Search Results

Author: Nestel, Gilbert
Resulting in 50 citations.
1. Adams, Arvil Van
Nestel, Gilbert
Interregional Migration, Education and Poverty in the Urban Ghetto: Another Look at Black-White Earnings Differentials
Review of Economics and Statistics 58,2 (May 1976): 156-166.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1924021
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Keyword(s): Earnings; Educational Returns; Inner-City; Migration; Poverty; Racial Differences; Regions; Urbanization/Urban Living; Work Attitudes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The authors argue that few of the problems facing blacks in the non-South can be directly related to their migration from the South or to inferior Southern black schools. The non-Southern ghetto appears to be more harmful than a rural Southern origin. In this environment, young black males adopt attitudes toward school and work which appear to perpetuate their disadvantaged economic status. Investment in quality education, South and non-South, new jobs and attention to defects in the market system are important to further economic progress for blacks. Available through JSTOR.
Bibliography Citation
Adams, Arvil Van and Gilbert Nestel. "Interregional Migration, Education and Poverty in the Urban Ghetto: Another Look at Black-White Earnings Differentials." Review of Economics and Statistics 58,2 (May 1976): 156-166.
2. Andrisani, Paul J.
Nestel, Gilbert
Internal-External Control as Contributor to and Outcome of Work Experience
Journal of Applied Psychology 61,2 (April 1976): 156-165.
Also: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/apl/61/2/156/
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Earnings; Health Factors; Job Satisfaction; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Occupational Attainment; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Work Attitudes; Work Experience

This study examined both the influence of internal-external control on a number of facets of work experience of middle-aged men and the influence of work experience on change in internal-external control. Utilizing an 11-item abbreviated version of Rotter's Internal-External Control Scale and multivariate techniques, the authors found a systematic influence of internal-external control on success in the world of work. Confidence in these findings is strengthened by the fact that the observed relationships were independent of individual differences in skills, abilities, and demographic distribution, and were obtained on the basis of longitudinal as well as cross-sectional data. Additionally, these data also provide considerable support for the hypothesis that success at work enhances the expectancy of internal control.
Bibliography Citation
Andrisani, Paul J. and Gilbert Nestel. "Internal-External Control as Contributor to and Outcome of Work Experience." Journal of Applied Psychology 61,2 (April 1976): 156-165.
3. Baker, Paula C.
D'Amico, Ronald
Nestel, Gilbert
Measuring Time Use: A Comparison of Alternate Research Strategies
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1983
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Research Methodology; Time Use

Alternate methods of measuring time use were assessed using data from the 1980 NLSY pretest, administered to 223 youth ages 15 to 22 in four U.S. cities. The time diary, which elicited detailed time use information from the day preceding the interview date, was compared with a series of stylized questions asking for estimates of time spent on selected activities in the last seven days. Well-suited to gathering information on a comprehensive range of time use patterns, the diary's sensitivity to day to day fluctuations and to sporadic events makes it less desirable as an adjunct to the investigation of specific activities at the individual level. The 7-day retrospective appears to better represent usual time allocation, particularly activities that occur regularly or during infrequent blocks of time during the day. The diary generates reliable aggregate time use estimates while the 7-day approach offers a viable alternative for micro-level research.
Bibliography Citation
Baker, Paula C., Ronald D'Amico and Gilbert Nestel. "Measuring Time Use: A Comparison of Alternate Research Strategies." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1983.
4. Borus, Michael E.
Mott, Frank L.
Nestel, Gilbert
Counting Youth: A Comparison of Youth Labor Force Statistics in the Current Population Survey and the National Longitudinal Surveys
Report, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1978
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Part-Time Work; Research Methodology; Unemployment; Unemployment, Youth

This report focuses on the accuracy of employment- related measures in the (CPS) Current Population Survey by comparing those estimates with NLS estimates. The results indicate that NLS data report: (1) considerably higher labor force participation among young men and women, especially those who attend school; (2) significantly higher unemployment rates for young women and approximately the same rates for young men; (3) more unemployed seeking part-time employment; (4) higher levels of unemployment; and (5) youth who are employed were more likely to work either part time or overtime depending on their age.
Bibliography Citation
Borus, Michael E., Frank L. Mott and Gilbert Nestel. "Counting Youth: A Comparison of Youth Labor Force Statistics in the Current Population Survey and the National Longitudinal Surveys." Report, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1978.
5. Borus, Michael E.
Nestel, Gilbert
Response Bias in Reports of Father's Education and Socioeconomic Status
Journal of the American Statistical Association 68,344 (December 1973): 816-820.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2284505
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Family Influences; Fathers, Influence; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

This article compares independent interview responses of fathers and their sons to questions about the educational attainment and occupational status of the father. There is a high degree of congruence between the son's and father's estimates of both measures. When, however, reporting differences are regressed on various demographic characteristics reported by the son, the responses of youths with certain characteristics are found to deviate significantly from their fathers.
Bibliography Citation
Borus, Michael E. and Gilbert Nestel. "Response Bias in Reports of Father's Education and Socioeconomic Status." Journal of the American Statistical Association 68,344 (December 1973): 816-820.
6. Chirikos, Thomas N.
Nestel, Gilbert
Economic Aspects of Self-Reported Work Disability
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, January 1983
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Disability; Disabled Workers; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Wages

This paper examines the determinants of self-reported work disability in samples of older men and women stratified by race. Strong support is found for the hypothesis that economic factors as well as poor health influence the probability individuals report health limits in the amount or kind of work they do. In particular, lower expected wage rates significantly raise the probability of reporting work disablement, controlling for health status and health-related job requirements. The implications of these findings on estimating health and wage effects in labor supply studies are examined. Policy implications are also discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Chirikos, Thomas N. and Gilbert Nestel. "Economic Aspects of Self-Reported Work Disability." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, January 1983.
7. Chirikos, Thomas N.
Nestel, Gilbert
Economic Consequences of Poor Health in Mature Women
In: Unplanned Careers: The Working Lives of Middle-Aged Women. L.B. Shaw, ed. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1983
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Jossey-Bass
Keyword(s): Behavior; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Selectivity Bias/Selection Bias; Wages; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The economic effects of variations in women's health are analyzed from two related perspectives: first, the impact of poor health on labor supply and wage rates is examined and earnings losses calculated; and second, the analysis is extended to the family unit to study whether the wife's health status influences the work behavior of her spouse. The health measure used is the impairment index of functional limitations calculated for all women in 1977. Wage and hour equations are estimated by multivariate procedures (OLS and TOBIT). Issues of sample selectivity bias are addressed. The findings show that women with health problems suffer consequences that compound their already disadvantaged position in the labor market. Black men were also found to increase their work activity in response to the poor health of their wives; there is no evidence of a similar compensatory effect among white women.
Bibliography Citation
Chirikos, Thomas N. and Gilbert Nestel. "Economic Consequences of Poor Health in Mature Women" In: Unplanned Careers: The Working Lives of Middle-Aged Women. L.B. Shaw, ed. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1983
8. Chirikos, Thomas N.
Nestel, Gilbert
Economic Consequences of Poor Health, by Race and Sex
Proceedings, Social Statistics Section, American Statistical Association (1982): 473-477
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Behavior; Earnings; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Market Outcomes; Selectivity Bias/Selection Bias; Wages; Work Hours

This paper draws on data collected in the NLS of Older Men and Mature Women to evaluate the relationship between health status and labor market outcomes. The authors recognize that the same health problem can have different economic consequences for different subgroups of individuals. The principal objective of this study is to quantify these intergroup differences by computing earnings losses stemming from the impact of poor health on hours worked and wage rates of white and black men and women. A unique feature of this analysis is the use of a health measure that is not behavioral and is constructed from responses to questions about functional limitations (e.g., walking and lifting) and signs and symptoms of illness (e.g., aches and nervousness). Maximum likelihood techniques and OLS are used to estimate the equations and attention is also given to possible selectivity bias in wage equations.
Bibliography Citation
Chirikos, Thomas N. and Gilbert Nestel. "Economic Consequences of Poor Health, by Race and Sex." Proceedings, Social Statistics Section, American Statistical Association (1982): 473-477.
9. Chirikos, Thomas N.
Nestel, Gilbert
Economic Determinants and Consequences of Self-Reported Work Disability
Journal of Health Economics 3,2 (August 1984): 117-136.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/016762968490002X
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Disabled Workers; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Self-Reporting; Wages

This paper examines the determinants of self-reported work disability in samples of older men and women stratified by race. Strong support is found for the hypothesis that economic factors as well as poor health influence the probability individuals report health limits in the amount or kind of work they do. In particular, lower expected wage rates significantly raise the probability of reporting work disablement, controlling for health status and health-related job requirements. The implications of these findings on estimating health and wage effects in labor supply studies are examined. Policy implications are also discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Chirikos, Thomas N. and Gilbert Nestel. "Economic Determinants and Consequences of Self-Reported Work Disability." Journal of Health Economics 3,2 (August 1984): 117-136.
10. Chirikos, Thomas N.
Nestel, Gilbert
Functional Capacities of Older Men for Extended Work Lives
Special Report, Social Security Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1988. Social Security Bulletin 52,8 (August 1989): 14-16
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Social Security Administration
Keyword(s): Disabled Workers; Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Job Requirements; Markov chain / Markov model; Mortality; Occupations; Retirement

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The extent to which health conditions or physical job requirements affect the functional capacity of older men to remain at work is an important consideration in judging policies designed to advance the age of retirement. A continuous-time Markov model of retirement, disability and death is developed in this report to test hypotheses about the influence of impaired health and non-sedentary work on the ability of men in their seventh decade to delay retirement. The model is estimated with panel data covering a seventeen-year period for a nationally representative sample of older American men. Poor health is found to affect significantly the likelihood of retiring in a disabled state. Since the impairment status of the elderly may deteriorate over time as mortality rates improve, retirement policy must be braced for the very real possibility that the fraction of older workers who will have difficulty in delaying retirement because of their health problems will increase in the future. However, physical job requirements are found to play a slightly more ambiguous role in the ability of men to delay retirement. Workers in non-sedentary jobs are indeed more likely to retire disabled. But cohort projections of the fractions of men in various non-sedentary and sedentary job categories capable of extending their work lives are quite similar, even when differences in background characteristics of these men is taken into account. Thus, even though some workers will be adversely affected by advancing the age of retirement, this hardship is unlikely to fall disproportionately on only some small number of workers or those at work in specific types of jobs.
Bibliography Citation
Chirikos, Thomas N. and Gilbert Nestel. "Functional Capacities of Older Men for Extended Work Lives." Special Report, Social Security Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1988. Social Security Bulletin 52,8 (August 1989): 14-16.
11. Chirikos, Thomas N.
Nestel, Gilbert
Further Evidence on the Economic Effects of Poor Health
Review of Economics and Statistics 67,1 (February 1985): 61-69.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1928435
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Keyword(s): Earnings; Gender Differences; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines variations in current economic welfare attributable to different profiles or histories of health status over the preceding ten year period. A two-equation model, estimated with National Longitudinal Survey data for four sex-race groups, provides convincing evidence that health problems incurred in the past adversely affect current earnings. This legacy is difficult to overcome: it remains even for individuals in improving health willing to devote relatively greater effort to market work. A history of poor health is also shown to exact substantially different economic tolls from men and women as well as from whites and blacks.
Bibliography Citation
Chirikos, Thomas N. and Gilbert Nestel. "Further Evidence on the Economic Effects of Poor Health." Review of Economics and Statistics 67,1 (February 1985): 61-69.
12. Chirikos, Thomas N.
Nestel, Gilbert
Health History and Current Market Earnings: Further Evidence on the Economic Effects of Poor Health
Presented: Dallas, TX, Association for the Social Sciences in Health, American Public Health Association, 1983
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Earnings; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Market Outcomes; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Empirical research by economists and sociologists on the interrelationship between health and socioeconomic status has frequently been limited by the absence of suitable longitudinal measures of the crucial variables. This paper draws on a unique data set, the NLS of Older Men and Mature Women, to construct longitudinal measures of health history and to analyze the relationship between these histories and measures of current economic status. The NLS has followed nationally representative samples of 5000 white and black men, then 45-59 years of age, and an equal number of white and black women, then 30-44 years old, since the mid-sixties. A variety of health measures as well as detailed economic data are available for various years over the period the panels have been followed. Responses to health-related questions over the decade 1966-1976 are used to profile the health histories of each panel member. The effects of these histories on such current labor market outcomes as wages and annual hours worked are then estimated using multivariate statistical techniques. The analysis shows that a history of health problems definitely creates a legacy of adverse economic consequences. It also shows that this legacy differs substantially among sex and race groups. Substantive and methodological implications of these findings are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Chirikos, Thomas N. and Gilbert Nestel. "Health History and Current Market Earnings: Further Evidence on the Economic Effects of Poor Health." Presented: Dallas, TX, Association for the Social Sciences in Health, American Public Health Association, 1983.
13. Chirikos, Thomas N.
Nestel, Gilbert
Health Status and Work Activity of Older Men: Event-History Analyses of Selected Social Policy Issues
Working Paper Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 1985
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Force Participation; Mortality; Retirement

The interrelationship between health status and work activity is analyzed in order to cast further light on three controversies: (1) whether the average health levels of older men have deteriorated, improved or remained roughly constant over the past 25 years, and the extent to which below-average health leads to involuntary labor force withdrawals; (2) whether the health of older men who retire deteriorates as a result of retirement; (3) whether recent improvements in mortality have selectively favored individuals at higher risk of disablement, and thus contributed to pre- and post-retirement health trends. The results suggest that health levels of older men have deteriorated over the past two decades, partly as a consequence of improvements in life expectancy. These health trends have contributed to the observed decline in labor force participation of this population subgroup. Little evidence is found, however, for the claim that retirement harms health status.
Bibliography Citation
Chirikos, Thomas N. and Gilbert Nestel. "Health Status and Work Activity of Older Men: Event-History Analyses of Selected Social Policy Issues." Working Paper Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 1985.
14. Chirikos, Thomas N.
Nestel, Gilbert
Health-Pension Interaction in the Analysis of Early Retirement Trends
Working Paper, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 1984
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Early Retirement; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Mortality; Pensions; Retirement; Social Security; Transfers, Financial; Transfers, Public

This study tests whether there is an underlying interaction between policy inducements and health-related retirement behavior. Inclusion of mortality in the model ensures that selectivity biases are minimized and permits direct testing of several key inferences made in previous studies. Findings are: (1) Work-limiting health conditions are neither permanent nor influenced exclusively by impaired physical or psychological functioning so studies using these measures as proxies for the capacity to engage in market work are likely to overstate involuntary withdrawals from the labor force. (2) Evidence of interaction effects between policy-related and health-related outcomes provides fundamental support for the hypothesis that inducements arising from social insurance and income transfer programs influence labor market behavior. (3) This analysis provides weak evidence that life expectancy biases the results of early retirement studies that use mortality and health proxy and pension wealth as indication of policy inducements.
Bibliography Citation
Chirikos, Thomas N. and Gilbert Nestel. "Health-Pension Interaction in the Analysis of Early Retirement Trends." Working Paper, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 1984.
15. Chirikos, Thomas N.
Nestel, Gilbert
Impact of Poor Health on the Work Status of Women
Presented: Morgantown, WV, West Virginia University, Conference on Women and Health, 1982
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men
Publisher: International Council For Small Business (ICSB)
Keyword(s): Benefits, Disability; Earnings; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Vocational Rehabilitation; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper documents the effect of declining health on the labor market earnings of women. The magnitude of this effect is then compared to a similar estimate for men. The NLS of Older Men reinterviewed in 1976 (ages 55-69) and Mature Women reinterviewed in 1977 (ages 40-54) provide the data base for these analyses. The findings provide convincing evidence that poor health exacts a heavy toll from the economic status of women by reducing the likelihood they will work at all, by reducing the number of hours if they continue to work, and by reducing their wages. These reductions are generally larger for women than men.
Bibliography Citation
Chirikos, Thomas N. and Gilbert Nestel. "Impact of Poor Health on the Work Status of Women." Presented: Morgantown, WV, West Virginia University, Conference on Women and Health, 1982.
16. Chirikos, Thomas N.
Nestel, Gilbert
Impairment and Labor Market Outcomes: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analysis
In: Work and Retirement: A Longitudinal Study of Men. H.S. Parnes, ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: MIT Press
Keyword(s): Disabled Workers; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Market Outcomes; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Work Hours

The effect of health on selected labor market outcomes of middle- aged and older men provides the central theme for this paper. Particular emphasis is directed at the effect of health on hours of work and wages using cross sectional and longitudinal data. An index of impairment level (functional limitation) is developed to measure health status. The statistical implications of this measure rather than the more conventional work-limiting response is also explored. Both the 1971 and 1976 survey of Older Men are used in the analysis. The various relationships are estimated by multivariate techniques (OLS). As expected, poor health reduces participation and the extent of work activity and thereby earnings. There is also considerable evidence that the impairment levels are unstable, suggesting improvement in health as well as the incidence of additional problems with increasing age. There is limited evidence that occupational mobility is used as a mechanism for adjusting to changes in impairment status.
Bibliography Citation
Chirikos, Thomas N. and Gilbert Nestel. "Impairment and Labor Market Outcomes: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analysis" In: Work and Retirement: A Longitudinal Study of Men. H.S. Parnes, ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981
17. Chirikos, Thomas N.
Nestel, Gilbert
Incidence and Chronicity of Functional Impairments in Older Men
Presented: Dallas, TX, 111th Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, November 13-17, 1983
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Mortality

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study measures changes over a five year period in functional impairments in a representative sample of American men between 60-74 years of age and analyzes the impact of these changes on self- appraised health status, normal role function, mobility and self-sufficiency in personal care. The relationship between impairment status and survivorship is also investigated. The analysis shows that the functional capacity of older men is reduced as they age and that these diminutions increase the likelihood of reporting poor health, limitations in work activity, travel restrictions and assistance in activities of daily living. However, considerable evidence is also found that functional capacities are restored, with concomitant improvements in health and disability status. The chronicity or duration of functional impairments is called into question by this evidence. Finally, impairment status is found to be a strong predictor of mortality, suggesting that increasing life expectancy may substantially increase the number of disabled elderly needing medical and social service support.
Bibliography Citation
Chirikos, Thomas N. and Gilbert Nestel. "Incidence and Chronicity of Functional Impairments in Older Men." Presented: Dallas, TX, 111th Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, November 13-17, 1983.
18. Chirikos, Thomas N.
Nestel, Gilbert
Job Characteristics and Health Status Effects on Retirement Behavior
Workign Paper, Department of Preventive Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 1986
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Author
Keyword(s): Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Force Participation; Markov chain / Markov model; Occupations; Retirement

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This report investigates whether job characteristics are significant determinants of the labor force attachment of older workers and whether these characteristics have an even more pronounced effect on work activity when they interact with poor health. A continuous time-Markov model of interrelated work and functional status profiles is used as the general framework for the research. The model includes several different measures of job characteristics, an intertemporal index of physical and mental capacities, and control variables characterizing the financial incentives and sociodemographic status of these workers. The parameters of the model are estimated with panel data covering the 17-year period (1966-1983) of the Older Men's cohort. The statistical findings present a mixed picture of the importance of occupational factors on labor market attachment. Some effects of occupation or occupation-related factors such as job conditions, on the functional histories of older men are detected. These effects, in turn, generally translate into the reduced likelihood of continuing attachments to market work; consequently, they are of some interest to policy-makers dealing with the rapid historical decline in the labor force participation rates of men over 45 years of age. On the other hand, the net influence of job factors is generally very small relative to other determinants of retirement, and their measured effects are not always consistent. Thus, they do not appear to offer policy-makers much leverage in dealing with declining trends in male participation rates.
Bibliography Citation
Chirikos, Thomas N. and Gilbert Nestel. "Job Characteristics and Health Status Effects on Retirement Behavior." Workign Paper, Department of Preventive Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 1986.
19. Chirikos, Thomas N.
Nestel, Gilbert
Longitudinal Analysis of Functional Disabilities in Older Men
Journal of Gerontology 40,4 (July 1985): 426-433.
Also: http://geronj.oxfordjournals.org/content/40/4/426.abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): Attrition; Disability; Disabled Workers; Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Mortality; Racial Differences; Self-Reporting; Transfers, Skill

The study examines longitudinal changes in various functional disabilities and the effects of such changes on self-reported health, role function, mobility, and self-sufficiency. Using data from the NLS of Older Men, the analysis revealed that: (1) sizeable percentages of men report motor-sensory dysfunctions with black men experiencing higher rates of dysfunction than whites; and (2) that functional disabilities are strong predictors of mortality.
Bibliography Citation
Chirikos, Thomas N. and Gilbert Nestel. "Longitudinal Analysis of Functional Disabilities in Older Men." Journal of Gerontology 40,4 (July 1985): 426-433.
20. Chirikos, Thomas N.
Nestel, Gilbert
Occupation, Impaired Health, and the Functional Capacity of Men to Continue Working
Research on Aging 11,2 (June 1989): 174-205.
Also: http://roa.sagepub.com/content/11/2/174.abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Disability; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Markov chain / Markov model; Mortality; Retirement

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

An "Erratum" appears in Research on Aging 11,4 (December 1989): 517. See, http://roa.sagepub.com/content/11/4/517.full.pdf+html

This paper tested hypotheses about the influence of physically demanding work and impaired health of older men on the ability to delay retirement. A continuous-time Markov model of retirement, disability, and death was used; the parameters were estimated with panel data covering a period of 17 years from the National Longitudinal Survey (H. Parnes, 1975) of Labor Market Experience of Older Men. Findings show that health-related physical conditions play an important role in determining the ability of male workers to delay retirement and in increasing the potential for some unintended toll in advancing the age of retirement. A second major conclusion is that whatever the toll exacted by policies designed to advance the age of retirement, it is unlikely to fall disproportionately on only some occupational groups. An "Erratum" appears in a subsequent issue which reports an error in the original article. On pages 182 and 203 (of the original article), several equations have been corrected. [APA]

Bibliography Citation
Chirikos, Thomas N. and Gilbert Nestel. "Occupation, Impaired Health, and the Functional Capacity of Men to Continue Working." Research on Aging 11,2 (June 1989): 174-205.
21. Chirikos, Thomas N.
Nestel, Gilbert
Occupational Differences in the Ability of Men to Delay Retirement
Journal of Human Resources 26,1 (Winter 1991): 1-26.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/145714
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Disabled Workers; Health Factors; Industrial Sector; Job Hazards; Job Requirements; Mortality; Occupations; Retirement

The functional capacity of older men to remain at work in different occupational settings is an important consideration in judging recent legislation to extend the age of retirement. This paper utilizes a competing- risk model of retirement, disability and death to test hypotheses about the influence of physically strenuous work on the ability to delay retirement. Time-dependent hazard rate functions are estimated with panel data from the NLS of Older Men. Physical job requirements and health conditions are found to influence the likelihood of retiring in a disabled state. However, projections of the fractions of workers in physically strenuous and sedentary job categories that are likely to encounter difficulty in staying in the labor force do not differ greatly. The authors conclude that special policies aimed directly at workers in nonsedentary occupations may not be warranted.
Bibliography Citation
Chirikos, Thomas N. and Gilbert Nestel. "Occupational Differences in the Ability of Men to Delay Retirement." Journal of Human Resources 26,1 (Winter 1991): 1-26.
22. Chirikos, Thomas N.
Nestel, Gilbert
Sex and Race Differentials in the Economic Consequences of Poor Health
Research Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1982
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Earnings; Employment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Work History

The effect of poor health on earnings is explored with data collected from reinterviews of Older Men and Mature Women in 1976 and 1977. Additional controls for race were introduced to allow for white and black men and women comparisons. Two health indicators were calculated: an impairment index of functional limitations and a health history measure that summarized the respondent's health in the prior ten-year period. Wage and hours equations were estimated by multivariate techniques (OLS and TOBIT) with the wage equations containing an additional term to correct for sample selectivity bias. The findings show that poor health affects men and women of each race differently. Blacks were generally less likely than whites to sustain labor market activity and earnings when faced with a health problem. Unhealthy whites, however, also incurred substantial earnings losses. Differences in responses were also found between men and women of each race.
Bibliography Citation
Chirikos, Thomas N. and Gilbert Nestel. "Sex and Race Differentials in the Economic Consequences of Poor Health." Research Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1982.
23. Chirikos, Thomas N.
Nestel, Gilbert
Work Capacity of Older Men and Age-Eligibility for Medicare Benefits
Medical Care 26,9 (September 1988): 867-881
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Keyword(s): Disabled Workers; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Force Participation; Racial Differences; Social Security; Work Attachment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper analyzes the durations of work capability of men using data from the NLS of Older Men on approximately 3,500 white and 1,400 black men who were age 45 to 59 in 1966. An event-history framework technique was used to estimate a six-state health-event model. Projections of adjusted prevalence rates indicate that 40 percent of the total cohort of white men at age 60 can expect to be capable of work at age 67, and about 54 percent of those who survive until age 67 will be capable of work. Similar simulations for black men reveal that of those who survive until age 67, 41 percent will be functionally capable at that age. In recent years, successive cohorts have experienced lower average impairment levels. Economic welfare, which will probably improve over time, should increase the capacity of men to remain working in their sixties. These results suggest that serious consideration could be given to advancing the age of eligibility for Medicare benefits. An appendix contains detailed equations and statistical data. [AgeLine]
Bibliography Citation
Chirikos, Thomas N. and Gilbert Nestel. "Work Capacity of Older Men and Age-Eligibility for Medicare Benefits." Medical Care 26,9 (September 1988): 867-881.
24. D'Amico, Ronald
Hills, Stephen M.
Lynch, Lisa M.
Morgan, William R.
Nestel, Gilbert
Olsen, Randall J.
Parsons, Donald O.
Willke, Richard
Pathways to the Future, Volume VI: A Report on the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience of Youth in 1984
Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, January 1986
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): All-Volunteer Force (AVF); Children; Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA); Earnings; Education; Educational Costs; Employment, In-School; Family Resources; Job Training; Labor Market Outcomes

This report describes the work experience of a nationally-representative sample of 12,000 Americans who were age 14-21 when first interviewed in 1979 and who have been surveyed annually since then. Willke - Chapter One examines welfare, education, and labor market outcomes for CETA participants and non-participants. Lynch - Chapter Two aims to identify the influences on the length of time young people are unemployed. Olsen - Chapter Three examines a method for determining the existence and impact of selection bias, which is known to affect outcomes of labor policy discussions depending on how the bias is corrected. Hills - Chapter Four examines the long-run impact of teen-age unemployment on later labor market success. Morgan - Chapter Five examines variation within families in investment of resources in their children's educational and occupational attainment process. D'Amico - Chapter Six adds evidence to other studies showing how pervasive employment is among high school youth. Parsons - Chapter Seven provides information about the on-the-job training provided to young men by private employers. Nestel - Chapter Eight compares the post-school work experience of youth who served in the All-Volunteer Force and those who did not.
Bibliography Citation
D'Amico, Ronald, Stephen M. Hills, Lisa M. Lynch, William R. Morgan, Gilbert Nestel, Randall J. Olsen, Donald O. Parsons and Richard Willke. Pathways to the Future, Volume VI: A Report on the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience of Youth in 1984. Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, January 1986.
25. Kim, Choongsoo
Nestel, Gilbert
Participation in the All-Volunteer Force: The Effect on Civilian Earnings
Proceedings, Business and Economic Statistics Section, American Statistical Association (1982): 440-444
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): All-Volunteer Force (AVF); Attrition; Earnings; Sample Selection; Selectivity Bias/Selection Bias

This study compares the hourly earnings of youth by whether or not they served in the All Volunteer Force (AVF). The data are obtained from the NLSY, a nationally representative sample of individuals age 16-21 years of age in 1979. These data also contain information on a sample of youth who have served in the AVF. The enlistees are further classified by completion status in their first tour of duty to see whether this difference affects civilian earnings. Our estimation procedure controls for specification bias because of possible differences in unobserved characteristics between those who separate and those who reenlist, and between those who work and others who do not choose employment.
Bibliography Citation
Kim, Choongsoo and Gilbert Nestel. "Participation in the All-Volunteer Force: The Effect on Civilian Earnings." Proceedings, Business and Economic Statistics Section, American Statistical Association (1982): 440-444.
26. Kim, Choongsoo
Nestel, Gilbert
Phillips, Robert L.
Borus, Michael E.
The All-Volunteer Force: An Analysis of Youth Participation, Attrition, and Reenlistment
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1980
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): All-Volunteer Force (AVF); Military Enlistment; Military Recruitment; Military Service; Veterans

This report presents preliminary cross-tabular analyses of the first round of the NLSY79. The characteristics of youth who were serving in the All-Volunteer Force (AVF), the quality of their military employment experiences, and their intentions to reenlist are discussed. The post-service status of former enlistees is also explored. Youth who had never served provide a reference group for these analyses. The final chapter profiles the never-served youth with strong incentives to enlist. Separate analyses for males and females and for the different racial groups are provided and differences noted when significant. Despite the fact the Armed Forces are a "volunteer" force, presumably competing in the labor market and paying competitive wages and salaries, it is clear that the employment opportunities offered by the services are dramatically affected by public policy decisions. As a generalization, minorities and females have a better relative chance in the military than outside as judged by preferences for enlistment and the patterns of retention of these within the services. If market forces were allowed to prevail, there is no doubt that the percentage of blacks in the military would increase. The "black" share is reduced by "rationing" so that relatively more qualified blacks are hired. Similarly, opportunities within the military are arbitrarily restricted so that women have to meet higher standards to enter than do men.
Bibliography Citation
Kim, Choongsoo, Gilbert Nestel, Robert L. Phillips and Michael E. Borus. "The All-Volunteer Force: An Analysis of Youth Participation, Attrition, and Reenlistment." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1980.
27. Kohen, Andrew I.
Nestel, Gilbert
Karmas, Constantine
Factors Affecting Individual Persistence Rates in Undergraduate College Programs
American Educational Research Journal 15,2 (Spring 1978): 233-252.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1162462
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: American Educational Research Association
Keyword(s): College Dropouts; College Enrollment; Employment; Marital Status; Scholarships; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study uses a sample drawn from the NLS of Young Men attending college in the l960s. Some of the principal conclusions of the multivariate analyses are: (1) factors determining persistence vary widely with the stage of the undergraduate career; (2) race and parental SES bear no net relation to dropping out; (3) the impact of ability declines with progress toward graduation; and (4) entering college in a two-year institution is inversely associated with persistence. These and other findings demonstrate that much previous research has perpetuated erroneous inferences about dropping out of college, not the least of which is that the process can be modeled in a single equation representing the likelihood of graduation by any given group of freshmen.
Bibliography Citation
Kohen, Andrew I., Gilbert Nestel and Constantine Karmas. "Factors Affecting Individual Persistence Rates in Undergraduate College Programs." American Educational Research Journal 15,2 (Spring 1978): 233-252.
28. Kohen, Andrew I.
Nestel, Gilbert
Karmas, Constantine
Success and Failure in College: A New Approach to Persistence in Undergraduate Programs
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1976
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): College Dropouts; College Education; College Enrollment; Educational Costs; Employment, In-School; High School Curriculum; I.Q.

This study examines the factors affecting the probabilities of completing college. It appears that factors of persistence in college vary with the year in school. Parental socioeconomic status, race and age are found to have no net relationship with dropping out. Pursuing a college prep program in high school is significant only in the freshmen year, and I.Q. is not significant after the sophomore year. However, receiving a scholarship has a significant positive relationship to the probability of completing college. Working evidently inhibits persistence in college, but not all employed students drop out, and there is no significant relationship between hours worked and dropping out. Finally, young men who initially enter a two-year college are much more likely to drop out at every stage for indeterminable reasons--even after transferring to a four-year institution.
Bibliography Citation
Kohen, Andrew I., Gilbert Nestel and Constantine Karmas. "Success and Failure in College: A New Approach to Persistence in Undergraduate Programs." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1976.
29. Nestel, Gilbert
A Longitudinal Study of Labor Market Behavior--Advantages and Some Methodological Problems in Analysis
Proceedings, Social Statistics Section, American Statistical Association (1970): 26-31
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Longitudinal Surveys; Nonresponse; Research Methodology

The advantages and disadvantages of panel and cross-section designs are highlighted. Issues of causal ordering, observational errors, item and respondent nonresponse, and unit of measurement are also discussed. Illustrations of these issues are provided using data from four NLS surveys.
Bibliography Citation
Nestel, Gilbert. "A Longitudinal Study of Labor Market Behavior--Advantages and Some Methodological Problems in Analysis." Proceedings, Social Statistics Section, American Statistical Association (1970): 26-31.
30. Nestel, Gilbert
Military Service and Civilian Wages: Another Look
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1983
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): All-Volunteer Force (AVF); Attrition; Earnings; Military Service; Military Training; Transfers, Skill; Wages

Youth when asked why they joined the All-Volunteer Force (AVF) often mention the educational opportunities the services provide and the possibility of acquiring specific occupational skills through military training programs. They not only expect this training will be beneficial while serving but that it will also be transferable and valued by civilian employers upon separation. A statistical analysis of the hourly earnings in survey week 1982 among former female enlistees showed that there was no difference in pay between those who previously served and those with no military experience. Among the men with prior service, however, those who failed to complete their initial tour averaged about 11 percent less in pay, and those who completed their tour about 7 percent less earnings than their never-served reference group. Neither group of former male enlistees was at a disadvantage when the universe was restricted to the 1976 and 1977 entry cohorts. Thus the disadvantage in pay experienced by former male enlistees appears to be mainly a short-run occurrence. There is also evidence that enlistees who report some transferability of military experience to civilian jobs average higher hourly earnings than those who report these experiences are service specific.
Bibliography Citation
Nestel, Gilbert. "Military Service and Civilian Wages: Another Look." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1983.
31. Nestel, Gilbert
Retirement Expectations, Planned Retirement and Postretirement Satisfaction
Proceedings, Business and Economic Statistics Section, American Statistical Association (1983): 180-185
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Life Satisfaction; Retirement

The decision to retire signals the end of a period of active participation in the paid work force, and is generally accompanied by a significant loss of income. The pattern of expectations about the dating of this withdrawal is assumed to be a significant predictor of the event and the retiree's degree of satisfaction in his new role. These expectations were obtained from reinterviews with the NLS of Older Men (45-59 years of age in 1966) who retired at some time in the decade, 1968-1978. Logit analysis is used to characterize respondents who reported consistently and those with more random responses. The relation of these patterns with the actual age retired and their impact on postretirement life satisfaction are also evaluated statistically.
Bibliography Citation
Nestel, Gilbert. "Retirement Expectations, Planned Retirement and Postretirement Satisfaction." Proceedings, Business and Economic Statistics Section, American Statistical Association (1983): 180-185.
32. Nestel, Gilbert
Chirikos, Thomas N.
Job Characteristics and Health Status Effects on Retirement Behavior
Proceedings, Business and Economic Statistics Section, American Statistical Association, (1987): 169-174
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Duncan Index; Event History; Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Industrial Sector; Job Characteristics; Job Requirements; Labor Supply; Markov chain / Markov model; Pensions; Retirement

This paper takes a look at whether job characteristics are significant determinants of labor force attachment for older workers and whether these characteristics have a greater effect on work activity when they interact with poor health. Using a continuous-time Markov model of interrelated work and functional status profiles and data from the NLS of Older Men, the study found limited support for the hypothesis that job type or job condition, net of other factors, affects the retirement decision or functional capability of the older worker. From a policy perspective, the authors conclude that it is more important to understand how traditional determinants such as health and pension income will influence the future labor supply of older persons than how job factors contribute to these trends.
Bibliography Citation
Nestel, Gilbert and Thomas N. Chirikos. "Job Characteristics and Health Status Effects on Retirement Behavior." Proceedings, Business and Economic Statistics Section, American Statistical Association, (1987): 169-174.
33. Nestel, Gilbert
Mercier, Jacqueline
Shaw, Lois B.
Economic Consequences of Midlife Changes in Marital Status
In: Unplanned Careers: The Working Lives of Middle-Aged Women. L.B. Shaw, ed. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1983
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Jossey-Bass
Keyword(s): Divorce; Marital Status; Poverty; Remarriage; Widows

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The end of a marriage leaves most women to face the emotional trauma of the loss of a spouse, the problems of heading a family alone, and the adjustment to the loss of a major source of income. The welfare of these women and their families is not unrelated to the reason the marriage terminated. It is also affected by whether or not the woman remarries. Data from the NLS of Mature Women are used to explore the experiences of married women who divorce, are separated, or lose their spouse because of death in the period 1967-1976. A multivariate analysis provides a profile of the divorced and widowed women who remarry. The short-run consequences of a change in marital status in the 1967-1977 decade is also provided. Women who remain married throughout the decade become the reference group for these comparisons. The findings indicate that the incidence of poverty is higher among women who change marital status than among those continuously married. Sources of income differ with widows depending on Social Security Survivors Benefits and separated women on welfare payments. Remarriage was not very frequent; one-third of divorced women and one-sixth of the widows had remarried by 1977. Women who were worse off economically and those with little education were most likely to remarry, but black women and older women were less likely to remarry regardless of economic need.
Bibliography Citation
Nestel, Gilbert, Jacqueline Mercier and Lois B. Shaw. "Economic Consequences of Midlife Changes in Marital Status" In: Unplanned Careers: The Working Lives of Middle-Aged Women. L.B. Shaw, ed. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1983
34. Nestel, Gilbert
Ricciuti, Kara E.
Mother Love Through Mother's Milk: Can it Protect Against Pneumonia?
Proceedings, Social Statistics Section, American Statistical Association. Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association, 1994
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Birth Order; Breastfeeding; Child Health; Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marital Status; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Mothers, Education; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pre/post Natal Health Care; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes

The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) comprised the set of observations that were analyzed in this paper. About 96 percent of the original sample of women were reinterviewed in 1986, with the majority of sample losses explained by the elimination of the military sample after 1984. Thus the female respondents interviewed in 1986 should be representative of the universe of civilian women between 21 and 29 years of age, and their birth histories should closely approximate all live births to women born between 1957 and 1965. To more easily access this information, a 1986 child-mother file was developed with each live birth of the female respondent as the unit of analysis. A limited number of main illnesses were precoded for the convenience of the interviewers, but the large clustering of responses in the "other" code category prompted a further review by the senior author of each affected questionnaire, and a subsequent expansion of the codes to encompass other illnesses. The availability of detailed dated information on the mother's choice of food and the dating of the different health problems of her child provided the information needed for a month-by-month history of these events. Cox's proportional hazards model was used to estimate the risk of a transition to hospitalized pneumonia for the entire sample of singleton births and for the subsample of white singleton births only.
Bibliography Citation
Nestel, Gilbert and Kara E. Ricciuti. Mother Love Through Mother's Milk: Can it Protect Against Pneumonia? Proceedings, Social Statistics Section, American Statistical Association. Alexandria, VA: American Statistical Association, 1994.
35. Nestel, Gilbert
Santos, Richard
CPS-NLS Differences in Labor Force Characteristics of Youth: Another Look
Proceedings, Business and Economic Statistics Section, American Statistical Association (1981): 122-125
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Research Methodology; Unemployment, Youth

CPS estimates of the size of the youth labor force continue to differ from estimates derived from other data sources. Analysis of the 1979 NLSY data indicated more extensive attachment to the labor force by youth 16-21 than corresponding CPS estimates. These differences have been attributable in the past largely to differences in reporting unit (proxy versus self-respondent). However, a recent study by the Methods Division of the Bureau of the Census revealed only minor differences by respondent type. This study examines other factors such as type of interview, rotation bias and characteristic of jobs that could explain these differences. The data analyzed come from the March 1979 CPS and 1979 NLSY surveys.
Bibliography Citation
Nestel, Gilbert and Richard Santos. "CPS-NLS Differences in Labor Force Characteristics of Youth: Another Look." Proceedings, Business and Economic Statistics Section, American Statistical Association (1981): 122-125.
36. Parnes, Herbert S.
Adams, Arvil Van
Andrisani, Paul J.
Kohen, Andrew I.
Nestel, Gilbert
Pre-Retirement Years, Volume 4: Five Years in the Work Lives of Middle-Aged Men
Manpower Research Monograph 15, Volume 4. Washington DC: US GPO, 1975
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Behavior; Earnings; Employment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Household Income; Job Training; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Mobility, Job; Retirement; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control)

A unique set of longitudinal data collected by personal interviews with the same sample of men in 1966, 1967, 1969, and 1971 provides information on a number of facets of the labor market experience and behavior of middle- aged men. Since the data contain a complete record of the labor market activity of the men over a five-year period, both the antecedents and consequences of particular events and courses of action can be examined. Moreover, the five years in question are an unusually interesting half decade, for they should reflect whatever short-run impact the civil rights movement has had upon the relative employment status of middle-aged black men. Also, these years include a three-year span in which the labor market was relatively tight and improving (1966- 1969) as well as a two-year period during which unemployment rose considerably (1969-1971). The fact that changes between 1967 and 1969 can be compared with those between 1969 and 1971 for the same group of individuals permits one to analyze the effect of a change in the economic environment on the labor market experience of the men under consideration.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S., Arvil Van Adams, Paul J. Andrisani, Andrew I. Kohen and Gilbert Nestel. Pre-Retirement Years, Volume 4: Five Years in the Work Lives of Middle-Aged Men. Manpower Research Monograph 15, Volume 4. Washington DC: US GPO, 1975.
37. Parnes, Herbert S.
Crowley, Joan E.
Haurin, R. Jean
Less, Lawrence L.
Mott, Frank L.
Morgan, William R.
Nestel, Gilbert
Retirement Among American Men
Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1985
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Jossey-Bass
Keyword(s): Early Retirement; Earnings; Education; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Job Satisfaction; Life Satisfaction; Mortality; Retirees; Retirement

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Fifteen years of data from a nationally representative sample of men age 45-59 in 1966 show that by 1981 most had retired. One third of all retirements and almost half of those by black men were caused by poor health; fewer than five percent of retirees were forced from their jobs by mandatory plans; about 10 percent of retirees were forced from their jobs by mandatory plans; about 10 percent left the labor market in discouragement due to labor market adversity. Most retirements, however, are voluntary, and most take place before age 65. Trends in mortality differentials show that general improvements in health and medical care have benefited all groups, especially the chronically ill. The data highlight a trend toward early retirement in the 1960s and 1970s and show that only 30 percent of retirements actually took place at the age men expected when asked at age 59. Economic well being, leisure activities and social interactions, psychological and physical well being are examined. The experience of the minority who continue to work beyond the normal retirement age is also analyzed.

Introduction and overview / Herbert S. Parnes and Lawrence J. Less -- Factors affecting mortality in the years surrounding retirement / Frank L. Mott and R. Jean Haurin -- The volume and pattern of retirements, 1966-1981 / Herbert S. Parnes and Lawrence J. Less -- Retirement expectation and the timing of retirement / Gilbert Nestel -- Economic well-being in retirement / Herbert S. Parnes and Lawrence J. Less -- Leisure activities and social networks / William R. Morgan, Herbert S. Parnes, and Lawrence J. Less -- Longitudinal effects of retirement on men's psychological and physical well-being / Joan E. Crowley -- Shunning retirement : the experience of full-time workers / Herbert S. Parnes and Lawrence J. Less.

Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S., Joan E. Crowley, R. Jean Haurin, Lawrence L. Less, Frank L. Mott, William R. Morgan and Gilbert Nestel. Retirement Among American Men. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1985.
38. Parnes, Herbert S.
Jusenius, Carol L.
Blau, Francine D.
Nestel, Gilbert
Dual Careers, Volume 4: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Labor Market Experience of Women
Manpower Research Monograph 21, Volume 4. Washington DC: US GPO, 1976
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Child Care; Children; Job Satisfaction; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Occupational Status; Work Attitudes; Work Experience

Irrespective of marital status, the degree of success that women enjoy in the labor market is substantially related to the extent of their previous investments in human capital. To take the most obvious example, the number of years of schooling a woman has completed bears a substantial positive relationship with her earnings in 1972, with the socioeconomic status of her first job after leaving school, with the extent of her upward occupational mobility between her first and 1967 jobs and over the five-year period between 1967 and 1972, and with the likelihood of her having pursued a career. Like education, training also contributes to labor market success. Women who have participated in training programs outside regular school are more likely than comparable women without such training to have pursued careers, to have experienced upward occupational mobility, and to enjoy high current earnings.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S., Carol L. Jusenius, Francine D. Blau and Gilbert Nestel. Dual Careers, Volume 4: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Labor Market Experience of Women. Manpower Research Monograph 21, Volume 4. Washington DC: US GPO, 1976.
39. Parnes, Herbert S.
Less, Lawrence L.
Nestel, Gilbert
Work and Retirement Data: National Longitudinal Surveys of Middle-Aged and Older Men 1966-1976
Working Paper, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 1980
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Household Income; Job Satisfaction; Marital Status; Migration; Mobility, Interfirm; Mobility, Job; Retirement; Work Attitudes

The National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Behavior permits the examination of how the status and characteristics of the same group of individuals change over time. About 150 statistical tables are presented from the NLS of Older Men, a national sample of men who were between 55 and 69 years of age in l976. The data provided serve a wide range of interests on the part of researchers, policy-makers, and practitioners in the human resource field.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S., Lawrence L. Less and Gilbert Nestel. "Work and Retirement Data: National Longitudinal Surveys of Middle-Aged and Older Men 1966-1976." Working Paper, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 1980.
40. Parnes, Herbert S.
Nestel, Gilbert
Early Labor Market Experience of College Graduates
Presented: Chicago, IL, 32nd National Conference on Higher Education, 1977
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: American Association for Higher Education (AAHE)
Keyword(s): College Graduates; Duncan Index; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Mobility, Job; Occupational Status

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Young men and young women who earned baccalaureate degrees in the late 1960s and early 1970s enjoyed substantial labor market advantages in 1973 over individuals with lesser amounts of education who had been out of school for comparable periods of time. Male graduates also showed substantial improvement in employment stability, occupational status, and earnings during the first six or seven years in the labor market, and earnings growth for them is more rapid than for men who have started college but not completed baccalaureate degrees and for those with just high school diplomas. Female graduates, however, were no more likely than women with lesser amounts of education to have improved their occupational status or earnings in this period. College graduates whose degrees are in business or in science, math, or engineering enjoyed substantial earnings advantages over those with degrees in education, the humanities, and social science. College graduates in the early 1970s were equally as likely to enter high-level jobs as those in the late 1960s. The later graduates were, however, less likely to move up the occupational ladder during their first two years in the labor market.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. and Gilbert Nestel. "Early Labor Market Experience of College Graduates." Presented: Chicago, IL, 32nd National Conference on Higher Education, 1977.
41. Parnes, Herbert S.
Nestel, Gilbert
Early Retirement
In: Pre-Retirement Years, Volume 4. Herbert S. Parnes, ed. Columbus, OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1974
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Early Retirement; Earnings; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Household Income; Job Satisfaction; Pensions; Retirement

Retirement before the conventional age of 65 has become increasingly common in recent years, and its impact on social insurance trust funds and private and public pensions widely debated. A quantitative assessment of the factors associated with an expected early retirement among middle-aged men in the labor force in 1971 and their importance in explaining the actual retirements within this age group between 1966 and 1971 is provided. A profile of the latter men, all of whom were less than 65 years of age in 1971, is also presented with particular attention directed at their work experiences and sources and adequacy of postretirement incomes. The importance of health, expected post-retirement incomes, economic need, and job satisfaction for the retirement decision is highlighted by these data. The decline in family income after retirement is also documented as well as the small number of men who report some work experience or an intention to work after retirement.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. and Gilbert Nestel. "Early Retirement" In: Pre-Retirement Years, Volume 4. Herbert S. Parnes, ed. Columbus, OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1974
42. Parnes, Herbert S.
Nestel, Gilbert
Factors in Career Orientation and Occupational Status
In: Dual Careers, Volume 4. H.S. Parnes, ed. Columbus, OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1975
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Mobility; Occupational Status; Occupations; Work History

Women are increasingly participating in the labor force and working at jobs that historically have been filled by men. Multivariate techniques are used to characterize "career" women and to explain the occupational status of women at various stages of their work lives. Racial differences are also highlighted. The evidence suggests that relatively few married women in their late 30s and 40s in 1972 had work histories that could be described as careers. Formal education, marital and child status, and selected characteristics of the work experience such as receipt of training explain some of the occupational mobility observed within the periods analyzed.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. and Gilbert Nestel. "Factors in Career Orientation and Occupational Status" In: Dual Careers, Volume 4. H.S. Parnes, ed. Columbus, OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1975
43. Parnes, Herbert S.
Nestel, Gilbert
Incidence, Distribution, and Correlates of Unemployment Over a Decade Among Males by Age and Race
Proceedings, Social Statistics Section, American Statistical Association (1980): 401-406
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): Racial Differences; Unemployment; Unemployment Duration

This paper analyzes the unemployment experience over the decade 1966-1976 of two NLS samples of males: youth who in 1966 were 16 to 24 years of age and not enrolled in school, and men who in the same year were between the ages of 45 and 59. Three issues are considered: (1) the racial distribution of the cumulative weeks of unemployment over the decade; (2) the determinants of the incidence of unemployment in the decade; and (3) the factors affecting the cumulative duration of the unemployment among those with some unemployment. A multiple classification analysis (MCA) is used in the later two cases. Perhaps the most interesting finding from these analyses was the similarity among the four age-race groups in the distribution of total unemployment. Five percent of the sample of young men accounted for 38 percent of the total weeks of unemployment; for the older men, four percent of the sample accounted for more than half of the total unemployment in the decade. The correlates of unemployment and its duration differed by age, however. For example, the social psychological measures affected these outcomes among older men but were insignificant factors for the younger male cohort.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. and Gilbert Nestel. "Incidence, Distribution, and Correlates of Unemployment Over a Decade Among Males by Age and Race." Proceedings, Social Statistics Section, American Statistical Association (1980): 401-406.
44. Parnes, Herbert S.
Nestel, Gilbert
Middle-Aged Job Changers
In: Pre-Retirement Years, Volume 4. H.S. Parnes, ed. Columbus, OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1974
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Job Turnover; Mobility; Mobility, Job

About 1 in 8 middle-aged men at work as wage and salary earners in survey week 1966 left their employer in the subsequent five-year period. The factors affecting their propensity to change jobs, and the importance of the latter construct and job opportunities as predictors of actual mobility are explored with multivariate techniques. The stability of the propensity relationship and the significance of the economic environment are also quantitatively assessed. The paper also contains a discussion of the economic and noneconomic consequences of a change in employer.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. and Gilbert Nestel. "Middle-Aged Job Changers" In: Pre-Retirement Years, Volume 4. H.S. Parnes, ed. Columbus, OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1974
45. Parnes, Herbert S.
Nestel, Gilbert
Retirement Expectations of Middle-Aged Men
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1971
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Early Retirement; Employment; Family Resources; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Retirement; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Work Attitudes

Data from the first and second-round personal interviews of the NLS survey of middle-aged men are used to study the factors affecting the decision to retire and its short-run stability. Multivariate techniques are used to isolate the importance of age, race, financial needs, ability to work, and resources in the absence of work as factors affecting an expectation of early retirement (prior to age 65) and changes in retirement expectations between 1966 and 1967. The authors find that economic and noneconomic factors are important in conditioning these expectations. Less conclusive evidence is provided that the same factors are important in explaining changes in these expectations. Some of the reasons for the latter finding are also explored.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. and Gilbert Nestel. "Retirement Expectations of Middle-Aged Men." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1971.
46. Parnes, Herbert S.
Nestel, Gilbert
Retirement Experience
In: Work and Retirement: A Longitudinal Study of Men. H.S. Parnes, ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: MIT Press
Keyword(s): Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Life Satisfaction; Retirees; Retirement; Work Experience

This paper addresses three research issues about the retirement decision among retired men interviewed in 1976: (1) The relative importance of an unwilling separation from a job because of a mandatory retirement provision, a withdrawal because of poor health, or a "voluntary" choice to retire. The distribution of the reason retired obtained from a retrospective question asked in 1976 is compared with the responses obtained from the panel response immediately prior to the actual retirement. (2) How does the reason retired vary by demographic and employment characteristics of retirees? (3) Is the post-retirement work experience, economic status, and life satisfaction related to reason retired? The authors find that only a small percentage of the retirements were involuntary (no more than five percent) in the sense that workers wanted to continue working at their jobs but were unable to do so. Health was a major reason for withdrawal with about 40 percent of the men reporting a health problem preceding their retirement. About twenty percent of the retirees were at work in survey week 1976 and only a small proportion of those not at work expressed an unqualified interest in working. There is little evidence that retirees are unhappy with the timing of their retirement or their life in retirement. Only those with health problems appear to be at some disadvantage.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. and Gilbert Nestel. "Retirement Experience" In: Work and Retirement: A Longitudinal Study of Men. H.S. Parnes, ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981
47. Parnes, Herbert S.
Nestel, Gilbert
Andrisani, Paul J.
Pre-Retirement Years, Volume 3: A Longitudinal Study of the Labor Market Experience of Men
Manpower Research Monograph 15, Volume 3. Washington DC: US GPO, 1973
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Attrition; Collective Bargaining; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marital Status; Mobility, Interfirm; Mobility, Job; Unions; Wages

A national sample of middle-aged men, first interviewed in the summer of 1966 when they were between 45 and 59 years of age, are reinterviewed for this five-year longitudinal study by a mail questionnaire in mid-1968 and by personal interviews in mid-1969. Data describe the magnitude and patterns of change in the status of the respondents that have occurred over the first three years of the study and identify some of the causes and consequences of these changes.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S., Gilbert Nestel and Paul J. Andrisani. Pre-Retirement Years, Volume 3: A Longitudinal Study of the Labor Market Experience of Men. Manpower Research Monograph 15, Volume 3. Washington DC: US GPO, 1973.
48. Parnes, Herbert S.
Nestel, Gilbert
Chirikos, Thomas N.
Daymont, Thomas N.
Mott, Frank L.
Parsons, Donald O.
From the Middle to the Later Years: Longitudinal Studies of the Preretirement and Postretirement Experiences of Men
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1979
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Employment; Family Background; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Household Income; Mortality; Retirement

The pre-retirement labor market behavior and the post-retirement experience of men between ages 45 and 69 are examined. This analysis shows the extension of the surveys beyond the originally planned five years. Both labor market behaviors and post-retirement experience are based on longitudinal data collected by periodic personal interviews with the same sample of men between l966 and l976. This is volume 5 in a series. This volume was also published by MIT Press as Work and Retirement.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S., Gilbert Nestel, Thomas N. Chirikos, Thomas N. Daymont, Frank L. Mott and Donald O. Parsons. From the Middle to the Later Years: Longitudinal Studies of the Preretirement and Postretirement Experiences of Men. Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1979.
49. Parnes, Herbert S.
Nestel, Gilbert
Less, Lawrence L.
The National Longitudinal Surveys Ten-Year Data Book for Middle-Aged and Older Men, 1966-1976
Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1980
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Behavior; Demography; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Schooling, Post-secondary; Training, Post-School; Work Attitudes; Work Experience

This monograph contains about 150 tables that summarize the current status and prior life experience of a representative sample of men who at the time of reinterview in 1976 were between 55 and 69 years of age. Only limited analysis of the content of each of these tables is included. Separate distributions are provided for each of three-age categories and for two racial groups. The tables are further categorized into two major types. The first set contains a demographic profile of the men at the time of their initial interviews in 1966 and summarize their backgrounds, prior work experiences, attitudes toward work, health status, and characteristics of their 1966 survey week jobs. The second set is more extensive and includes two sections for each table. The first part of the table summarizes the experiences of the same group of men in 1966, 1971 and 1976 and provides information about their behavior as they age five and ten years. The second part controls for the age of the respondent and asks whether the behavior differs at two to three points in time. At issue is whether the behavior varies for the same age cohort over time. Among the characteristics studied are marital and family attributes, extent of post- school training, mobility measures (geographic, employer, occupational), attitudes toward retirement, survey week status, and characteristics of survey week job.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S., Gilbert Nestel and Lawrence L. Less. The National Longitudinal Surveys Ten-Year Data Book for Middle-Aged and Older Men, 1966-1976. Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1980.
50. Schwartz, Aba
Nestel, Gilbert
Earnings of Migrants in their Origin and Destinations
Paper No. 17, David Horowitz Institute for Research of Developing Countries, Tel-Aviv University. , 1975
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: David Horowitz Institute
Keyword(s): Earnings; Migration; Mobility; Mobility, Interfirm; Mobility, Job; Transfers, Financial; Work History

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The National Longitudinal Surveys provide us with a unique opportunity to travel in time with each individual as well as cross-sectionally among them, thus enabling us to identify the would-be migrants and to shed some light on their characteristics--particularly their earnings--before they moved. A firm conclusion of what result the act of migration held for them can then be obtained. One of our most important conclusions is that we have to interpret cross-section results with utmost care, as we can easily be misled by the results (sometimes unjustifiably in favor of our hypotheses). The authors were also able to shed some light on a conjecture by Becker in his 1964 "Human Capital," in which he claimed that interregional mobility may be low in the presence of substantial interregional differences in earnings due to specific and intransferable investment. The NLS data support his claim, especially when it is generalized to include the educational factor.
Bibliography Citation
Schwartz, Aba and Gilbert Nestel. "Earnings of Migrants in their Origin and Destinations." Paper No. 17, David Horowitz Institute for Research of Developing Countries, Tel-Aviv University. , 1975.