Women Without Children." Presented: Cincinnati, OH, American Statistical Association Annual Meetings, August 1991.
6. Erickson, Julia A.
The Dilemma of Education: Home and Work Roles for Women
Presented: Chicago, IL, American Statistical Association Annual Meetings, 1977.
Also: http://researchconnections.org/ICPSR/biblio/series/00129/resources/9557?sortBy=1&publicationYear=1977&paging.startRow=1
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Children; Educational Attainment; Husbands, Income; Marriage; Mobility, Job; Work Attachment

This research analyzes the relationship between education, home role and work attachment on the basis of measuring women's work histories by work attachment. The findings show that education facilitates attachment to the labor force and, at the same time, increases the likelihood of a marital role that conflicts with work attachment.
Bibliography Citation
Erickson, Julia A. "The Dilemma of Education: Home and Work Roles for Women." Presented: Chicago, IL, American Statistical Association Annual Meetings, 1977.
7. Hayward, Mark D.
Grady, William R.
Hardy, Melissa A.
Sommers, David Gerard
Retirement, Disability and Death Among Older Men in the U.S.: The Influence of Occupation
Presented: Chicago, IL, American Statistical Association Annual Meetings, 1987
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Disabled Workers; Labor Force Participation; Mortality; Occupations; Retirement

This research examines the alternative mechanisms by which occupations influence the nature and timing of older men's labor force withdrawal. In particular, this research assesses the extent to which occupational factors operate directly and indirectly on exiting events and whether occupations augment or constrain traditional determinants of labor force participation. Based on a discrete-time hazards modeling approach, the results substantiate that the occupational task activities, substantive complexity and physical demands, are key elements of the work environment that are evaluated against the set of non-work alternatives. In the case of retirement, these aspects of occupational attractiveness function as a dominant and direct force in the retirement decision- making calculus. With regard to disability, these factors operate directly by defining vocational opportunities. Other occupational attributes such as mandatory retirement regulations and measures of career continuity also are key and direct determinants of the retirement decision.
Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D., William R. Grady, Melissa A. Hardy and David Gerard Sommers. "Retirement, Disability and Death Among Older Men in the U.S.: The Influence of Occupation." Presented: Chicago, IL, American Statistical Association Annual Meetings, 1987.
8. Huang, Jinlin
Bivariate Survival Analysis with Association
Presented: Ft. Lauderdale, FL, American Statistical Association Winter Conference, Families and Children: Research Findings, Data Needs, and Survey Issues, 1993
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Data Analysis; Marriage; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Monte Carlo; Pairs (also see Siblings); Statistical Analysis; Variables, Independent - Covariate

Linear model approach is used on a bivariate survival model with censoring in either or both components. Various parametric, semi-parametric and non-parametric methods are applied to estimate an association parameter, as well as the covariates. When the postulated model has fewer covariates than the true model has, the estimation bias is smaller with bivariate model than with univariate model. A new bivariate model with time-dependent covariates and competing risks is established. Special goodness-to-fit technique for censored data and Monte Carlo simulation are used. The final section is an application to the ages at the first marriage for pairs of sisters where "failure" means the first marriage. The data is from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth from 1978 to 1988.
Bibliography Citation
Huang, Jinlin. "Bivariate Survival Analysis with Association." Presented: Ft. Lauderdale, FL, American Statistical Association Winter Conference, Families and Children: Research Findings, Data Needs, and Survey Issues, 1993.
9. Hudis, Paula M.
Kalleberg, Arne L.
Labor Market Structure and Sex Differences in Occupational Careers
Presented: Chicago, IL, American Statistical Association Annual Meetings, 1977
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Children; Earnings; Life Cycle Research; Marital Status; Mobility, Job; Schooling; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Results suggest the utility of a career concept for understanding the variety of factors that affect the distribution of socioeconomic rewards to individuals over their employment lifecycles. We have found evidence for the varying impact of labor market characteristics and family status, as well as personal resources, for men and women and across stages of the life cycle.
Bibliography Citation
Hudis, Paula M. and Arne L. Kalleberg. "Labor Market Structure and Sex Differences in Occupational Careers." Presented: Chicago, IL, American Statistical Association Annual Meetings, 1977.
10. Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung
An Empirical Approach in Decomposing Attributing Factors to Co-occurring Use of Marijuana and Other Forms of Illicit Drug
Presented: Chicago IL, International Conference on Health Policy Statistics, October 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Drug Use; Socioeconomic Background; Substance Use

Background: Use of marijuana and other forms of illicit drugs is often co-occurred, however, few studies have addressed how much of the association between marijuana and other illicit drug use is attributable to characteristics of marijuana users and how much of it is attributable to the substance itself or to other confounding factors.

Methods: The study utilized 14-year follow-up data of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), 4,540 males and 4,320 females in the United States and proposed Oxaca-Blinder-Fairlie decomposition method to decompose attributing factors to co-occurring marijuana and other forms of illicit drug use during young adulthood into observed and unexplained components.

Results: Marijuana users showed about 30% higher rates of other illicit drug use in the young adulthood than marijuana abstainers. Consistently across gender, about one third of this gap in other illicit drug use during young adulthood between marijuana users and abstainers was contributed by differences in predisposing demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and cigarette and alcohol consumption during adolescent years between marijuana users and abstainers with the majority of the contribution from differences in cigarette and alcohol consumption during adolescent years between marijuana users and abstainers. The remaining two thirds of the contribution to the gap were left unexplained by the study’s empirical model.

Conclusions: The proposed Oxaca-Blinder-Fairlie decomposition method deconvoluted factors attributing to co-occurring use of marijuana and other forms of illicit drug and findings provided a data driven guideline to drug policy making and prevention programs.

Bibliography Citation
Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung. "An Empirical Approach in Decomposing Attributing Factors to Co-occurring Use of Marijuana and Other Forms of Illicit Drug." Presented: Chicago IL, International Conference on Health Policy Statistics, October 2013.
11. Kim, Choongsoo
Nestel, Gilbert
Participation in the All-Volunteer Force: The Effect on Civilian Earnings
Proceedings, Business and Economic Statistics Section, American Statistical Association (1982): 440-444
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): All-Volunteer Force (AVF); Attrition; Earnings; Sample Selection; Selectivity Bias/Selection Bias

This study compares the hourly earnings of youth by whether or not they served in the All Volunteer Force (AVF). The data are obtained from the NLSY, a nationally representative sample of individuals age 16-21 years of age in 1979. These data also contain information on a sample of youth who have served in the AVF. The enlistees are further classified by completion status in their first tour of duty to see whether this difference affects civilian earnings. Our estimation procedure controls for specification bias because of possible differences in unobserved characteristics between those who separate and those who reenlist, and between those who work and others who do not choose employment.
Bibliography Citation
Kim, Choongsoo and Gilbert Nestel. "Participation in the All-Volunteer Force: The Effect on Civilian Earnings." Proceedings, Business and Economic Statistics Section, American Statistical Association (1982): 440-444.
12. King, Randall Howard
Some Economic Consequences of Dropping Out of High School
In: Proceedings, Business and Economic Statistics Section, American Statistical Association, Part II. Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association, 1977: pp. 522-527
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Dropouts; High School Completion/Graduates; High School Dropouts; Job Tenure; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Wages; Work Knowledge

The relative advantage over time of high school graduates (with respect to dropping out after eleven years) is investigated for one aspect of labor market success--hourly rate of pay. Analysis also separates the direct and indirect effects of schooling on wages and illuminates race and sex differences.
Bibliography Citation
King, Randall Howard. "Some Economic Consequences of Dropping Out of High School" In: Proceedings, Business and Economic Statistics Section, American Statistical Association, Part II. Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association, 1977: pp. 522-527
13. Lee, Marlene A.
Wojtkiewicz, Roger A.
Road to Independence: Patterns of Living Arrangements among Young Adults
Presented: Chicago, IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meetings, August 1999
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Education; Exits; Gender Differences; High School Completion/Graduates; High School Dropouts; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction

Considers male & female patterns of living arrangements during young adulthood. Grouping females by education at age 18 conditions on an event - high school graduation - likely to influence the timing of future education & living arrangements between ages 18 & 30. Using an increment-decrement multistate life table model data from the 1979-1992 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth are drawn to estimate time spent in each state, as well as number of entries to & exits from each. Results reveal consistent differences between male & females with respect to state durations, entries, & exits. However, the patterns of differences between high school dropouts & graduates vary with gender.
Bibliography Citation
Lee, Marlene A. and Roger A. Wojtkiewicz. "Road to Independence: Patterns of Living Arrangements among Young Adults." Presented: Chicago, IL, American Sociological Association Annual Meetings, August 1999.
14. Lichter, Daniel T.
McLaughlin, Diane K.
Marriage Markets and Marital Behavior among Low-Income Women
Presented: Ft. Lauderdale, FL, American Statistical Association Winter Conference, Families and Children: Research Findings, Data Needs, and Survey Issues, 1993
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Behavior; Marriage; Poverty; Women; Work Knowledge

This paper evaluates the relationship between several indicators of the local supply of economically-attractive men and marriage rates among poor and nonpoor women in the United States. Data are from the-1980 PUMS-D and the 1979-86 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Our main goals are (1) to provide a statistical portrait of the pool of marriageable men available for poor women to marry; and (2) to estimate contextual models of first marriage transitions among young poor women. Our results bear on recent state welfare reforms (e.g., wedfare) aimed at reducing disincentives to marry among poor welfare recipients.
Bibliography Citation
Lichter, Daniel T. and Diane K. McLaughlin. "Marriage Markets and Marital Behavior among Low-Income Women." Presented: Ft. Lauderdale, FL, American Statistical Association Winter Conference, Families and Children: Research Findings, Data Needs, and Survey Issues, 1993.
15. Lippman, Laura
Burns, Shelley
McArthur, Edith
Smith, Tom
Education Outcomes and School Poverty and Urbanicity
Presented: Ft. Lauderdale, FL, American Statistical Association Winter Conference, Families and Children: Research Findings, Data Needs, and Survey Issues, 1993
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Employment; High School and Beyond (HSB); National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP); National Education Longitudinal Survey (NELS); Poverty; Rural/Urban Differences; Urbanization/Urban Living

This paper investigates the relationship between school urbanicity and the degree of poverty within schools, and outcomes of students attending those schools. Educational achievement and attainment, employment, and earnings are analyzed using data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), the National Educational Longitudinal Survey (NELS), High School and Beyond (HS&B), and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Individual level data on these outcomes are comparably grouped across data sets according to the urbanicity of the school and the percent of disadvantaged students in the school. Student outcomes are then compared across categories of urban, suburban, and rural schools with various levels of disadvantagement. We find that the level of concentration of poverty within a school is a stronger predictor of outcomes than urbanicity. Measurement issues within NCES surveys are raised.
Bibliography Citation
Lippman, Laura, Shelley Burns, Edith McArthur and Tom Smith. "Education Outcomes and School Poverty and Urbanicity." Presented: Ft. Lauderdale, FL, American Statistical Association Winter Conference, Families and Children: Research Findings, Data Needs, and Survey Issues, 1993.
16. Mahnken, Jonathan D.
Li, Chaoyang
Nazir, Niaman
So, Joseph
Kaur, Harsohena
Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.
Analyzing the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth: A Comparison of Statistical Methods
Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Joint Statistical Meetings, August 2005
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Birthweight; Child Health; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Modeling; Morbidity; Mortality; Obesity; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Weight

Recent trends in obesity incidence and prevalence among America's youth have raised concern among the public health community. Although much ongoing research is aimed at addressing the concerns of obesity and its related morbidity and mortality, many questions remain unanswered. We used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth NLSY79 Child and Youth data to investigate obesity incidence. These data contain not only factors of the children such as birth weight, gender and race, but also maternal factors such as mother's age at pregnancy, prenatal care, and alcohol and tobacco use during pregnancy. While these data are rich in many ways, they present interesting statistical challenges. For this data set, respondents were surveyed biennially. Censored and missing data in both outcome and predictor variables are some of the problems that must be taken into account when determining the influence of the individual and maternal factors on adolescent obesity incidence. We applied different statistical methods (parametric survival analysis, GLMM, and GEE) to these data and compared the results, describing the merits and drawbacks of each approach.
Bibliography Citation
Mahnken, Jonathan D., Chaoyang Li, Niaman Nazir, Joseph So, Harsohena Kaur and Jasjit S. Ahluwalia. "Analyzing the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth: A Comparison of Statistical Methods." Presented: Minneapolis, MN, Joint Statistical Meetings, August 2005.
17. Marcis, John G.
Sex Differences in Job Quitting by Younger Workers
Presented: Cincinnati, OH, American Statistical Association Annual Meetings, 1982
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Mobility, Job; Quits; Sex Roles; Unemployment

This study reports on an empirical investigation of labor market behavior among young workers. The hypothesis tested in this study is that sex-related differences in younger labor market participants do not affect their decision to voluntarily change their employment status, against the simple alternative that sex-related differences do produce such an effect. The study first investigates sex differences in the reasons for quitting employment and then empirically estimates the probability of quitting using a logit model. Hence, the model allows us to examine how a set of attributes influences the probability of an individual quitting employment.
Bibliography Citation
Marcis, John G. "Sex Differences in Job Quitting by Younger Workers." Presented: Cincinnati, OH, American Statistical Association Annual Meetings, 1982.
18. Mellow, Wesley
Turnover in the Youth Labor Market
Proceedings, Business and Economic Statistics Section, American Statistical Association Part_II (1978): 632-637
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Job Tenure; Job Turnover; Marital Status; Quits; Schooling

Our findings indicate that voluntary turnover in the youth labor market represents an explicit attempt to improve economic position. Workers who quit are those who receive less than their market wage. Moreover, unsatisfactory job matches appear to be an important cause of youth turnover--the accumulation of job tenure rapidly diminishes the likelihood of changing jobs; and workers who locate jobs under unfavorable economic conditions are more likely to find that such jobs subsequently prove unsatisfactory. Finally, the maturation process increases the purposiveness of workers' turnover behavior, albeit modestly.
Bibliography Citation
Mellow, Wesley. "Turnover in the Youth Labor Market." Proceedings, Business and Economic Statistics Section, American Statistical Association Part_II (1978): 632-637.
19. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Explaining Work and Family Linkages in Dual-Earner Families: Effects of Parents' Occupational Conditions on Children's Outcomes
Presented: Cincinnati, OH, American Statistical Association Annual Meetings, August 1991
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Behavioral Problems; Child Development; Dual-Career Families; Fathers, Absence; Fathers, Influence; Parental Influences; Work Attachment; Work Hours; Working Conditions

Theoretical arguments and empirical findings regarding the impact of variations in occupational conditions on children's intellectual and emotional development are examined based on data from the NLSY 1979-1988 and from interviews conducted in 1986 and 1988 with the children (ages 3-6 in 1986) of 521 employed mothers with employed spouses. Among the findings are: (1) the more complex the mother's employment, the more nurturant and stimulating the child's home environment, even controlling for father's characteristics, though higher educational level of fathers also has significant effects; (2) mother's higher pay and more moderate working hours are associated with higher child verbal facility, though this can be negatively affected by father's longer working hours; and (3) greater maternal occupational involvement and occupational conditions demanding little physical activity predict higher child behavior problems, with the same true for fathers' low occupational physical activity. These findings support the argument that even with an employed mother present, fathers' occupational and educational experiences have significant direct effects on home environments and child outcomes. Conversely, maternal occupational experience has independent impacts, even with paternal occupational effects controlled. Ongoing analyses are investigating interactive effects of both parents' occupational experiences on family relations and child outcomes. [Sociological Abstracts, Inc.]
Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G. "Explaining Work and Family Linkages in Dual-Earner Families: Effects of Parents' Occupational Conditions on Children's Outcomes." Presented: Cincinnati, OH, American Statistical Association Annual Meetings, August 1991.
20. Monk-Turner, Elizabeth A.
Is Going to a Community College Better than Not Going to College at All?
Presented: Cincinnati, OH, American Statistical Association Annual Meetings, August 1991
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): College Education; Colleges; Educational Returns; High School Completion/Graduates; Occupational Status; Racial Differences

An examination of occupational differences on the Duncan index between high school graduates and community college entrants for a cross-section of young men drawn from the NLS. For the sample as a whole and for whites, community college entrants who completed 2+ years significantly enhanced their occupational status over comparable high school graduates; for blacks, community college entrants had to acquire 4+ years to significantly enhance their occupational status over black male high school graduates. Community college education appears to be problematic for blacks: while acquisition of a higher education is generally considered a positive good, the kind of educational opportunity offered by community colleges tends to reinforce rather than alleviate racial differences in socioeconomic status. Community college entrants who acquire 1 year of college or who drop out are not significantly better off occupationally than high school graduates; thus, controlling for other variables, the Associate of Arts degree is not a significant predictor of occupational achievement. [Sociological Abstracts, Inc.]
Bibliography Citation
Monk-Turner, Elizabeth A. "Is Going to a Community College Better than Not Going to College at All?" Presented: Cincinnati, OH, American Statistical Association Annual Meetings, August 1991.
21. Mott, Frank L.
Shapiro, David
Some Dimensions of Work-Fertility Analysis from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience
Presented: Chapel Hill, North Carolina, Eastern North American Region Joint Meetings of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics and The American Statistical Association, April 1977
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Employment; Fertility

This paper represents, in essence, a program report on our work-fertility research which represents a major and continuing thrust of our research program at the center for Human Resource Research.
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L. and David Shapiro. "Some Dimensions of Work-Fertility Analysis from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience." Presented: Chapel Hill, North Carolina, Eastern North American Region Joint Meetings of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics and The American Statistical Association, April 1977.
22. Myers, Steven C.
Labor Force Participation and the Probability of Completing College
Proceedings, Business and Economic Statistics Section, American Statistical Association, Part_II (1977): 638-643
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): College Dropouts; College Education; Employment; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

This study focuses on the educational progress of youth enrolled in undergraduate college in l968-l969 and l969- 1970. The author examines the interrelationship between work and the successful completion of each of the four school years. Higher completion rates are found among students who do not work. These differences are significant in all class years for young men but only significant for the young women in the first two years. The ability of the student and his family's socioeconomic status are important factors in the early years of college but decline in importance with progress toward graduation.
Bibliography Citation
Myers, Steven C. "Labor Force Participation and the Probability of Completing College." Proceedings, Business and Economic Statistics Section, American Statistical Association, Part_II (1977): 638-643.
23. Nestel, Gilbert
A Longitudinal Study of Labor Market Behavior--Advantages and Some Methodological Problems in Analysis
Proceedings, Social Statistics Section, American Statistical Association (1970): 26-31
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Longitudinal Surveys; Nonresponse; Research Methodology

The advantages and disadvantages of panel and cross-section designs are highlighted. Issues of causal ordering, observational errors, item and respondent nonresponse, and unit of measurement are also discussed. Illustrations of these issues are provided using data from four NLS surveys.
Bibliography Citation
Nestel, Gilbert. "A Longitudinal Study of Labor Market Behavior--Advantages and Some Methodological Problems in Analysis." Proceedings, Social Statistics Section, American Statistical Association (1970): 26-31.
24. Nestel, Gilbert
Retirement Expectations, Planned Retirement and Postretirement Satisfaction
Proceedings, Business and Economic Statistics Section, American Statistical Association (1983): 180-185
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Life Satisfaction; Retirement

The decision to retire signals the end of a period of active participation in the paid work force, and is generally accompanied by a significant loss of income. The pattern of expectations about the dating of this withdrawal is assumed to be a significant predictor of the event and the retiree's degree of satisfaction in his new role. These expectations were obtained from reinterviews with the NLS of Older Men (45-59 years of age in 1966) who retired at some time in the decade, 1968-1978. Logit analysis is used to characterize respondents who reported consistently and those with more random responses. The relation of these patterns with the actual age retired and their impact on postretirement life satisfaction are also evaluated statistically.
Bibliography Citation
Nestel, Gilbert. "Retirement Expectations, Planned Retirement and Postretirement Satisfaction." Proceedings, Business and Economic Statistics Section, American Statistical Association (1983): 180-185.
25. Nestel, Gilbert
Chirikos, Thomas N.
Job Characteristics and Health Status Effects on Retirement Behavior
Proceedings, Business and Economic Statistics Section, American Statistical Association, (1987): 169-174
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Duncan Index; Event History; Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Industrial Sector; Job Characteristics; Job Requirements; Labor Supply; Markov chain / Markov model; Pensions; Retirement

This paper takes a look at whether job characteristics are significant determinants of labor force attachment for older workers and whether these characteristics have a greater effect on work activity when they interact with poor health. Using a continuous-time Markov model of interrelated work and functional status profiles and data from the NLS of Older Men, the study found limited support for the hypothesis that job type or job condition, net of other factors, affects the retirement decision or functional capability of the older worker. From a policy perspective, the authors conclude that it is more important to understand how traditional determinants such as health and pension income will influence the future labor supply of older persons than how job factors contribute to these trends.
Bibliography Citation
Nestel, Gilbert and Thomas N. Chirikos. "Job Characteristics and Health Status Effects on Retirement Behavior." Proceedings, Business and Economic Statistics Section, American Statistical Association, (1987): 169-174.
26. Nestel, Gilbert
Ricciuti, Kara E.
Mother Love Through Mother's Milk: Can it Protect Against Pneumonia?
Proceedings, Social Statistics Section, American Statistical Association. Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association, 1994
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Birth Order; Breastfeeding; Child Health; Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marital Status; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Mothers, Education; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes

The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) comprised the set of observations that were analyzed in this paper. About 96 percent of the original sample of women were reinterviewed in 1986, with the majority of sample losses explained by the elimination of the military sample after 1984. Thus the female respondents interviewed in 1986 should be representative of the universe of civilian women between 21 and 29 years of age, and their birth histories should closely approximate all live births to women born between 1957 and 1965. To more easily access this information, a 1986 child-mother file was developed with each live birth of the female respondent as the unit of analysis. A limited number of main illnesses were precoded for the convenience of the interviewers, but the large clustering of responses in the "other" code category prompted a further review by the senior author of each affected questionnaire, and a subsequent expansion of the codes to encompass other illnesses. The availability of detailed dated information on the mother's choice of food and the dating of the different health problems of her child provided the information needed for a month-by-month history of these events. Cox's proportional hazards model was used to estimate the risk of a transition to hospitalized pneumonia for the entire sample of singleton births and for the subsample of white singleton births only.
Bibliography Citation
Nestel, Gilbert and Kara E. Ricciuti. Mother Love Through Mother's Milk: Can it Protect Against Pneumonia? Proceedings, Social Statistics Section, American Statistical Association. Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association, 1994.
27. Nestel, Gilbert
Santos, Richard
CPS-NLS Differences in Labor Force Characteristics of Youth: Another Look
Proceedings, Business and Economic Statistics Section, American Statistical Association (1981): 122-125
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Research Methodology; Unemployment, Youth

CPS estimates of the size of the youth labor force continue to differ from estimates derived from other data sources. Analysis of the 1979 NLSY data indicated more extensive attachment to the labor force by youth 16-21 than corresponding CPS estimates. These differences have been attributable in the past largely to differences in reporting unit (proxy versus self-respondent). However, a recent study by the Methods Division of the Bureau of the Census revealed only minor differences by respondent type. This study examines other factors such as type of interview, rotation bias and characteristic of jobs that could explain these differences. The data analyzed come from the March 1979 CPS and 1979 NLSY surveys.
Bibliography Citation
Nestel, Gilbert and Richard Santos. "CPS-NLS Differences in Labor Force Characteristics of Youth: Another Look." Proceedings, Business and Economic Statistics Section, American Statistical Association (1981): 122-125.
28. Parnes, Herbert S.
Nestel, Gilbert
Incidence, Distribution, and Correlates of Unemployment Over a Decade Among Males by Age and Race
Proceedings, Social Statistics Section, American Statistical Association (1980): 401-406
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Racial Differences; Unemployment; Unemployment Duration

This paper analyzes the unemployment experience over the decade 1966-1976 of two NLS samples of males: youth who in 1966 were 16 to 24 years of age and not enrolled in school, and men who in the same year were between the ages of 45 and 59. Three issues are considered: (1) the racial distribution of the cumulative weeks of unemployment over the decade; (2) the determinants of the incidence of unemployment in the decade; and (3) the factors affecting the cumulative duration of the unemployment among those with some unemployment. A multiple classification analysis (MCA) is used in the later two cases. Perhaps the most interesting finding from these analyses was the similarity among the four age-race groups in the distribution of total unemployment. Five percent of the sample of young men accounted for 38 percent of the total weeks of unemployment; for the older men, four percent of the sample accounted for more than half of the total unemployment in the decade. The correlates of unemployment and its duration differed by age, however. For example, the social psychological measures affected these outcomes among older men but were insignificant factors for the younger male cohort.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. and Gilbert Nestel. "Incidence, Distribution, and Correlates of Unemployment Over a Decade Among Males by Age and Race." Proceedings, Social Statistics Section, American Statistical Association (1980): 401-406.
29. Parnes, Herbert S.
Spitz, Ruth S.
Hypothetical Questions as Measures of Labor Mobility
Presented: New York NY, Annual Meeting of the American Statistical Association, August 1969
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Blue-Collar Jobs; Earnings; Employment; Job Satisfaction; Job Search; Job Tenure; Mobility; Mobility, Job; White Collar Jobs

From a methodological point of view, findings suggest that a question posing a hypothetical job offer can be used as a measure of the mobility of workers, defined as their propensity to change employers in response to a perceived economic advantage in doing so. From a substantive point of view, perhaps the most important conclusion to be drawn from findings to date is that labor mobility is a much more complex phenomenon than would be imagined on the basis of conventional labor market theory, which tends to conceive of labor as a more or less homogeneous and fluid factor continuously flowing in the direction of net economic advantage.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. and Ruth S. Spitz. "Hypothetical Questions as Measures of Labor Mobility." Presented: New York NY, Annual Meeting of the American Statistical Association, August 1969.
30. Scholl, Kathleen K.
Marcotte, Dave
Young Absent Fathers' Income and Child Support
Presented: Ft. Lauderdale, FL, American Statistical Association Winter Conference, Families and Children: Research Findings, Data Needs, and Survey Issues, 1993
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Child Support; Fathers, Absence

The incomes of young absent fathers in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were compared with an amount that represents at least one-half of the cost of raising their custodial children. An array of the percentages of the fathers' income needed to pay this amount indicates that two-thirds of the absent fathers aged 23 to 31 years old could meet this amount by using less than 40 percent of their gross income. Results can be used in many current policy discussions concerning, most noticeably, the proposed child support assurance system, collection of child support and child support guidelines used to determine child support awards.
Bibliography Citation
Scholl, Kathleen K. and Dave Marcotte. "Young Absent Fathers' Income and Child Support." Presented: Ft. Lauderdale, FL, American Statistical Association Winter Conference, Families and Children: Research Findings, Data Needs, and Survey Issues, 1993.
31. Shea, John R.
Emerine, Richard J.
Wage Rate Differences Among the Working Poor
Proceedings, Social Statistics Section, American Statistical Association (1972): 352-357
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Job Tenure; Poverty; Regions

It is quite clear that race, region, city size, job tenure, and years of schooling strongly influence a person's wage rate. In addition, the number of years of past work experience is an important variable for the women. Nevertheless, with the possible exception of region (for men) and race (for women), the impact of these variables appears to be greater for the nonpoor than the poor. This is undoubtedly, in part, a consequence of how poverty status is defined, since low wage rates are an important factor in accounting for the inclusion of employed individuals in the poverty category. Thus, for this group, there is relatively little variation in the dependent variable.
Bibliography Citation
Shea, John R. and Richard J. Emerine. "Wage Rate Differences Among the Working Poor." Proceedings, Social Statistics Section, American Statistical Association (1972): 352-357.
32. Shields, Patricia M.
Determinants of Enlistment in the Armed Forces During the Vietnam Era
Proceedings, Business and Economic Statistics Section, American Statistical Association, Part_II (1977): 501-506
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Educational Attainment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; I.Q.; Military Enlistment; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Unemployment, Youth; Vietnam War

The findings of this study support previous enlistment studies which found a significant relationship between civilian earnings and enlistment among whites. As anticipated, the draft was found to be a key enlistment motivator. Finally, the findings suggest that certain segments of the eligible black population enlisted to avoid, at least temporarily, discrimination in the civilian sector.
Bibliography Citation
Shields, Patricia M. "Determinants of Enlistment in the Armed Forces During the Vietnam Era." Proceedings, Business and Economic Statistics Section, American Statistical Association, Part_II (1977): 501-506.
33. Shortlidge, Richard L. Jr.
Waite, Linda J.
Suter, Larry E.
Changes in Child Care Arrangements of Working Women: 1965-1971
Presented: American Statistical Association, Business and Economic Statistics Section, 1975
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Child Care; Mothers; Transportation

Child care arrangements of working mothers in l965 and l97l are compared in order to test hypotheses about the effects of demographic and economic changes on those arrangements. The results show an increased use of day care centers and family day care homes, which may be attributed to federally funded programs. Additional care by fathers and siblings was also observed. However, the following arrangements were significantly reduced: care after school by the mother, care by the mother at work, care in a relative's home, and care in the child's home by a nonrelative. It appears that the further a woman must travel to work, the less likely she is to care for her children.
Bibliography Citation
Shortlidge, Richard L. Jr., Linda J. Waite and Larry E. Suter. "Changes in Child Care Arrangements of Working Women: 1965-1971." Presented: American Statistical Association, Business and Economic Statistics Section, 1975.
34. Suter, Larry E.
Occupation, Employment, and Lifetime Work Experience of Women
Presented: New York, NY, American Statistical Association Annual Meetings, 1973
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Employment; Life Cycle Research; Occupational Attainment

This paper presents a series of tabular distributions of occupation and educational attainment of women 30 to 44 years old in l966 by the percent of lifetime worked. It shows that the amount of lifetime work experience is largely conditioned by marital and motherhood status, and only secondarily by educational level. The paper also demonstrates the relationship between income and lifetime work experience within similar educational and occupational levels.
Bibliography Citation
Suter, Larry E. "Occupation, Employment, and Lifetime Work Experience of Women." Presented: New York, NY, American Statistical Association Annual Meetings, 1973.
35. Yoon, Young-Hee
Waite, Linda J.
Women's Return to Work after First Birth: Differences between Blacks, Whites, and Hispanics
Presented: Cincinnati, OH, American Statistical Association Annual Meetings, August 1991
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; First Birth; Geographical Variation; Hispanics; Marital Status; Psychological Effects; Racial Differences; Self-Esteem; Sex Roles

Data from the NLSY, 1979-1985, are used to examine factors affecting the probability that women return to work after their first births. Compared are white, black, and Hispanic mothers for three postpartum periods: 0-3 months, 3-11 months, and 12-24 months. Findings show that the pace of return to employment was faster for white than minority mothers. Discrete time hazard models indicate that human capital variables (income, education, prebirth job experience) have similar effects for all three groups. However, white and Hispanic mothers also respond to sex role attitudes, marital status, and age at first birth. [Sociological Abstracts, Inc.]
Bibliography Citation
Yoon, Young-Hee and Linda J. Waite. "Women's Return to Work after First Birth: Differences between Blacks, Whites, and Hispanics." Presented: Cincinnati, OH, American Statistical Association Annual Meetings, August 1991.