Search Results

Author: Kim, Choongsoo
Resulting in 14 citations.
1. Borus, Michael E.
Carpenter, Susan A.
Crowley, Joan E.
Daymont, Thomas N.
Kim, Choongsoo
Pollard, Tom K.
Rumberger, Russell W.
Santos, Richard
Pathways to the Future, Volume II: A Final Report on the National Survey of Youth Labor Market Experience in 1980
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1982
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Blue-Collar Jobs; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Dropouts; Marital Status; Teenagers; Unemployment; Vocational Education; Wages, Reservation

This is the final report on the 1980 data from the NLSY derived from interviews with 12,141 young people, age 15- 23. Topics examined include: SANTOS -- Chapter 1, the variables affecting the employment prospects of unemployed youth; POLLARD -- Chapter 2, the changes in employment patterns of black and white young men in the decade of the 1970s; KIM -- Chapter 3, the changing patterns in wage and reservation wage differentials for black and white young men during the 1970s; BORUS & CARPENTER -- Chapter 4, the variables affecting the decision to drop out of school without finishing the 12th grade, the decision to return to school after having dropped out, and the decision to go directly to college after completing the 12th grade; RUMBERGER & DAYMONT -- Chapter 5, the effects of high school curriculum on labor market success; and CROWLEY -- Chapter 6, the relationship between delinquency and employment status.
Bibliography Citation
Borus, Michael E., Susan A. Carpenter, Joan E. Crowley, Thomas N. Daymont, Choongsoo Kim, Tom K. Pollard, Russell W. Rumberger and Richard Santos. Pathways to the Future, Volume II: A Final Report on the National Survey of Youth Labor Market Experience in 1980. Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1982.
2. Borus, Michael E.
Crowley, Joan E.
Kim, Choongsoo
Pollard, Tom K.
Rumberger, Russell W.
Santos, Richard
Shapiro, David
Pathways to the Future: A Report on the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Labor Market Experience in 1979
Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1981
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): College Education; Discrimination, Age; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; High School; Job Aspirations; Job Search; Schooling; Teenagers; Vocational Education; Work Attitudes; Youth Services

The report is the first on a nationally representative sample of young people who were ages 14 to 21 on December 31, 1978. It is a descriptive presentation of the status of youth in the spring of 1979--their position and problems in the labor market; their reactions to school and the factors influencing their schooling decisions; their training, both the government sponsored and other vocational training which they receive; their health status; and their attitudes, both towards their present situations and the future. Eleven additional chapters define topics on labor force participation and employment status of the youth for the week in which they were interviewed in 1979; examine the employment conditions for those youth who were employed at the time of the survey; present the work experience of the youth for the preceding year, 1978, and analyze the determinants of weeks worked and unemployed during the year; discuss job search motives and techniques of youth and their willingness to accept specific jobs at various wages; study the attitudes of young people toward high school, its programs, and their reasons for not completing school or for attending college; examines participants in government sponsored training programs, the types of services received, and their attitudes toward these programs; deal with the post-high school training provided outside of regular schools, government programs, and the military; study the health status of young people at the time they were interviewed; detail the extend of age, race, sex discrimination felt by young people as well as their perception of the difficulties they have in the labor market; examine the educational, occupational, and fertility aspirations of the young people and their desire for further training; and present a summary of the major findings.
Bibliography Citation
Borus, Michael E., Joan E. Crowley, Choongsoo Kim, Tom K. Pollard, Russell W. Rumberger, Richard Santos and David Shapiro. Pathways to the Future: A Report on the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Labor Market Experience in 1979. Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1981.
3. Borus, Michael E.
Kim, Choongsoo
Johnson, Kyle
Policy Findings Related to Military Service from the Youth Cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience
Arlington, VA: Defense Manpower Data Center, 1985
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Defense
Keyword(s): Employment, Youth; Military Enlistment; Military Service; Wage Theory; Wages

Bibliography Citation
Borus, Michael E., Choongsoo Kim and Kyle Johnson. Policy Findings Related to Military Service from the Youth Cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience. Arlington, VA: Defense Manpower Data Center, 1985.
4. Hills, Stephen M.
Becker, Brian E.
Kim, Choongsoo
D'Amico, Ronald
Market Defenses: Early Work Decisions of Today's Middle-aged Men
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1983
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): College Education; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Racial Differences; Teenagers; Training, Occupational; Transition, School to Work; Unemployment; Unions

This report reviews the variety of protective mechanisms or market defenses which insulated the young men cohort, 1966-1978, from the uncertainties of the labor market. Discussed are: (1) the nature and consequences of teenage unemployment and the labor market choices of young males during the school to work transition period; (2) the declining labor market opportunities for college graduates; (3) investment in college quality and occupational training and its impact on earnings; and (4) changes in the relative employment and earnings opportunities of young black males.
Bibliography Citation
Hills, Stephen M., Brian E. Becker, Choongsoo Kim and Ronald D'Amico. "Market Defenses: Early Work Decisions of Today's Middle-aged Men." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1983.
5. Hills, Stephen M.
Kim, Choongsoo
Labor Market Choices of Male Youth: A Longitudinal Analysis of the School to Work Transition
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1981
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Age at First Marriage; College Enrollment; Educational Attainment; Labor Force Participation; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Marriage; Military Service; Minorities, Youth; Racial Differences; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Transition, School to Work; Youth Services

Using data from the NLS of Young Men, this paper focuses on the sequence of labor market decisions made by young men during the first nine years after leaving school. It was found that, for the vast majority of male American youth, namely those who are white, unemployment in the years following school is not temporary in nature. No significant time trend was uncovered in the year-to-year experience that was examined. Instead, unemployment was a function of more permanent characteristics such as the amount of education that had been accumulated at the beginning of the school to work transition. Occupational choice, military service and age at first marriage also affected unemployment levels, but for the policy maker, quick-fix methods of dealing with youth unemployment through transitional services (job search assistance for example) would not likely have a significant impact for the majority of young men. Minority youth present quite a different picture, however. Confronted with a host of labor market disadvantages, a black man's formal education did not have as strong an impact on his long-run patterns of unemployment as it would have for a youth who was white. Furthermore a significant time trend was revealed in the year-to-year unemployment that blacks experienced. Blacks apparently minimized their temporary post-school unemployment by entering the military whereas for whites military service was more disruptive and added its own transition problems to the record of unemployment.
Bibliography Citation
Hills, Stephen M. and Choongsoo Kim. "Labor Market Choices of Male Youth: A Longitudinal Analysis of the School to Work Transition." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1981.
6. Kim, Choongsoo
A Longitudinal Study of Enlistment in the Armed Forces with Special Reference to the Effect of Intentions on Behavior
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1983
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): All-Volunteer Force (AVF); Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Behavior; Educational Returns; Gender Differences; Military Enlistment; Military Recruitment; Tests and Testing

This study develops an enlistment model to investigate the determinants of enlistment for young males. The author attempts to distinguish, among age-eligible male youths, the characteristics of individuals who join the armed services and those who do not. The model includes many factors relevant for enlistment, but particular attention is paid to the effect of previous enlistment intentions on future enlistment behavior. Stability of enlistment intentions of young males and females over time was examined by identifying the important factors leading to changes in enlistment intentions. Important findings are: (1) unlike the relationship between enlistment and education, an inverse relationship between education and intention changes is found for all race and sex groups, indicating that as youths become older, military service is viewed less favorably among the more educated than among the less educated; (2) a negative relationship between the Air Force Qualifying Test and intention changes was also observed among minority males; (3) lower educational desire and socioeconomic status, and higher desire for training all turned out to be significant factors; (4) change in marital status from single to married affects intentions negatively over time; and (5) for all race and sex groups, previous intentions served as significant control variables for intention changes. The results indicate that the effects of educational attainment and AFQT on the decline in enlistment intentions were larger among minority males and females than among white males and enlistment intentions declined more for females than for males of each race group.
Bibliography Citation
Kim, Choongsoo. "A Longitudinal Study of Enlistment in the Armed Forces with Special Reference to the Effect of Intentions on Behavior." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1983.
7. Kim, Choongsoo
On the Determinants of Reservation Wages: An Empirical Specification
Columbus, OH, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1981
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Job Search; Life Cycle Research; Unemployment; Wages, Reservation; Work History

Under the assumption that the wage distribution is sufficiently characterized by the first and second moment, this paper develops an empirically tractable model where the above two pieces of information regarding the wage offer distribution play key roles in explaining the formation of reservation wages. The variance of the wage distribution, as a measure of the probability of finding a job, plays a significant role in explaining the formation of the reservation wages among the unemployed. The reservation wages are linearly related with the mean expected wages, and the elasticities are less than unity. The universe of the study includes white and black non- enrolled unemployed males from the l979 NLSY.
Bibliography Citation
Kim, Choongsoo. "On the Determinants of Reservation Wages: An Empirical Specification." Columbus, OH, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1981.
8. Kim, Choongsoo
Post-Service Educational Benefits & the All-Volunteer Force: Some Evidence from the Youth Cohorts of the National Longitudinal Surveys
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1983
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): All-Volunteer Force (AVF); Educational Returns; Gender Differences; Military Enlistment; Military Recruitment; Military Service; Training

This paper utilizes data from the 1979-1981 NLSY to examine factors related to the use of VEAP (Veterans' Educational Assistance Program) as an enlistment incentive. Focusing on service personnel who enlisted during calendar years 1977 through 1980, the analysis attempts to differentiate individual characteristics and enlistment motives of those who participated in VEAP and those who did not. Some of the major findings include: (1) VEAP participation is positively associated with the number of aspired years of schooling in excess of the attained years of education for both males and females; (2) VEAP participation is positively related to the AFQT score for males and to educational attainment for females; (3) for both sexes, the participation probabilities for those serving in the Navy or in the Air Force are lower than the probabilities for those serving in the Army, while the participation probabilities are not statistically different for those serving in the Army and those serving in the Marines; and (4) for males, married personnel have significantly lower probabilities of participating in VEAP than single personnel while minority service members have higher probabilities than white service members. In relative terms, the desire for additional education plays a significantly greater role in the VEAP participation decision of females than of males.
Bibliography Citation
Kim, Choongsoo. "Post-Service Educational Benefits & the All-Volunteer Force: Some Evidence from the Youth Cohorts of the National Longitudinal Surveys." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1983.
9. Kim, Choongsoo
The All-Volunteer Force: 1979 NLS Studies of Enlistment, Intentions to Serve, and Intentions to Reenlist
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1982.
Also: http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA123789&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Family Background; Hispanic Youth; Military Enlistment; Military Personnel; Military Recruitment; Military Service; Military Training; Veterans

Chapter I, "Choosing Among Military Enlistment, College, Enrollment, and Other Civilian Pursuits," examines why individuals with similar human capital attributes choose different paths. Potential armed forces personnel are identified in Chapter II, "The Supply of Potential Armed Forces Personnel: A Cross-Section Study of Intentions to Enlist in the Military Service among Male Youth Who Have Never Served," which also analyzes personal characteristics of male youth who intend to enlist in the military service in the near future. Chapter III, "The Supply of Potential Reenlistment: A 1979 Cross-Section Study of Intentions to Reenlist among those Serving their First Term of Duty," identifies the first-term service members who have positive intentions to reenlist at the end of their term of duty. Included among findings are that: (1) military service is favored over college and other civilian pursuits as local labor market conditions deteriorate; (2) positive intentions to serve are inversely related to educational attainment and socioeconomic status and positively correlated with the perception of approval of enlisting in the military by the person who has the greatest influence upon the respondent's decisions; (3) the principal reason among black and Hispanic youth for intending to enlist is to take advantage of the post-service educational benefits, while obtaining occupational or on-the-job training other than regular schooling appears to be the primary motivation among whites; and (4) job satisfaction of military personnel serves as a strong indicator of positive reenlistment intentions.
Bibliography Citation
Kim, Choongsoo. "The All-Volunteer Force: 1979 NLS Studies of Enlistment, Intentions to Serve, and Intentions to Reenlist." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1982.
10. Kim, Choongsoo
Youth and the Military Services: 1980 NLS Studies of Enlistment, Intentions to Serve, Reenlistment and Labor Market Experience of Veterans and Attriters
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1982
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Family Background; Military Enlistment; Military Personnel; Military Recruitment; Military Service; Military Training; Tests and Testing; Training, Occupational; Unemployment; Veterans

Chapter I, "Characteristics of Current Participants in the Armed Forces," compares persons who have chosen the full-time job of serving in the active armed forces with those who have chosen full-time employment in the civilian sector. Individual characteristics and motives for enlisting are compared between 1979 and 1978 enlistees in Chapter II, "Enlistment in the Armed Forces," and Chapter III, "Potential Supply of Armed Forces Personnel: Enlistment Intentions and Main Reasons for Nonenlistment" identifies future armed forces personnel. Chapter IV, "An Analysis of Reenlistment, Separation after Completing Initial Term of Duty, and Attrition from Military Service among Youths who Enlisted between 1975 and 1977," tests the hypothesis that youth view service in the military as a means of obtaining occupational training or postservice educational benefits. Post-service labor market performances of former service personnel are evaluated in the fifth chapter, "Labor Market Experience of Veterans and Attriters." Findings include: (1) among white males, Armed Forces Qualifying Test (AFQT) scores were about the same for service personnel and their civilian counterparts; female and minority male service members scored substantially higher, however, than their respective civilian counterparts; (2) while only one out of six 1978 enlistees were high school dropouts, more than four out of ten 1979 enlistees were dropouts; (3) youth who talked to recruiters or took the ASVAB represented a cross-section of the youth population, but the socioeconomic status of youth with positive intentions to serve was lower than that of the total youth population; (4) married youth were more likely to remain in the service while those with a child were more likely to leave the service than those who did not; and (5) the unemployment rates for both sexes were highest for attriters, intermediate for veterans, and lowest for civilians who had never served.
Bibliography Citation
Kim, Choongsoo. "Youth and the Military Services: 1980 NLS Studies of Enlistment, Intentions to Serve, Reenlistment and Labor Market Experience of Veterans and Attriters." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1982.
11. Kim, Choongsoo
Borus, Michael E.
Johnson, Kyle
Policy Findings Related to Military Service from the Youth Cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience
Working Paper, Defense Manpower Data Center, U.S. Department of Defense, Arlington VA, 1985
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Defense
Keyword(s): All-Volunteer Force (AVF); Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Military Enlistment; Military Recruitment; Military Service; Training, Occupational

This report summarizes a briefing given on October 21, 1982, from the military portion of the NLSY presented to the Manpower Research and Department Planning Committee of the Office of Naval Research given by Michael E. Borus and Choongsoo Kim of The Ohio State University Center for Human Resource Research. Several findings with policy implications arise from the analysis. The All-Volunteer Force has been successful in attracting able young people, particularly from among minorities. The desire for occupational training is a major factor associated with enlistment among white men. While men in the service were more likely to be married, marriage seemed to increase reenlistment intentions among men and decrease them among women. Those young people with higher educational aspirations were more likely to enlist, implying that both in-service and post-service educational benefits may be an aid to recruitment.
Bibliography Citation
Kim, Choongsoo, Michael E. Borus and Kyle Johnson. "Policy Findings Related to Military Service from the Youth Cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience." Working Paper, Defense Manpower Data Center, U.S. Department of Defense, Arlington VA, 1985.
12. Kim, Choongsoo
Jackson, John L.
Wage Growth Rates of Young Men: A Longitudinal Analysis
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1983
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Earnings; Educational Attainment; Employment; Occupations, Male

This study investigates the determinants of individual wage growth, focusing on the dynamic nature of wage growth. The data come from the Young Men's cohort of the NLS (1969-1978). The analysis reveals that for whites the major determinants of wage growth are, in descending order of importance, the level of initial wage, educational attainment, union participation, and the receipt of the company, military, and/or school training. Among blacks, the important factors are the level of initial wage, union participation, educational attainment, and change in labor force size. The study also compares the determinants of wage growth between white and black males. Decomposition analysis shows that the prediction of higher wage growth for whites than for blacks is primarily attributable to a significantly higher initial wage for whites than for blacks. It also suggests that, had they been treated the same as whites, their wage growth would have been about five percent higher than it actually was.
Bibliography Citation
Kim, Choongsoo and John L. Jackson. "Wage Growth Rates of Young Men: A Longitudinal Analysis." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1983.
13. Kim, Choongsoo
Nestel, Gilbert
Participation in the All-Volunteer Force: The Effect on Civilian Earnings
Proceedings, Business and Economic Statistics Section, American Statistical Association (1982): 440-444
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Statistical Association
Keyword(s): All-Volunteer Force (AVF); Attrition; Earnings; Sample Selection; Selectivity Bias/Selection Bias

This study compares the hourly earnings of youth by whether or not they served in the All Volunteer Force (AVF). The data are obtained from the NLSY, a nationally representative sample of individuals age 16-21 years of age in 1979. These data also contain information on a sample of youth who have served in the AVF. The enlistees are further classified by completion status in their first tour of duty to see whether this difference affects civilian earnings. Our estimation procedure controls for specification bias because of possible differences in unobserved characteristics between those who separate and those who reenlist, and between those who work and others who do not choose employment.
Bibliography Citation
Kim, Choongsoo and Gilbert Nestel. "Participation in the All-Volunteer Force: The Effect on Civilian Earnings." Proceedings, Business and Economic Statistics Section, American Statistical Association (1982): 440-444.
14. Kim, Choongsoo
Nestel, Gilbert
Phillips, Robert L.
Borus, Michael E.
The All-Volunteer Force: An Analysis of Youth Participation, Attrition, and Reenlistment
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1980
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): All-Volunteer Force (AVF); Military Enlistment; Military Recruitment; Military Service; Veterans

This report presents preliminary cross-tabular analyses of the first round of the NLSY79. The characteristics of youth who were serving in the All-Volunteer Force (AVF), the quality of their military employment experiences, and their intentions to reenlist are discussed. The post-service status of former enlistees is also explored. Youth who had never served provide a reference group for these analyses. The final chapter profiles the never-served youth with strong incentives to enlist. Separate analyses for males and females and for the different racial groups are provided and differences noted when significant. Despite the fact the Armed Forces are a "volunteer" force, presumably competing in the labor market and paying competitive wages and salaries, it is clear that the employment opportunities offered by the services are dramatically affected by public policy decisions. As a generalization, minorities and females have a better relative chance in the military than outside as judged by preferences for enlistment and the patterns of retention of these within the services. If market forces were allowed to prevail, there is no doubt that the percentage of blacks in the military would increase. The "black" share is reduced by "rationing" so that relatively more qualified blacks are hired. Similarly, opportunities within the military are arbitrarily restricted so that women have to meet higher standards to enter than do men.
Bibliography Citation
Kim, Choongsoo, Gilbert Nestel, Robert L. Phillips and Michael E. Borus. "The All-Volunteer Force: An Analysis of Youth Participation, Attrition, and Reenlistment." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1980.