Search Results

Author: Parnes, Herbert S.
Resulting in 57 citations.
1. Andrisani, Paul J.
Parnes, Herbert S.
Commitment to the Work Ethic and Success in the Labor Market: A Review of Research Findings
In: The Work Ethic-A Critical Analysis. J. Barbash, et al., eds. Madison, WI: Industrial Relations Research Association, 1983
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Industrial Relations Research Association ==> LERA
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Earnings; Intrinsic/Extrinsic Rewards; Job Satisfaction; Life Cycle Research; Work Attachment; Work Attitudes; Work Ethic; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This survey of studies focuses on the evidence from the NLSY and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) of a link between the strength of the work ethic and productivity. The literature shows that the strength of individuals' commitment to the work ethic affects various measures of their success in the labor market, even as favorable labor market experiences have feedback effects on the extent to which individuals are committed to the work ethic. The magnitude and precise character of the reciprocal relationships described are difficult to ascertain, however, since many studies have used only limited facets of what might be regarded as a complete measure of strength of the work ethic. Despite such limitations, these research findings are significant for public policy.
Bibliography Citation
Andrisani, Paul J. and Herbert S. Parnes. "Commitment to the Work Ethic and Success in the Labor Market: A Review of Research Findings" In: The Work Ethic-A Critical Analysis. J. Barbash, et al., eds. Madison, WI: Industrial Relations Research Association, 1983
2. Borus, Michael E.
Parnes, Herbert S.
Sandell, Steven H.
Seidman, Bert
Older Worker
Madison, WI: Industrial Relations Research Association, 1988
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men
Publisher: Industrial Relations Research Association ==> LERA
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Gender Differences; Government Regulation; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Force Participation; Legislation; Pensions; Retirement

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This compendium reviews the current state of knowledge about the status, characteristics, and problems of older workers. Drawing upon research from a variety of data sources including the NLS, articles in this book detail the labor market characteristics of older workers, the particular dilemmas facing older women workers, the impact of age and health on job performance, factors impacting the decision to retire, and the challenges to our nation in maintaining an active, well trained older work force.
Bibliography Citation
Borus, Michael E., Herbert S. Parnes, Steven H. Sandell and Bert Seidman. Older Worker. Madison, WI: Industrial Relations Research Association, 1988.
3. Kohen, Andrew I.
Parnes, Herbert S.
Career Thresholds, Volume 3: A Longitudinal Study of the Educational and Labor Market Experience of Male Youth
Manpower Research Monograph 16, Volume 3. Washington DC: US GPO, 1971
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Attrition; Job Training; Marital Status; Migration; Mobility, Job; Unemployment; Wages

The report attempts to delineate some of the major changes that occurred in the educational and labor market plans and status of young men over the two-year period 1966 to 1968. More specifically, it examines the extent of change in school enrollment status, educational and occupational aspirations, labor force participation, unemployment experience, employer and occupational affiliation, rate of compensation, extent of job satisfaction, and location of residence. In addition to describing the nature and extent of these types of changes, it also begins to identify some of the correlates of change. Finally, it examines the cumulative unemployment experience of the out-of-school youth over the two-year period.
Bibliography Citation
Kohen, Andrew I. and Herbert S. Parnes. Career Thresholds, Volume 3: A Longitudinal Study of the Educational and Labor Market Experience of Male Youth. Manpower Research Monograph 16, Volume 3. Washington DC: US GPO, 1971.
4. Kohen, Andrew I.
Parnes, Herbert S.
Shea, John R.
Income Instability Among Young and Middle-Aged Men
In: Personal Distribution of Income and Wealth. J. Smith, ed. New York, NY: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1975.
Also: Center for Human Resource Research, 1973.
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Earnings; Household Income

In this paper, the authors attempt: (1) to quantify the influence on measured income inequality of lengthening the accounting period; (2) to describe the mechanism through which income instability among male heads of household is manifested (e.g., changes in sources of income, hours worked, and wage rates); and (3) to identify some of the demographic and economic characteristics of those household heads whose income is "unstable" over a two-or three- year period, in the sense of changing at above-average or below-average rates.
Bibliography Citation
Kohen, Andrew I., Herbert S. Parnes and John R. Shea. "Income Instability Among Young and Middle-Aged Men" In: Personal Distribution of Income and Wealth. J. Smith, ed. New York, NY: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1975.
5. Miljus, Robert C.
Parnes, Herbert S.
Schmidt, Ronald M.
Spitz, Ruth S.
Some Correlates of the Labor Market Status of Male Youth
In: Transition from School to Work: A Report Based on the Princeton Manpower Symposium May 9-10, 1968: Research Report Series No: 111. Princeton, NJ: Industrial Relations Section, Princeton University, 1968.
Also: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED033204&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED033204
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: Industrial Relations Section, Princeton University
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Transition, School to Work; Unemployment, Youth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Among the variables which have thus far been investigated in our research, enrollment status, high school curriculum and educational aspirations, age, marital status, health condition, and veteran status are systematically related to the labor force participation of young men. Of these, the most powerful explanatory variable, as would be expected, is whether the young man is enrolled in school. On the average, those who are not enrolled are almost twice as likely to be in the labor force as are those who are currently attending school.
Bibliography Citation
Miljus, Robert C., Herbert S. Parnes, Ronald M. Schmidt and Ruth S. Spitz. "Some Correlates of the Labor Market Status of Male Youth" In: Transition from School to Work: A Report Based on the Princeton Manpower Symposium May 9-10, 1968: Research Report Series No: 111. Princeton, NJ: Industrial Relations Section, Princeton University, 1968.
6. Morgan, William R.
Parnes, Herbert S.
Less, Lawrence L.
Leisure Activities and Social Networks
In: Retirement Among American Men. H.S. Parnes, ed. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1985: pp. 119-145
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Jossey-Bass
Keyword(s): Leisure; Retirement

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Morgan, William R., Herbert S. Parnes and Lawrence L. Less. "Leisure Activities and Social Networks" In: Retirement Among American Men. H.S. Parnes, ed. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1985: pp. 119-145
7. Parnes, Herbert S.
An Overview of Results from the National Longitudinal Surveys
Review of Public Data Use 9,1 (April 1981): 31-38
Cohort(s): NLS General
Publisher: U.S. Department of Commerce
Keyword(s): Behavioral Problems; NLS Description; Research Methodology

The National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Behavior (NLS) have involved repeated interviews since the mid-1960s with national samples of four subsets of the United States population facing special labor market disadvantages. A series of generalizations relevant to labor market policy that can be documented by NLS evidence is offered. Note: This paper was also presented at the annual meeting of the American Economic Association, Denver, Colorado, September 6, 1980.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. "An Overview of Results from the National Longitudinal Surveys." Review of Public Data Use 9,1 (April 1981): 31-38.
8. Parnes, Herbert S.
Distribution and Correlates of Unemployment Over a Decade: Variations by Sex, Race, and Age
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1982
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marital Status; Unemployment

By using four subsets of the U.S. labor force, the author examines the unemployment experience of men who at the end of the decade were 26-34 and 55-69 and women who were 26-34 and 40- 54. Results showed: (1) that many individuals with exposure to the labor force are subject to some unemployment over a ten-year period; and (2) the unemployment varies significantly among the four groups especially among the 26-34 women age group. The average cumulative duration is highest among the 55-69 aged older men cohort. Finally, women's unemployment experience worsens as the labor force participation is measured in terms of its duration.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. "Distribution and Correlates of Unemployment Over a Decade: Variations by Sex, Race, and Age." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1982.
9. Parnes, Herbert S.
From the Middle to the Later Years: Longitudinal Studies of the Pre- and Postretirement Experience of Men
Research on Aging 3,4 (December 1981): 387-402.
Also: http://roa.sagepub.com/content/3/4/387.full.pdf+html
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Job Satisfaction; Mortality; NLS Description; Retirement

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The NLS data base is briefly described and the findings of several recent studies based on the waves of interviews conducted between 1966 and 1976 are summarized in order to illustrate the variety of subjects relating to aging that can be addressed with the data.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. "From the Middle to the Later Years: Longitudinal Studies of the Pre- and Postretirement Experience of Men." Research on Aging 3,4 (December 1981): 387-402.
10. Parnes, Herbert S.
Health, Pension Policy and Retirement
Aging and Work 6,2 (1983): 93-101
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: National Council on the Aging
Keyword(s): Earnings; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Pensions; Retirement; Self-Reporting

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Evidence from the NLS Older Men's cohort shows that self-reported health measures can be used with reasonable confidence to assess the role of health in the retirement decision. Retirement decisions are complex and are influenced by a number of economic and noneconomic factors, although it is not possible to estimate confidently their relative importance. These include health, attitude toward work in general, satisfaction with current job, and level of prospective retirement income.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. "Health, Pension Policy and Retirement." Aging and Work 6,2 (1983): 93-101.
11. Parnes, Herbert S.
Improved Job Information: Its Impact on Long Run Labor Market Experience
Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Conference on Improving Labor Market Information for Youths, 1974
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: unknown
Keyword(s): Job Search; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Unemployment; Vocational Education; Work Knowledge

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The concept of "job information" is explored in terms of the extent to which young workers have adequate labor market knowledge and the factors that appear to be related to variations therein. Evidence is presented on the relationship between how much male youth know about the labor market at one point in time and the wages and occupational assignments they are subsequently able to command.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. "Improved Job Information: Its Impact on Long Run Labor Market Experience." Presented: Philadelphia, PA, Conference on Improving Labor Market Information for Youths, 1974.
12. Parnes, Herbert S.
Inflation and Early Retirement: Recent Longitudinal Findings
Monthly Labor Review 104,7 (July 1981): 27-30.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1981/07/rpt1full.pdf
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Harris Poll; Inflation; Retirees; Retirement

The potential effects of continuing high rates of inflation on retirement decisions are unclear, despite a 1978 poll by Louis Harris which has been taken as an indication that high inflation is causing many men to postpone retirement. The trend toward earlier retirement discernible in the longitudinal data between 1966 and 1976 continued without interruption between 1976 and 1978. Moreover, men who had been retired in 1976 showed only slightly more interest in postretirement jobs in 1978 than they had in l976. The more recent retirees, who had retired between 1976 and 1978, were only slightly more likely to be working, 13 percent versus 10 percent. Retirees were not unmindful of the impact of rising prices, but the chief manifestation of their concern was in the expression of less satisfaction with their economic circumstances.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. "Inflation and Early Retirement: Recent Longitudinal Findings." Monthly Labor Review 104,7 (July 1981): 27-30.
13. Parnes, Herbert S.
Inflation and the Retirement Decision: Recent Evidence from the National Longitudinal Surveys
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1981
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Employment; Inflation; Retirement; Social Security; Work Attitudes

The persistent trend toward earlier retirement, together with prospective increases in the proportion of older persons in the population, poses financial problems for the social security system and has generated fears that society will be unable or unwilling to bear the increasing burden of adult dependency that these trends imply. Data from the NLS show that the trend toward earlier retirement continued. Though aware of the impact of inflation, few men expressed an interest in postretirement jobs.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. "Inflation and the Retirement Decision: Recent Evidence from the National Longitudinal Surveys." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1981.
14. Parnes, Herbert S.
Longitudinal Surveys: Prospects and Problems
Monthly Labor Review 95,2 (February 1972): 11-15
Cohort(s): NLS General
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Longitudinal Surveys; NLS Description; Research Methodology

This paper discusses the design of the NLS studies, the types of data being collected, some of the unique contributions of longitudinal analyses of labor market phenomena, and certain methodological problems of this type of research.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. "Longitudinal Surveys: Prospects and Problems." Monthly Labor Review 95,2 (February 1972): 11-15.
15. Parnes, Herbert S.
Middle-Aged and Older Men in the U.S. Labor Force: Research Findings and Policy Recommendations
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1980
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Retirement; Unemployment

Several research findings and policy prescriptions based on data from 1966-1978 are presented. The declining labor force participation rates of older men are largely attributable to liberalization of public and private pension programs. Poor health forces more men into retirement than do mandatory retirement plans; those forced out by illness are less satisfied with retirement and more likely to have serious financial difficulties. In the long run, programs to improve the health of the general population will have a salutary effect on men in retirement. Men at mid-life who lose their jobs after long service are unlikely ever to find comparable employment. Maintaining a high level of general employment will help these men avoid economic dependency. Lifetime training about job choices will maximize the individual's labor market adaptability. Most middle-aged and older men who stay in the work force are satisfied with their positions, as are most retirees who left for reasons other than health.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. "Middle-Aged and Older Men in the U.S. Labor Force: Research Findings and Policy Recommendations." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1980.
16. Parnes, Herbert S.
The National Longitudinal Surveys: An Interim Assessment
In: Manpower Research and Labor Economics. G. Swanson and J. Michaelson, eds. New York, NY: Sage Publications, 1979
Cohort(s): NLS General
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Longitudinal Surveys; Manpower Research; Mobility, Job; NLS Description; Research Methodology; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Unemployment; Work Attitudes; Work History

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The presentation is divided into five sections. The first contains a brief description of the origins of the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS). The second describes the study as it has evolved over the years since 1965, including a discussion of the design of the four original samples, the nature and timing of the periodic interviews, and the types of data that have been collected. The third section relates to the administration of the study, with particular reference to the allocation of responsibility for its design and execution. In the fourth, the actual and potential "products" of the project are described in terms of (1) the variety of studies, completed or in progress, that are based upon the NLS data, (2) illustrative research findings, and (3) suggestions for additional types of research for which the data are appropriate. The fifth section draws some lessons from the experience gained in administering this type of longitudinal research.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. "The National Longitudinal Surveys: An Interim Assessment" In: Manpower Research and Labor Economics. G. Swanson and J. Michaelson, eds. New York, NY: Sage Publications, 1979
17. Parnes, Herbert S.
The National Longitudinal Surveys: Lessons for Human Resource Policy
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1976
Cohort(s): NLS General
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Labor Market, Secondary; Longitudinal Surveys; NLS Description

The general plan and content of the National Longitudinal Surveys directed by Dr. Parnes are described and some implications of the findings are presented in terms of the operation of the labor market, the dual labor market theory, and the effects of education, training, health, labor market information, and initiative. Also included are policy recommendations and a bibliography of selected reports based on National Longitudinal Surveys.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. "The National Longitudinal Surveys: Lessons for Human Resource Policy." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1976.
18. Parnes, Herbert S.
The National Longitudinal Surveys: New Vistas for Labor Market Research
American Economic Review 65,2 (May 1975): 244-49.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1818860
Cohort(s): NLS General
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): NLS Description; Research Methodology

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

For nearly a decade, the Ohio State University Center for Human Resource Research and the U.S. Bureau of the Census, under separate contracts with the U.S. Department of Labor, have been engaged in the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS) of Labor Market Experience. A rich data bank is being accumulated that has already served as the basis for thirteen comprehensive research monographs and over seventy-five specialized studies completed by staff members of the Center for Human Resource Research and other researchers throughout the country. The purpose of this paper is to describe the nature and availability of the NLS data and to illustrate the unique kinds of analysis they make possible.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. "The National Longitudinal Surveys: New Vistas for Labor Market Research." American Economic Review 65,2 (May 1975): 244-49.
19. Parnes, Herbert S.
Unemployment Experience of Individuals Over a Decade
Kalamazoo, MI: Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 1982
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research
Keyword(s): Employment; Labor Force Participation; Mobility; Unemployment; Unemployment Duration; Unemployment Rate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Large proportions of individuals with labor force exposure experience some unemployment over a ten-year period: majorities of young men and women and three or four out of ten of the older groups. In the NLS unemployment is very unevenly distributed within each of the cohorts: ten percent of the unemployed who had the longest cumulative durations accounted for between 35 and 40 percent of all the unemployment that occurred during the decade under review. When those with no unemployment are also considered, the five percent of all individuals with the most unemployment accounted for over one-half of all unemployment among the older men and between 29 and 45 percent in the other three cohorts. Unemployment means not only the lost earnings attributable directly to the periods of enforced idleness, but leads also to long term reductions in earning capacity, especially among the younger men and women. Multivariate analysis reveals that the characteristics that bear the strongest and most consistent relationship with the incidence and/or duration of unemployment are educational attainment, occupational and industrial affiliation, interfirm mobility, and length of service in the job held at the beginning of the decade. These factors account for only small proportions--10 to 25 percent--of the total variation in unemployment experience. A substantial amount of unemployment experience appears to result either from being in the wrong place at the wrong time, or from personality characteristics that generally go unmeasured. The extreme concentration of unemployment among relatively small proportions of labor market participants is cause for concern, in view of the evidence that unemployment produces a long term deterioration in earning capacity. On the brighter side, the temporal distribution of chronic unemployment is similar to that of total unemployment and both are responsive to variations in general economic conditions which tends to dispel the most pessimistic interpretations of structural unemployment. On the theoretical level, the findings make suspect modern neoclassical interpretations based on search theory, according to which all unemployment is really voluntary.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. Unemployment Experience of Individuals Over a Decade. Kalamazoo, MI: Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 1982.
20. Parnes, Herbert S.
Work and Retirement: A Longitudinal Study of Men
Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: MIT Press
Keyword(s): Earnings; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Layoffs; Mortality; Retirement; Unemployment; Widows

Race, health, and employment difficulties are examined as they influence both labor market decisions and quality of life. A variety of significant findings result from dealing with actual retirement decisions with data from the NLS of Older Men The opening chapter introduces the sample and the data base. Subsequent chapters take up changes over the studied decade in black-white differences in the labor force participation of older males, the retirement experience, and family adjustment to poor health and mortality. The methodological and statistical formulations on which the study is based are developed in appendices. The fact that the data were collected through repeated interviews with the same group of individuals over a ten-year period allows certain kinds of analysis that would not be possible in other situations-- for example, the attitudes of men before retirement decisions that would not be possible after the fact.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. Work and Retirement: A Longitudinal Study of Men. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981.
21. Parnes, Herbert S.
Adams, Arvil Van
Andrisani, Paul J.
Kohen, Andrew I.
Nestel, Gilbert
Pre-Retirement Years, Volume 4: Five Years in the Work Lives of Middle-Aged Men
Manpower Research Monograph 15, Volume 4. Washington DC: US GPO, 1975
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Behavior; Earnings; Employment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Household Income; Job Training; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Mobility, Job; Retirement; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control)

A unique set of longitudinal data collected by personal interviews with the same sample of men in 1966, 1967, 1969, and 1971 provides information on a number of facets of the labor market experience and behavior of middle- aged men. Since the data contain a complete record of the labor market activity of the men over a five-year period, both the antecedents and consequences of particular events and courses of action can be examined. Moreover, the five years in question are an unusually interesting half decade, for they should reflect whatever short-run impact the civil rights movement has had upon the relative employment status of middle-aged black men. Also, these years include a three-year span in which the labor market was relatively tight and improving (1966- 1969) as well as a two-year period during which unemployment rose considerably (1969-1971). The fact that changes between 1967 and 1969 can be compared with those between 1969 and 1971 for the same group of individuals permits one to analyze the effect of a change in the economic environment on the labor market experience of the men under consideration.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S., Arvil Van Adams, Paul J. Andrisani, Andrew I. Kohen and Gilbert Nestel. Pre-Retirement Years, Volume 4: Five Years in the Work Lives of Middle-Aged Men. Manpower Research Monograph 15, Volume 4. Washington DC: US GPO, 1975.
22. Parnes, Herbert S.
Chirikos, Thomas N.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Mott, Frank L.
The NLS Older Male Sample Revisited: A Unique Data Base for Gerontological Research. A Description of the Data Base and Illustrative Tables
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1992
Cohort(s): NLS General, Older Men
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Labor Force Participation; Longitudinal Data Sets; Longitudinal Surveys; Mortality; NLS Description; Support Networks; Well-Being; Widows

This volume, consisting of 56 tables and descriptive text, introduces the reader to the 1990 re-survey of the NLS Older Men's Cohort, in which interviews were obtained with 2,092 members of the original sample and with 2,206 widows or other next-of-kin of decedents. It is designed to: (1) describe and illustrate the categories of data that were collected; (2) record the sizes of various subsets of the sample (e.g., the number of men who were employed in the year preceding the survey); (3) present some simple relationships that invite more sophisticated analysis; and (4) provide some evidence on the reliability and validity of several of the psychological scales used in the survey. Although the tabulations presented within this volume are based on preliminary data, researchers should find the results useful in deciding whether the data base will meet their needs and, if so, in developing research plans before obtaining the data files. Included is an introduction, which describes the purpose and content of the 1990 survey, and seven additional sections dealing with "Mortality", "Physical Well-Being", "Emotional Well-Being", "Family and Friendship Support Systems", "Economic Well-Being", "Current and Prospective Labor Market Activity", and "Status of the Widows."
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S., Thomas N. Chirikos, Elizabeth G. Menaghan and Frank L. Mott. "The NLS Older Male Sample Revisited: A Unique Data Base for Gerontological Research. A Description of the Data Base and Illustrative Tables." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1992.
23. Parnes, Herbert S.
Crowley, Joan E.
Haurin, R. Jean
Less, Lawrence L.
Retirement Among American Men
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1984
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Early Retirement; Earnings; Education; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Job Satisfaction; Life Satisfaction; Retirement

Published as: Retirement Among American Men, Lexington MA: Lexington Books, 1985. This is also the six volume of a series.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S., Joan E. Crowley, R. Jean Haurin and Lawrence L. Less. Retirement Among American Men. Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1984.
24. Parnes, Herbert S.
Crowley, Joan E.
Haurin, R. Jean
Less, Lawrence L.
Mott, Frank L.
Morgan, William R.
Nestel, Gilbert
Retirement Among American Men
Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1985
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Jossey-Bass
Keyword(s): Early Retirement; Earnings; Education; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Job Satisfaction; Life Satisfaction; Mortality; Retirees; Retirement

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Fifteen years of data from a nationally representative sample of men age 45-59 in 1966 show that by 1981 most had retired. One third of all retirements and almost half of those by black men were caused by poor health; fewer than five percent of retirees were forced from their jobs by mandatory plans; about 10 percent of retirees were forced from their jobs by mandatory plans; about 10 percent left the labor market in discouragement due to labor market adversity. Most retirements, however, are voluntary, and most take place before age 65. Trends in mortality differentials show that general improvements in health and medical care have benefited all groups, especially the chronically ill. The data highlight a trend toward early retirement in the 1960s and 1970s and show that only 30 percent of retirements actually took place at the age men expected when asked at age 59. Economic well being, leisure activities and social interactions, psychological and physical well being are examined. The experience of the minority who continue to work beyond the normal retirement age is also analyzed.

Introduction and overview / Herbert S. Parnes and Lawrence J. Less -- Factors affecting mortality in the years surrounding retirement / Frank L. Mott and R. Jean Haurin -- The volume and pattern of retirements, 1966-1981 / Herbert S. Parnes and Lawrence J. Less -- Retirement expectation and the timing of retirement / Gilbert Nestel -- Economic well-being in retirement / Herbert S. Parnes and Lawrence J. Less -- Leisure activities and social networks / William R. Morgan, Herbert S. Parnes, and Lawrence J. Less -- Longitudinal effects of retirement on men's psychological and physical well-being / Joan E. Crowley -- Shunning retirement : the experience of full-time workers / Herbert S. Parnes and Lawrence J. Less.

Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S., Joan E. Crowley, R. Jean Haurin, Lawrence L. Less, Frank L. Mott, William R. Morgan and Gilbert Nestel. Retirement Among American Men. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1985.
25. Parnes, Herbert S.
Egge, Karl Albert
Kohen, Andrew I.
Schmidt, Ronald M.
Pre-Retirement Years, Volume 2: A Longitudinal Study of the Labor Market Experience of Men
Manpower Research Monograph 15, Volume 2. Washington DC: US GPO, 1970
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Employment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Household Income; Mobility, Interfirm; Mobility, Job; Work Attitudes

Data from the first and second interviews of men who were age 45-59 years in mid-1966 are used in this progress report on the longitudinal study to describe the magnitude and the patterns of change that have occurred during the one-year period in the labor market status of members of the sample and in certain other characteristics that have an important effect on labor market activity.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S., Karl Albert Egge, Andrew I. Kohen and Ronald M. Schmidt. Pre-Retirement Years, Volume 2: A Longitudinal Study of the Labor Market Experience of Men. Manpower Research Monograph 15, Volume 2. Washington DC: US GPO, 1970.
26. Parnes, Herbert S.
Fleisher, Belton M.
Miljus, Robert C.
Spitz, Ruth S.
Introduction
In: Years for Decision, Volume 1, Manpower Research Monograph 24. Washington DC: U.S. GPO, 1971
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Government Printing Office
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Family Background and Culture; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Job Training; Mobility

The volume aims to explain the variation in school and labor market experiences and in the educational aspirations of young women. This introduction identifies these variables: unemployment, mobility, educational and occupational aspirations, labor force participation, formative influences, marital and familial characteristics, financial status, actual education and training, health and attitude, and explains how they were assessed by the study itself.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S., Belton M. Fleisher, Robert C. Miljus and Ruth S. Spitz. "Introduction" In: Years for Decision, Volume 1, Manpower Research Monograph 24. Washington DC: U.S. GPO, 1971
27. Parnes, Herbert S.
Fleisher, Belton M.
Miljus, Robert C.
Spitz, Ruth S.
Pre-Retirement Years, Volume 1: A Longitudinal Study of the Labor Market Experience of the Cohort of Men 45-59 Years of Age
Manpower Research Monograph 15, Volume 1. Washington DC: US GPO, 1968
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Behavior; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Household Income; Job Satisfaction; Job Tenure; Mobility, Job; Pensions; Retirement; Unemployment; Work Attitudes

As the prologue to an intensive study of the labor market experience and behavior over a five-year period of males who were age 45-59 in mid l966, this study examines their status at the time of the initial interview in mid l966, and seeks explanations for variations in current status on the basis of a large number of economic, social, and psychological variables. Specific areas discussed include the extent of their current participation in the labor market, susceptibility to unemployment, distribution in the labor market, the duration of service in current jobs, and rates of pay. In addition to describing the pattern of occupational and geographic change during their working lives to date, their attitudes toward working in general and their jobs in particular, and their reactions to certain types of job changes, including complete withdrawal from the labor market are explored. Variations in all these aspects of behavior and attitudes have been sought in terms of a large number of demographic, economic, and attitudinal characteristics, and numerous relationships that have been uncovered appear to have explanatory and predictive value.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S., Belton M. Fleisher, Robert C. Miljus and Ruth S. Spitz. Pre-Retirement Years, Volume 1: A Longitudinal Study of the Labor Market Experience of the Cohort of Men 45-59 Years of Age. Manpower Research Monograph 15, Volume 1. Washington DC: US GPO, 1968.
28. Parnes, Herbert S.
Gagen, Mary G.
King, Randall H.
Job Loss Among Long-Service Workers
In: Work and Retirement: A Longitudinal Study of Men. H.S. Parnes, ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: MIT Press
Keyword(s): Displaced Workers; Job Patterns; Job Turnover; Layoffs; Unemployment; Wages

This article investigates that part of the group of Older Men 45-59 in 1966 who had lost their jobs involuntarily, and using data from the 1976 survey examines the impact of this loss on their later work lives and attitudes. Unmarried men seem more likely to be displaced than married men, and private sector employees seem much more likely to be than those in the public sector. Seniority and average hourly earnings appear to play little part in determining displacement, although establishments with no pension plan seem much more likely to displace workers. Although 40% of displaced workers were apparently immediately able to move into new jobs, and the percentage of workers unemployed in 1976 who had been displaced in 1969 or before was the same as the unemployment percentage of workers never displaced, the average hourly earnings for displaced workers was 22% less the average figure for those never displaced, and, so far, there is no evidence that this or its psychological effects soften with time.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S., Mary G. Gagen and Randall H. King. "Job Loss Among Long-Service Workers" In: Work and Retirement: A Longitudinal Study of Men. H.S. Parnes, ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981
29. Parnes, Herbert S.
Grasso, John T.
The National Longitudinal Surveys: A Progress Report
Review of Public Data Use 3,1 (January 1975): 23-28.
Also: http://researchconnections.org/ICPSR/biblio/series/00129/resources/23934?sortBy=1&author=Parnes%2C+Herbert+S.&paging.startRow=1
Cohort(s): NLS General
Publisher: U.S. Department of Commerce
Keyword(s): NLS Description; Research Methodology

To facilitate use by the research community, the public use data files and documentation of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience (NLS), previously issued by the Demographic Surveys Division of the Bureau of the Census, have been substantially revised by the Ohio State University Center for Human Resource Research. The Center will also be responsible for issuing all future updates of the files. The nature of the changes that have been made in the data files is outlined in this progress report, which describes in some detail the characteristics of the new documentation. The data were originally collected and analyzed under contract with the Manpower Administration of the U.S. Department of Labor but are now available to all interested researchers.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. and John T. Grasso. "The National Longitudinal Surveys: A Progress Report." Review of Public Data Use 3,1 (January 1975): 23-28.
30. Parnes, Herbert S.
Jusenius, Carol L.
Blau, Francine D.
Nestel, Gilbert
Dual Careers, Volume 4: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Labor Market Experience of Women
Manpower Research Monograph 21, Volume 4. Washington DC: US GPO, 1976
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Child Care; Children; Job Satisfaction; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Occupational Status; Work Attitudes; Work Experience

Irrespective of marital status, the degree of success that women enjoy in the labor market is substantially related to the extent of their previous investments in human capital. To take the most obvious example, the number of years of schooling a woman has completed bears a substantial positive relationship with her earnings in 1972, with the socioeconomic status of her first job after leaving school, with the extent of her upward occupational mobility between her first and 1967 jobs and over the five-year period between 1967 and 1972, and with the likelihood of her having pursued a career. Like education, training also contributes to labor market success. Women who have participated in training programs outside regular school are more likely than comparable women without such training to have pursued careers, to have experienced upward occupational mobility, and to enjoy high current earnings.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S., Carol L. Jusenius, Francine D. Blau and Gilbert Nestel. Dual Careers, Volume 4: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Labor Market Experience of Women. Manpower Research Monograph 21, Volume 4. Washington DC: US GPO, 1976.
31. Parnes, Herbert S.
Jusenius, Carol L.
Shortlidge, Richard L. Jr.
Dual Careers, Volume 3: A Longitudinal Study of the Labor Market Experience of Women
Manpower Research Monograph 21, Volume 3. Washington DC: US GPO, 1975
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Child Care; Children; Mobility, Job; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Wages

This report focuses on two problems which women in the labor force are likely to encounter. The first is the changing occupational distribution of women. Over the past decade concern has arisen regarding both the distribution of women among occupations and the low wages generally associated with those jobs in which most women are employed. Here we examine, for the time span 1967 to 1972, the extent to which women left (or entered) occupations which society views as "acceptable" for them. Also discussed is the relationship between type of occupation and selected socioeconomic variables; the impact of occupational change on wage rates is of particular importance. The second problem is the changing demand for child care facilities. This deals with arrangements made by women in the labor force during 1971 who had at least one child under 18 years of age. The analysis relates both demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of these women to the various forms of child care which they used. Also examined is the need for public and private forms of child care among women with different family, economic, and labor force characteristics. Changes which occurred between 1965 and 1971 in the utilization of different types of child care arrangements are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S., Carol L. Jusenius and Richard L. Jr. Shortlidge. Dual Careers, Volume 3: A Longitudinal Study of the Labor Market Experience of Women. Manpower Research Monograph 21, Volume 3. Washington DC: US GPO, 1975.
32. Parnes, Herbert S.
King, Randall H.
Middle-Aged Job Losers
Industrial Gerontology 4 (Spring 1977): 77-95.
Also: http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED143864.pdf
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: National Council on the Aging
Keyword(s): Earnings; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Job Tenure; Layoffs; Occupational Status; Work Attitudes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The characteristics and consequences of a permanent involuntary separation among middle-aged workers with at least five years of attachment to their employer is the focus of this analysis. Displaced workers tended to be older, to be at work in private sector nonunionized jobs in the trades and manufacturing sectors, and were likely to be married as compared to nondisplaced men. Those who were subsequently employed were more likely than their control counterparts to be in lower status jobs, with less growth in hourly and annual earnings, and also more likely to experience declining health and a sense of alienation.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. and Randall H. King. "Middle-Aged Job Losers." Industrial Gerontology 4 (Spring 1977): 77-95.
33. Parnes, Herbert S.
Kohen, Andrew I.
Labor Market Experience of Noncollege Youth: A Longitudinal Analysis
In: From School to Work: Improving the Transition: National Commission for Manpower Policy. Washington DC: U.S. GPO, 1976.
Also: http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?seq=73&id=mdp.39015019968513&page=root&view=image&size=100&orient=0
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Collective Bargaining; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Family Resources; Marital Status; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Private Sector; Public Sector; Unions; Work Knowledge

The factors associated with variations in earnings, occupational status, and unemployment experience among a relatively homogeneous segment of the labor force--young men and young women who had ended (at least temporarily) their formal education at some level before college graduation, are identified. Among the findings are that educational attainment strongly influences earnings and occupational positions; labor market exposure and knowledge of the world of work are both positive factors; interfirm mobility appears to influence earnings somewhat; marital status is very important for males while not as significant for women; residents of large cities have advantages in wages and positions; collective bargaining imparts substantial wage advantages; and for men, private sector employment is better than public sector, with the opposite true for women.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. and Andrew I. Kohen. "Labor Market Experience of Noncollege Youth: A Longitudinal Analysis" In: From School to Work: Improving the Transition: National Commission for Manpower Policy. Washington DC: U.S. GPO, 1976.
34. Parnes, Herbert S.
Kohen, Andrew I.
Occupational Information and Labor Market Status: The Case of Young Men
Journal of Human Resources 10,1 (Winter 1975): 44-55.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/145118
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; High School; I.Q.; Job Skills; Regions; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Urban and Regional Planning; Urbanization/Urban Living; Work Knowledge

The results of an occupational information test display a positive relationship between scores and the education, I.Q., and socioeconomic status of each participant. Furthermore, the young men whose origins are in urban areas scored significantly higher than those individuals from rural areas.Two years following the test, youth who scored higher were able to obtain better paying positions. The human capital theory and educational policy support these findings.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. and Andrew I. Kohen. "Occupational Information and Labor Market Status: The Case of Young Men." Journal of Human Resources 10,1 (Winter 1975): 44-55.
35. Parnes, Herbert S.
Less, Lawrence L.
From Work to Retirement: The Experience of a National Sample of Men
Special Report to the U.S. Department of Labor, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1983
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Leisure; Life Satisfaction; Retirees; Retirement; Well-Being

Based upon 1966-1980 data from the NLS of Older Men, this monograph: (1) explores the effect of alternative definitions of retirement on the numbers and characteristics of retirees; (2) examines economic aspects of life after retirement, including the extent and character of post-retirement labor market activity and the level and sources of post-retirement income; and (3) analyzes several social-psychological facets of retirement, including post-retirement leisure activities, the determinants of psychological well-being of retirees, and the impact of retirement on level of life satisfaction. The relation between retirement and life satisfaction is found to vary depending upon the specification of the multivariate model.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. and Lawrence L. Less. "From Work to Retirement: The Experience of a National Sample of Men." Special Report to the U.S. Department of Labor, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1983.
36. Parnes, Herbert S.
Less, Lawrence L.
Variation in Selected Forms of Leisure Activity Among Elderly Males
In: Current Perspectives on Aging and the Life Cycle, Volume 1: Work, Retirement, and Social Policy. Z. Blau, ed. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1985: pp. 223-242
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Leisure; Occupational Status; Retirement; Time Use

Based on 1978 data collected from the Older Men's cohort, this study uses both tabular and multivariate analysis to explore factors associated with variations in patterns of leisure time activity of retired and nonretired members of the sample. Six forms of leisure activity are covered: exercise, reading, hobbies, home maintenance, visiting, and volunteer work. Systematic relationships are found between the extent of leisure time activity and other characteristics of the men. As would be expected, retired men devote more time than nonretired men to the specified activities. Health, occupational level, and family income all bear positive relationships to the pursuit of leisure time activity. The fact that occupational level and family income have independent effects suggests that the type of work men do is related to leisure pursuits not only through income but through the character of interests associated with different occupational levels.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. and Lawrence L. Less. "Variation in Selected Forms of Leisure Activity Among Elderly Males" In: Current Perspectives on Aging and the Life Cycle, Volume 1: Work, Retirement, and Social Policy. Z. Blau, ed. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1985: pp. 223-242
37. Parnes, Herbert S.
Less, Lawrence L.
Nestel, Gilbert
Work and Retirement Data: National Longitudinal Surveys of Middle-Aged and Older Men 1966-1976
Working Paper, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 1980
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Household Income; Job Satisfaction; Marital Status; Migration; Mobility, Interfirm; Mobility, Job; Retirement; Work Attitudes

The National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Behavior permits the examination of how the status and characteristics of the same group of individuals change over time. About 150 statistical tables are presented from the NLS of Older Men, a national sample of men who were between 55 and 69 years of age in l976. The data provided serve a wide range of interests on the part of researchers, policy-makers, and practitioners in the human resource field.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S., Lawrence L. Less and Gilbert Nestel. "Work and Retirement Data: National Longitudinal Surveys of Middle-Aged and Older Men 1966-1976." Working Paper, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 1980.
38. Parnes, Herbert S.
Meyer, Jack A.
Withdrawal from the Labor Force by Middle-Aged Men, 1966-1967
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1971
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marital Status; Quits; Schooling; Unemployment; Work Attitudes; Work History

This paper analyzes the characteristics of 98 middle-aged men who withdrew from the labor force between the summer of 1966 and the summer of 1967. Further, it presents the circumstances under which these changes in labor force status occurred and ascertains the extent to which they represent irreversible moves out of the labor force.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. and Jack A. Meyer. "Withdrawal from the Labor Force by Middle-Aged Men, 1966-1967." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1971.
39. Parnes, Herbert S.
Miljus, Robert C.
Spitz, Ruth S.
Career Thresholds, Volume 1: A longitudinal Study of the Educational and Labor Market Experience of Male Youth 14-24 Years of Age
Manpower Research Monograph 16, Volume 1. Washington DC: US GPO, 1969
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Employment; High School; Job Search; Occupational Aspirations; Teenagers; Wages; Work Attitudes; Work Knowledge

Data drawn from interviews conducted during October-December 1966 with the NLS of Young Men ages 14 to 24 provides the basis for examining the relationships between selected demographic, attitudinal, and educational characteristics of male youth in the United States and their labor market experience and occupational aspirations. The cohort's labor force participation, unemployment experience, employment patterns, labor market knowledge, job attitudes, and educational and occupational aspirations as of the time of the initial survey in 1966 are analyzed and explanations for variations in these factors based on a large number of economic, social, and psychological variables are offered.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S., Robert C. Miljus and Ruth S. Spitz. Career Thresholds, Volume 1: A longitudinal Study of the Educational and Labor Market Experience of Male Youth 14-24 Years of Age. Manpower Research Monograph 16, Volume 1. Washington DC: US GPO, 1969.
40. Parnes, Herbert S.
Nestel, Gilbert
Early Labor Market Experience of College Graduates
Presented: Chicago, IL, 32nd National Conference on Higher Education, 1977
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: American Association for Higher Education (AAHE)
Keyword(s): College Graduates; Duncan Index; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Mobility, Job; Occupational Status

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Young men and young women who earned baccalaureate degrees in the late 1960s and early 1970s enjoyed substantial labor market advantages in 1973 over individuals with lesser amounts of education who had been out of school for comparable periods of time. Male graduates also showed substantial improvement in employment stability, occupational status, and earnings during the first six or seven years in the labor market, and earnings growth for them is more rapid than for men who have started college but not completed baccalaureate degrees and for those with just high school diplomas. Female graduates, however, were no more likely than women with lesser amounts of education to have improved their occupational status or earnings in this period. College graduates whose degrees are in business or in science, math, or engineering enjoyed substantial earnings advantages over those with degrees in education, the humanities, and social science. College graduates in the early 1970s were equally as likely to enter high-level jobs as those in the late 1960s. The later graduates were, however, less likely to move up the occupational ladder during their first two years in the labor market.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. and Gilbert Nestel. "Early Labor Market Experience of College Graduates." Presented: Chicago, IL, 32nd National Conference on Higher Education, 1977.
41. Parnes, Herbert S.
Nestel, Gilbert
Early Retirement
In: Pre-Retirement Years, Volume 4. Herbert S. Parnes, ed. Columbus, OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1974
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Early Retirement; Earnings; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Household Income; Job Satisfaction; Pensions; Retirement

Retirement before the conventional age of 65 has become increasingly common in recent years, and its impact on social insurance trust funds and private and public pensions widely debated. A quantitative assessment of the factors associated with an expected early retirement among middle-aged men in the labor force in 1971 and their importance in explaining the actual retirements within this age group between 1966 and 1971 is provided. A profile of the latter men, all of whom were less than 65 years of age in 1971, is also presented with particular attention directed at their work experiences and sources and adequacy of postretirement incomes. The importance of health, expected post-retirement incomes, economic need, and job satisfaction for the retirement decision is highlighted by these data. The decline in family income after retirement is also documented as well as the small number of men who report some work experience or an intention to work after retirement.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. and Gilbert Nestel. "Early Retirement" In: Pre-Retirement Years, Volume 4. Herbert S. Parnes, ed. Columbus, OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1974
42. Parnes, Herbert S.
Nestel, Gilbert
Factors in Career Orientation and Occupational Status
In: Dual Careers, Volume 4. H.S. Parnes, ed. Columbus, OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1975
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Mobility; Occupational Status; Occupations; Work History

Women are increasingly participating in the labor force and working at jobs that historically have been filled by men. Multivariate techniques are used to characterize "career" women and to explain the occupational status of women at various stages of their work lives. Racial differences are also highlighted. The evidence suggests that relatively few married women in their late 30s and 40s in 1972 had work histories that could be described as careers. Formal education, marital and child status, and selected characteristics of the work experience such as receipt of training explain some of the occupational mobility observed within the periods analyzed.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. and Gilbert Nestel. "Factors in Career Orientation and Occupational Status" In: Dual Careers, Volume 4. H.S. Parnes, ed. Columbus, OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1975
43. Parnes, Herbert S.
Nestel, Gilbert
Incidence, Distribution, and Correlates of Unemployment Over a Decade Among Males by Age and Race
Proceedings, Social Statistics Section, American Statistical Association (1980): 401-406
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Racial Differences; Unemployment; Unemployment Duration

This paper analyzes the unemployment experience over the decade 1966-1976 of two NLS samples of males: youth who in 1966 were 16 to 24 years of age and not enrolled in school, and men who in the same year were between the ages of 45 and 59. Three issues are considered: (1) the racial distribution of the cumulative weeks of unemployment over the decade; (2) the determinants of the incidence of unemployment in the decade; and (3) the factors affecting the cumulative duration of the unemployment among those with some unemployment. A multiple classification analysis (MCA) is used in the later two cases. Perhaps the most interesting finding from these analyses was the similarity among the four age-race groups in the distribution of total unemployment. Five percent of the sample of young men accounted for 38 percent of the total weeks of unemployment; for the older men, four percent of the sample accounted for more than half of the total unemployment in the decade. The correlates of unemployment and its duration differed by age, however. For example, the social psychological measures affected these outcomes among older men but were insignificant factors for the younger male cohort.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. and Gilbert Nestel. "Incidence, Distribution, and Correlates of Unemployment Over a Decade Among Males by Age and Race." Proceedings, Social Statistics Section, American Statistical Association (1980): 401-406.
44. Parnes, Herbert S.
Nestel, Gilbert
Middle-Aged Job Changers
In: Pre-Retirement Years, Volume 4. H.S. Parnes, ed. Columbus, OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1974
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Job Turnover; Mobility; Mobility, Job

About 1 in 8 middle-aged men at work as wage and salary earners in survey week 1966 left their employer in the subsequent five-year period. The factors affecting their propensity to change jobs, and the importance of the latter construct and job opportunities as predictors of actual mobility are explored with multivariate techniques. The stability of the propensity relationship and the significance of the economic environment are also quantitatively assessed. The paper also contains a discussion of the economic and noneconomic consequences of a change in employer.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. and Gilbert Nestel. "Middle-Aged Job Changers" In: Pre-Retirement Years, Volume 4. H.S. Parnes, ed. Columbus, OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1974
45. Parnes, Herbert S.
Nestel, Gilbert
Retirement Expectations of Middle-Aged Men
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1971
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Early Retirement; Employment; Family Resources; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Retirement; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Work Attitudes

Data from the first and second-round personal interviews of the NLS survey of middle-aged men are used to study the factors affecting the decision to retire and its short-run stability. Multivariate techniques are used to isolate the importance of age, race, financial needs, ability to work, and resources in the absence of work as factors affecting an expectation of early retirement (prior to age 65) and changes in retirement expectations between 1966 and 1967. The authors find that economic and noneconomic factors are important in conditioning these expectations. Less conclusive evidence is provided that the same factors are important in explaining changes in these expectations. Some of the reasons for the latter finding are also explored.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. and Gilbert Nestel. "Retirement Expectations of Middle-Aged Men." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1971.
46. Parnes, Herbert S.
Nestel, Gilbert
Retirement Experience
In: Work and Retirement: A Longitudinal Study of Men. H.S. Parnes, ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: MIT Press
Keyword(s): Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Life Satisfaction; Retirees; Retirement; Work Experience

This paper addresses three research issues about the retirement decision among retired men interviewed in 1976: (1) The relative importance of an unwilling separation from a job because of a mandatory retirement provision, a withdrawal because of poor health, or a "voluntary" choice to retire. The distribution of the reason retired obtained from a retrospective question asked in 1976 is compared with the responses obtained from the panel response immediately prior to the actual retirement. (2) How does the reason retired vary by demographic and employment characteristics of retirees? (3) Is the post-retirement work experience, economic status, and life satisfaction related to reason retired? The authors find that only a small percentage of the retirements were involuntary (no more than five percent) in the sense that workers wanted to continue working at their jobs but were unable to do so. Health was a major reason for withdrawal with about 40 percent of the men reporting a health problem preceding their retirement. About twenty percent of the retirees were at work in survey week 1976 and only a small proportion of those not at work expressed an unqualified interest in working. There is little evidence that retirees are unhappy with the timing of their retirement or their life in retirement. Only those with health problems appear to be at some disadvantage.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. and Gilbert Nestel. "Retirement Experience" In: Work and Retirement: A Longitudinal Study of Men. H.S. Parnes, ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981
47. Parnes, Herbert S.
Nestel, Gilbert
Andrisani, Paul J.
Pre-Retirement Years, Volume 3: A Longitudinal Study of the Labor Market Experience of Men
Manpower Research Monograph 15, Volume 3. Washington DC: US GPO, 1973
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Attrition; Collective Bargaining; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marital Status; Mobility, Interfirm; Mobility, Job; Unions; Wages

A national sample of middle-aged men, first interviewed in the summer of 1966 when they were between 45 and 59 years of age, are reinterviewed for this five-year longitudinal study by a mail questionnaire in mid-1968 and by personal interviews in mid-1969. Data describe the magnitude and patterns of change in the status of the respondents that have occurred over the first three years of the study and identify some of the causes and consequences of these changes.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S., Gilbert Nestel and Paul J. Andrisani. Pre-Retirement Years, Volume 3: A Longitudinal Study of the Labor Market Experience of Men. Manpower Research Monograph 15, Volume 3. Washington DC: US GPO, 1973.
48. Parnes, Herbert S.
Nestel, Gilbert
Chirikos, Thomas N.
Daymont, Thomas N.
Mott, Frank L.
Parsons, Donald O.
From the Middle to the Later Years: Longitudinal Studies of the Preretirement and Postretirement Experiences of Men
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1979
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Employment; Family Background and Culture; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Household Income; Mortality; Retirement

The pre-retirement labor market behavior and the post-retirement experience of men between ages 45 and 69 are examined. This analysis shows the extension of the surveys beyond the originally planned five years. Both labor market behaviors and post-retirement experience are based on longitudinal data collected by periodic personal interviews with the same sample of men between l966 and l976. This is volume 5 in a series. This volume was also published by MIT Press as Work and Retirement.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S., Gilbert Nestel, Thomas N. Chirikos, Thomas N. Daymont, Frank L. Mott and Donald O. Parsons. From the Middle to the Later Years: Longitudinal Studies of the Preretirement and Postretirement Experiences of Men. Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1979.
49. Parnes, Herbert S.
Nestel, Gilbert
Less, Lawrence L.
The National Longitudinal Surveys Ten-Year Data Book for Middle-Aged and Older Men, 1966-1976
Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1980
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Behavior; Demography; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Schooling, Post-secondary; Training, Post-School; Work Attitudes; Work Experience

This monograph contains about 150 tables that summarize the current status and prior life experience of a representative sample of men who at the time of reinterview in 1976 were between 55 and 69 years of age. Only limited analysis of the content of each of these tables is included. Separate distributions are provided for each of three-age categories and for two racial groups. The tables are further categorized into two major types. The first set contains a demographic profile of the men at the time of their initial interviews in 1966 and summarize their backgrounds, prior work experiences, attitudes toward work, health status, and characteristics of their 1966 survey week jobs. The second set is more extensive and includes two sections for each table. The first part of the table summarizes the experiences of the same group of men in 1966, 1971 and 1976 and provides information about their behavior as they age five and ten years. The second part controls for the age of the respondent and asks whether the behavior differs at two to three points in time. At issue is whether the behavior varies for the same age cohort over time. Among the characteristics studied are marital and family attributes, extent of post- school training, mobility measures (geographic, employer, occupational), attitudes toward retirement, survey week status, and characteristics of survey week job.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S., Gilbert Nestel and Lawrence L. Less. The National Longitudinal Surveys Ten-Year Data Book for Middle-Aged and Older Men, 1966-1976. Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1980.
50. Parnes, Herbert S.
Rich, Malcolm C.
Perspectives on Educational Attainment from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Behavior
Research in Sociology of Education and Socialization 1 (1980): 161-188
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; NLS Description; Parental Influences; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

This paper discusses in general the four original NLS cohorts with particular emphasis on the applicability of these data sets for the study of the educational experiences of Americans. While indicating the difficulty of generalizing from numerous studies based on these data, the authors indicate that it appears clear that ability and parental socioeconomic status have a major impact on educational attainment, while some other significant factors can be more tentatively identified. In addition, the process of educational attainment appears basically similar for blacks and whites, and for males and females.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. and Malcolm C. Rich. "Perspectives on Educational Attainment from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Behavior." Research in Sociology of Education and Socialization 1 (1980): 161-188.
51. Parnes, Herbert S.
Shea, John R.
Spitz, Ruth S.
Zeller, Frederick A.
Dual Careers, Volume 1: A Longitudinal Study of the Labor Market Experience of Women
Manpower Research Monograph 21, Volume 1. Washington DC: US GPO, 1970
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Child Care; Children; Family Background and Culture; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Job Training; Marital Status; Mobility, Job; Part-Time Work; Work Attitudes

Data from the first interview (1967) of Mature Women age 30-44 in 1967 are used to examine their labor market status and attitudes, as well as their prior work experience and plans for the future. Marital history and status, family background, health, education, income patterns and attitudes toward work and home are investigated, as are participation in the labor force, occupation, rate of pay, transportation, and child care. Part-time employment and its ramifications are explored. Occupational and geographic mobility and movement are studied and their relationship to career beginnings shown. Work attitudes and job attachment are evaluated; and, finally, major sources of variation in labor market behavior are explored and found to be largely race, education, marital status, ages of children, and work-related attitudes.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S., John R. Shea, Ruth S. Spitz and Frederick A. Zeller. Dual Careers, Volume 1: A Longitudinal Study of the Labor Market Experience of Women. Manpower Research Monograph 21, Volume 1. Washington DC: US GPO, 1970.
52. Parnes, Herbert S.
Sheets, Carol T.
The National Longitudinal Surveys Data Files: Content and Structure
In: Data Bases in the Humanities and the Social Sciences. J. Raber and G. Marks, eds. New York, NY: North-Holland Publishing, 1980.
Also: http://www.cceerc.net/ICPSR/biblio/series/129/resources/23949?sortBy=1&paging.startRow=1&type=Book+Section&author=Parnes%2C+Herbert+S.
Cohort(s): NLS General
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): NLS Description; Research Methodology

This paper presents a brief description of the objectives and the content of the NLS surveys and the characteristics of the data files.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. and Carol T. Sheets. "The National Longitudinal Surveys Data Files: Content and Structure" In: Data Bases in the Humanities and the Social Sciences. J. Raber and G. Marks, eds. New York, NY: North-Holland Publishing, 1980.
53. Parnes, Herbert S.
Sommers, David Gerard
Shunning Retirement: Work Experience of Men in Their Seventies and Early Eighties
Working Paper, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1993
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Employment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Income; Labor Force Participation; Retirement; Wives, Work; Work Attachment; Work Experience

Using data from the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS) of Older Men, this paper examines the extent and character of the work experience of men who opt to continue labor force participation well beyond conventional retirement age. Logistic regression results showed that good health, a strong psychological commitment to work, and a corresponding distaste for retirement are among the most important characteristics related to continued employment into old age. The probability of employment was also found to be positively related to educational attainment and being married to a working wife; it was negatively related to age and level of income in the absence of work. Of the men in the sample who were not working, very few gave evidence of a desire to do so. Policy implications of the findings are explored.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. and David Gerard Sommers. "Shunning Retirement: Work Experience of Men in Their Seventies and Early Eighties." Working Paper, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1993.
54. Parnes, Herbert S.
Sommers, David Gerard
Shunning Retirement: Work Experience of Men in Their Seventies and Early Eighties
Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences 49,3 (1994): S117-S124
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Educational Attainment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Income Level; Labor Force Participation; Retirement; Wives, Work; Work Attitudes; Work Experience

Using data from the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS) of Older Men, this study examined the extent and character of the work experience of men who opt to continue labor force participation well beyond conventional retirement age. Logistic regression results showed that good health, a strong psychological commitment to work, and a corresponding distaste for retirement are among the most important characteristics related to continued employment into old age. The probability of employment was also found to be positively related to educational attainment and being married to a working wife; it was negatively related to age and level of income in the absence of work. Of the men in the sample who were not working, very few gave evidence of a desire to do so. Policy implications of the findings are explored.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. and David Gerard Sommers. "Shunning Retirement: Work Experience of Men in Their Seventies and Early Eighties." Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences 49,3 (1994): S117-S124.
55. Parnes, Herbert S.
Spitz, Ruth S.
A Conceptual Framework for Studying Labor Mobility
Monthly Labor Review 92,11 (November 1969): 55-58
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Earnings; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Work Attitudes; Work History

A discussion of a method of measuring mobility as a propensity to change jobs in response to economic incentives using data from two national samples of employed men leads to the conclusion that labor mobility is a much more complex phenomenon than would be imagined on the basis of conventional labor market theory, which tends to perceive labor as a more or less homogeneous and fluid factor continuously flowing in the direction of net economic advantage.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. and Ruth S. Spitz. "A Conceptual Framework for Studying Labor Mobility." Monthly Labor Review 92,11 (November 1969): 55-58.
56. Parnes, Herbert S.
Spitz, Ruth S.
Hypothetical Questions as Measures of Labor Mobility
Presented: New York NY, Annual Meeting of the American Statistical Association, August 1969
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Blue-Collar Jobs; Earnings; Employment; Job Satisfaction; Job Search; Job Tenure; Mobility; Mobility, Job; White Collar Jobs

From a methodological point of view, findings suggest that a question posing a hypothetical job offer can be used as a measure of the mobility of workers, defined as their propensity to change employers in response to a perceived economic advantage in doing so. From a substantive point of view, perhaps the most important conclusion to be drawn from findings to date is that labor mobility is a much more complex phenomenon than would be imagined on the basis of conventional labor market theory, which tends to conceive of labor as a more or less homogeneous and fluid factor continuously flowing in the direction of net economic advantage.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. and Ruth S. Spitz. "Hypothetical Questions as Measures of Labor Mobility." Presented: New York NY, Annual Meeting of the American Statistical Association, August 1969.
57. Parnes, Herbert S.
Sproat, Kezia
A Description of the National Longitudinal Surveys
In: ARRIVE: Annual Review of Research in Vocational Education, Volume 1. T.L. Wentling, ed. Springfield, IL: University of Illinois Board of Trutees & Illinois State Board of Education, 1980: pp. 322-330.
Also: http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED221682.pdf
Cohort(s): NLS General
Publisher: University of Illinois - Champaign / Urbana
Keyword(s): NLS Description; Research Methodology

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience began in 1965 when the U.S. Department of Labor contracted with the Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University to conduct longitudinal studies of the labor market experience of four specific age-sex groups of the American population. Under a separate contract with the U.S. Labor Department, the Bureau of the Census was made responsible for the design of the sample, the field work, and data processing. A brief history of the surveys is provided as well as the research possibilities of the data.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. and Kezia Sproat. "A Description of the National Longitudinal Surveys" In: ARRIVE: Annual Review of Research in Vocational Education, Volume 1. T.L. Wentling, ed. Springfield, IL: University of Illinois Board of Trutees & Illinois State Board of Education, 1980: pp. 322-330.