Search Results

Author: Andrisani, Paul J.
Resulting in 28 citations.
1. Andrisani, Paul J.
An Empirical Analysis of the Dual Labor Market Theory
Working Paper, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus OH, 1973
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Employment; Job Search; Labor Market, Secondary; Mobility; Mobility, Job

This study focuses upon the process of labor market entry of male youth in the context of the dual labor market theory. Essentially, the dual market theory contends that large numbers of workers are involuntarily confined to substandard jobs in a "secondary" labor market which is separated from the mainstream, or "primary" sector, by impenetrable boundaries imposed by institutionalized discrimination. Briefly, the study finds a substantial amount of upward mobility from time of first job to 1968--a period ranging from 2 to 10 years. Nonetheless, entry into and confinement within the secondary sector cannot be consistently explained solely in terms of deficiencies in aggregate demand, human capital, or motivation. Moreover, the evidence also suggests the existence of race and sectoral differences in the process of wage determination.
Bibliography Citation
Andrisani, Paul J. "An Empirical Analysis of the Dual Labor Market Theory." Working Paper, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus OH, 1973.
2. Andrisani, Paul J.
Discrimination, Segmentation, and Upward Mobility: A Longitudinal Approach to the Dual Labor Market Theory
Presented: Atlantic City, NJ, Joint Meeting of the American Economic Association and the Econometric Society, 1976
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Assets; Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Employment; Job Training; Labor Market, Secondary; Mobility, Job; Schooling; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The empirical results presented in this study make it rather difficult to accept an extreme hypothesis of labor market segmentation. The secondary sector hardly appears to be an economic prison from which there is no escape. In addition, contrary to the principal tenets of the dual labor market theory, investments in the skills and abilities of black youth appear to have payoffs in terms of entry into better jobs and in terms of higher earnings as well, even when employed in what is defined herein as the secondary market sector. Nonetheless, the evidence strongly suggests that invidious racial discrimination denies numerous youth the socioeconomic fruits warranted by their human assets.
Bibliography Citation
Andrisani, Paul J. "Discrimination, Segmentation, and Upward Mobility: A Longitudinal Approach to the Dual Labor Market Theory." Presented: Atlantic City, NJ, Joint Meeting of the American Economic Association and the Econometric Society, 1976.
3. Andrisani, Paul J.
Effects of Employment Opportunities and Incentives on the Work Ethic and Initiative of Youths
Report, National Commission for Employment Policy, 1981
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: National Commission for Employment Policy
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Earnings; Employment; Marital Status; Schooling; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Work Attitudes; Work Ethic; Work History

The purpose of this research is to examine the effects of early career opportunities and incentives on the work ethic and initiative of youths. More specifically, the key interest is in ascertaining what happens to the work ethic and initiative of youths who are initially comparable on the basis of their work ethic, initiative, background, and human capital characteristics, but who subsequently differ in terms of their early career opportunities and incentives.
Bibliography Citation
Andrisani, Paul J. "Effects of Employment Opportunities and Incentives on the Work Ethic and Initiative of Youths." Report, National Commission for Employment Policy, 1981.
4. Andrisani, Paul J.
Effects of Health Problems on the Work Experiences of Middle-Aged Men
Industrial Gerontology 4 (Spring 1977): 97-112
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: National Council on the Aging
Keyword(s): Disabled Workers; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

An analysis of five years in the work lives of middle-aged men showed that nearly two-fifths of those in their early sixties reported health limitations. The most serious labor market problems that confront men in their middle years appear to be closely linked to the chronic health conditions and disabilities that may accompany advancing age. Health status is closely linked to premature death: middle-aged men whose health affected their work in 1966 were two to three times as likely to die between 1966 and 1971 as men whose health did not affect their work. Industrial injuries are an important source of health limitations, since they occur with alarming frequency.
Bibliography Citation
Andrisani, Paul J. "Effects of Health Problems on the Work Experiences of Middle-Aged Men." Industrial Gerontology 4 (Spring 1977): 97-112.
5. Andrisani, Paul J.
Internal-External Attitudes, Personal Initiative, and the Labor Market Experience of White and Black Men
Journal of Human Resources 12,3 (Summer 1977): 308-328.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/145493
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Duncan Index; Earnings; Educational Returns; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Schooling; Work Attitudes; Work Experience

The analysis provides support for the hypothesis that internal-external attitudes are strongly related to a number of aspects of labor market experience. Confidence in these findings is strengthened by the fact that observed relationships were independent of individual differences in a wide range of characteristics and were supported as well by longitudinal data. Findings also indicate that there are only minor differences between young and middle- aged men in internal-external attitudes. There is little consistent evidence among young men that educational attainment had lower returns for blacks than whites during the late 1960s and 1970s. Initiative appears to have considerable labor market payoffs for young and middle-age men, blacks as well as whites, and especially for the young.
Bibliography Citation
Andrisani, Paul J. "Internal-External Attitudes, Personal Initiative, and the Labor Market Experience of White and Black Men." Journal of Human Resources 12,3 (Summer 1977): 308-328.
6. Andrisani, Paul J.
Internal-External Attitudes, Sense of Efficacy, and Labor Market Experience: A Reply to Duncan and Morgan
Journal of Human Resources 16,4 (Fall 1981): 658-666.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/145241
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Employment; Income Dynamics/Shocks; Teenagers; Work Attitudes

Duncan and Morgan's main criticism can be stated quite simply: they disagree with the conclusion that attitudinal change could result in greater initiative and more successful labor market experience, particularly among youths, because the conclusion is inconsistent with their replication and with almost all other PSID studies as well. The author disagrees with their interpretation of his research and shows that a number of studies in addition to his have used NLS data and come to the same conclusion he has. Differences between NLS and PSID data are discussed as likely explanations of why these data sets generate different findings about the role of psychological variables in the dynamics of labor market processes.
Bibliography Citation
Andrisani, Paul J. "Internal-External Attitudes, Sense of Efficacy, and Labor Market Experience: A Reply to Duncan and Morgan." Journal of Human Resources 16,4 (Fall 1981): 658-666.
7. Andrisani, Paul J.
Job Satisfaction among Working Women
Signs 3,3 (Spring 1978): 588-607.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3173173
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Family Influences; Husbands, Influence; Job Satisfaction; Self-Esteem; Work Attitudes

This examination of job satisfaction among women in their thirties and forties during the period between 1967-1972 indicates that black women were less satisfied than their white counterparts, and that levels of job satisfaction declined throughout the period for both black and white women. Women who were highly satisfied were most likely to mention intrinsic aspects of work; however, over 40 percent of the women mentioned extrinsic factors as the aspect of work they liked best. In addition, the quality of interpersonal relationships with coworkers and supervisors was considered relevant to job satisfaction. Conflicting demands between work and home resulted in lower than average levels of job satisfaction. The greatest conflict was the husband's negative attitude toward the wife working outside the home. The women who appeared to be most satisfied were those who were deeply committed to work, had high self-esteem, and attached importance to intrinsic aspects of their work.
Bibliography Citation
Andrisani, Paul J. "Job Satisfaction among Working Women." Signs 3,3 (Spring 1978): 588-607.
8. Andrisani, Paul J.
Labor Market Data Needs from the Perspective of 'Dual' or 'Segmented Labor' Market Research: A Comment on Harrison and Sum
In: Counting the Labor Force. National Commission on Employment and Unemployment Statistics, ed. Washington DC: U.S. GPO, 1979
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Government Printing Office
Keyword(s): Dual Economic Theory; Employment; Research Methodology

This paper comments on Harrison and Sum's paper, which includes a synopsis of segmented labor market theory, hypotheses, and data needs. They criticize existing public use data bases and make recommendations for changes. The author agrees with their criticism in part, and points out ways of modifying the new NLSY cohort to address most of the issues raised in the Harrison-Sum paper.
Bibliography Citation
Andrisani, Paul J. "Labor Market Data Needs from the Perspective of 'Dual' or 'Segmented Labor' Market Research: A Comment on Harrison and Sum" In: Counting the Labor Force. National Commission on Employment and Unemployment Statistics, ed. Washington DC: U.S. GPO, 1979
9. Andrisani, Paul J.
Longitudinal Research and Labor Force Behavior
Journal of Economics and Business 32,2 (Winter 1980): 89-94
Cohort(s): NLS General
Publisher: Temple University Press
Keyword(s): Life Cycle Research; Longitudinal Surveys; NLS Description; Research Methodology

This issue contains seven papers examining some of the unique opportunities and problems of longitudinal data, particularly as they relate to labor force behavior over the life cycle. Four papers, from a conference sponsored by the Social Science Research Council in October l977, review the NLS experience and suggest future directions.
Bibliography Citation
Andrisani, Paul J. "Longitudinal Research and Labor Force Behavior." Journal of Economics and Business 32,2 (Winter 1980): 89-94.
10. Andrisani, Paul J.
Secondary Labor Market's Effect on the Work-Related Attitudes of Youths
Industrial Relations Research Association Series, Proceedings Thirty-Second Annual Meeting (1980): 242-250
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: Industrial Relations Research Association ==> LERA
Keyword(s): Duncan Index; Labor Market, Secondary; Occupational Attainment; Unemployment, Youth; Work Attitudes; Work History

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of early labor market experiences on the work attitudes of youth, particularly the extent to which secondary labor market or "bad" jobs shape youths' attitudes in an antiwork direction. More specifically, the key interest is in ascertaining what happens to the work attitudes of youths who are comparable on the basis of initial attitudes, pre-labor market background, and human capital characteristics, but who subsequently differed in terms of weeks of unemployment, weeks worked, earnings, occupational assignments, and occupational advancement. Thus, the principal concern of this study is not whether the "unrealistic" attitudes of youths become tempered by the oftentimes harsh realities of the world of work. More importantly, the concern is for whether youths' attitudes which can not be deemed as unrealistic also are shaped in an antiwork direction because of the realities of the labor market, particularly labor market segmentation which may irreversibly misallocate youths during the early stages of career formation.
Bibliography Citation
Andrisani, Paul J. "Secondary Labor Market's Effect on the Work-Related Attitudes of Youths." Industrial Relations Research Association Series, Proceedings Thirty-Second Annual Meeting (1980): 242-250.
11. Andrisani, Paul J.
The Establishment of Stable and Successful Employment Careers: The Role of Work Attitudes and Labor Market Knowledge
In: Conference Report on Youth Unemployment: Its Measurement and Meaning. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Labor, U.S. GPO, 1978.
Also: http://www.cceerc.net/ICPSR/biblio/series/129/resources/1852?sortBy=1&paging.startRow=1&author=Andrisani%2C+Paul+J.
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Work Attitudes; Work Experience; Work Knowledge

This study analyzes the work attitudes and labor market knowledge of youths, considering how they differ from their older counterparts and how they affect and are affected by successes and failures upon entry into the labor force. The findings show the importance of work attitudes and adequate labor market knowledge for the establishment of stable and successful employment careers. The data indicate that there exists inadequate labor market knowledge among youth-especially blacks, females, poor white youth; however, there is little justification that the attitudes toward work of youths are inadequate, immature, anti-work, or the cause for their unique labor problems. In addition, youth's work attitudes were dissimilar from those of older workers; they reflected considerable ambition in planning career goals, and they were shown to be influenced in an anti-work direction by unsatisfactory labor market experiences early in work careers.
Bibliography Citation
Andrisani, Paul J. "The Establishment of Stable and Successful Employment Careers: The Role of Work Attitudes and Labor Market Knowledge" In: Conference Report on Youth Unemployment: Its Measurement and Meaning. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Labor, U.S. GPO, 1978.
12. Andrisani, Paul J.
Appelbaum, Eileen
Koppel, Ross
Miljus, Robert C.
Work Attitudes and Labor Market Experience: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Surveys
New York, NY: Praeger Publishers, Inc, 1978
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Praeger Publishers
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Discrimination, Sex; Job Satisfaction; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Occupational Attainment; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Work Attitudes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Numerous forces shape the development of attitudes toward work. Job dissatisfaction does not arise exclusively among those whose unique labor market problems have already been singled out by policy makers for special attention. Job dissatisfaction has not been entirely at the lower end of the occupational, industrial, and income structures, or only within certain age-sex-race groups. Age-sex-race differences in the perceived payoffs to initiative are virtually nonexistent, despite the vast differences in work experience that exist on the basis of age, sex, and race. Our attempts to assess the extent to which labor market forces impact upon attitudinal change have met with only modest success.
Bibliography Citation
Andrisani, Paul J., Eileen Appelbaum, Ross Koppel and Robert C. Miljus. Work Attitudes and Labor Market Experience: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Surveys. New York, NY: Praeger Publishers, Inc, 1978.
13. Andrisani, Paul J.
Appelbaum, Eileen
Koppel, Ross
Miljus, Robert C.
Work Attitudes and Work Experience: The Impact of Attitudes on Behavior
R and D Monograph 60. Washington, DC: US Department of Labor, 1979
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Behavior; Career Patterns; Discrimination, Sex; Job Satisfaction; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Occupational Attainment; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Training, Occupational; Work Attitudes

This monograph is a summary (prepared by Dr. Florence M. Casey, Office of Research and Development, Employment and Training Administration, USDOL) of the authors' book Work Attitudes and Labor Market Experience: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Surveys (Praeger, 1978). Job satisfaction was found to decline somewhat between 1966 and 1972 and the decline was most pronounced among white collar workers, service workers, farmers, and craft workers. Fewer than 15 percent of workers reported disliking their jobs, however. Inequities in distribution of rewards among comparable workers were most strongly linked to dissatisfaction. Workers with stronger internality enjoyed greater success than others. Dissatisfaction is linked to higher turnover and unemployment and decreased wages, except blacks, who improved their wages by changing employers. Purely economic rewards were not so important to satisfied workers as job content, but they were major causes of dissatisfaction among those who were less than highly satisfied. Motivation and high occupational goals were important for younger workers. Strong commitment to work resulted in less time out of the labor force, greater investment in training (among younger women and older men) and greater labor market advancement (among younger and older women). White working women who perceived their husbands as disapproving of their working outside the home advanced less in occupational status, had more unemployment and weeks out of the labor force, and had less likelihood of getting formal occupational training than women whose husbands did not object to their working.
Bibliography Citation
Andrisani, Paul J., Eileen Appelbaum, Ross Koppel and Robert C. Miljus. Work Attitudes and Work Experience: The Impact of Attitudes on Behavior. R and D Monograph 60. Washington, DC: US Department of Labor, 1979.
14. Andrisani, Paul J.
Daymont, Thomas N.
The Age Mix of the Labor Force in 1990: Implications for Labor Market Research
In: Changing Composition of the Workforce. A.S. Glickman, ed. New York, NY: Plenum Press, 1982
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Plenum Publishing Corporation
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Bureau of Labor Statistics; Career Patterns; Discrimination, Age; Life Cycle Research; Research Methodology; Sex Equality; Work Attitudes

This article reviews problems associated with the labor force projections produced by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and advocates a more behavioral approach. The authors summarize the findings of recent efforts among economists to incorporate social and psychological variables into models of labor market behavior and find that future research is needed: (1) to determine the degree to which the effect of the projected changing age structure of the population varies across different segments of the labor market and over different stages of the life cycle and time periods; (2) to determine why those members of the baby boom cohort who experienced long and/or frequent spells of unemployment will probably be more likely than others to suffer labor market problems throughout their careers; (3) to improve both the conceptualization and measurement of labor force data to capture more adequately the varying degrees of attachment to the labor force and varying degrees of intensity of job search; (4) to understand better the dynamic forces producing strains among women managing dual careers; and (5) to point up problems of age discrimination in employment, which may begin to rival race and sex-based forms of labor market inequality in future decades.
Bibliography Citation
Andrisani, Paul J. and Thomas N. Daymont. "The Age Mix of the Labor Force in 1990: Implications for Labor Market Research" In: Changing Composition of the Workforce. A.S. Glickman, ed. New York, NY: Plenum Press, 1982
15. Andrisani, Paul J.
Kohen, Andrew I.
Career Thresholds, Volume 5: A Longitudinal Study of the Educational and Labor Market Experience of Male Youth
Manpower Research Monograph 16, Volume 5. Washington DC: US GPO, 1975
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Blue-Collar Jobs; Collective Bargaining; Unemployment Duration; Unemployment, Youth; Unions; Wages

The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of collective bargaining on the relative earnings and employment experience of young blue collar males over the 1969-1970 period. Specifically, the authors have examined the effects of collective bargaining on five dimensions of labor market experience: (1) hourly rate of pay at the beginning of the period; (2) hours usually worked per week; (3) likelihood of being unemployed during the 12-month period; (4) duration of unemployment; and (5) growth in hourly earnings during the period. Additionally, they examined the relationship between unionism and racial differentials in these measures of labor market experience. In all cases, they attempted to ascertain the effects of collective bargaining on comparable workers within each race group.
Bibliography Citation
Andrisani, Paul J. and Andrew I. Kohen. Career Thresholds, Volume 5: A Longitudinal Study of the Educational and Labor Market Experience of Male Youth. Manpower Research Monograph 16, Volume 5. Washington DC: US GPO, 1975.
16. Andrisani, Paul J.
Kohen, Andrew I.
The Effects of Collective Bargaining as Measured for Men in Blue-Collar Jobs
Monthly Labor Review 100,3 (April 1977): 46-49
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Blue-Collar Jobs; Collective Bargaining; Racial Differences; Unemployment; Unions; Wages

This study examines the effect of collective bargaining coverage on hourly rates of pay, unemployment experiences, and growth in hourly earnings of young and middle-aged blue collar men. The authors find a significant and consistent positive impact of coverage on the level of hourly earnings but the impact of unions on joblessness and wage growth is more mixed. Age as well as race differences in these outcomes are noted and discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Andrisani, Paul J. and Andrew I. Kohen. "The Effects of Collective Bargaining as Measured for Men in Blue-Collar Jobs." Monthly Labor Review 100,3 (April 1977): 46-49.
17. Andrisani, Paul J.
Miljus, Robert C.
Multivariate Analysis of Individual Differences in Preferences for Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Aspects of Work among National Samples of Young and Middle-Aged Women
Journal of Vocational Behavior 11,1 (August 1977): 14-30.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0001879177900148
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: Academic Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Blue-Collar Jobs; Intrinsic/Extrinsic Rewards; Job Rewards; Job Satisfaction; Rural/Urban Migration; White Collar Jobs

The authors examine, in a multivariate analysis, individual differences in preferences for intrinsic versus extrinsic aspects of work. Preferences are found to be significantly related to age, occupation, class of worker status, job satisfaction, educational attainment, and race. There was little evidence of preference difference between white-collar and blue- collar workers, between rural and urban workers, or among individuals with different levels of income.
Bibliography Citation
Andrisani, Paul J. and Robert C. Miljus. "Multivariate Analysis of Individual Differences in Preferences for Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Aspects of Work among National Samples of Young and Middle-Aged Women." Journal of Vocational Behavior 11,1 (August 1977): 14-30.
18. Andrisani, Paul J.
Nestel, Gilbert
Internal-External Control as Contributor to and Outcome of Work Experience
Journal of Applied Psychology 61,2 (April 1976): 156-165.
Also: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/apl/61/2/156/
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Earnings; Health Factors; Job Satisfaction; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Occupational Attainment; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Work Attitudes; Work Experience

This study examined both the influence of internal-external control on a number of facets of work experience of middle-aged men and the influence of work experience on change in internal-external control. Utilizing an 11-item abbreviated version of Rotter's Internal-External Control Scale and multivariate techniques, the authors found a systematic influence of internal-external control on success in the world of work. Confidence in these findings is strengthened by the fact that the observed relationships were independent of individual differences in skills, abilities, and demographic distribution, and were obtained on the basis of longitudinal as well as cross-sectional data. Additionally, these data also provide considerable support for the hypothesis that success at work enhances the expectancy of internal control.
Bibliography Citation
Andrisani, Paul J. and Gilbert Nestel. "Internal-External Control as Contributor to and Outcome of Work Experience." Journal of Applied Psychology 61,2 (April 1976): 156-165.
19. Andrisani, Paul J.
Parnes, Herbert S.
Commitment to the Work Ethic and Success in the Labor Market: A Review of Research Findings
In: The Work Ethic-A Critical Analysis. J. Barbash, et al., eds. Madison, WI: Industrial Relations Research Association, 1983
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Industrial Relations Research Association ==> LERA
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Earnings; Intrinsic/Extrinsic Rewards; Job Satisfaction; Life Cycle Research; Work Attachment; Work Attitudes; Work Ethic; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This survey of studies focuses on the evidence from the NLSY and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) of a link between the strength of the work ethic and productivity. The literature shows that the strength of individuals' commitment to the work ethic affects various measures of their success in the labor market, even as favorable labor market experiences have feedback effects on the extent to which individuals are committed to the work ethic. The magnitude and precise character of the reciprocal relationships described are difficult to ascertain, however, since many studies have used only limited facets of what might be regarded as a complete measure of strength of the work ethic. Despite such limitations, these research findings are significant for public policy.
Bibliography Citation
Andrisani, Paul J. and Herbert S. Parnes. "Commitment to the Work Ethic and Success in the Labor Market: A Review of Research Findings" In: The Work Ethic-A Critical Analysis. J. Barbash, et al., eds. Madison, WI: Industrial Relations Research Association, 1983
20. Daymont, Thomas N.
Andrisani, Paul J.
Economic Returns to Military Service
Technical Report, Center for Labor and Human Resource Studies, Temple University. Prepared for the U.S. Army Recruiting Command, Evaluation Directorate, Fort Sheridan, Illinois, November 1986.
Also: http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA179252&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: Center for Labor and Human Resource Studies, Temple University
Keyword(s): Earnings; Education; Legislation; Military Service; Military Training; Racial Differences; Unemployment; Veterans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The purpose of this study is to assess the extent to which service in the military is a good career investment for young men. Many young men enter the Armed Forces with the anticipation that their training and experiences will enhance their civilian careers. However, others seem to hold the negative view that skills obtained through military training have little payoff in the civilian labor market. Using data from the NLS of Older Men and Young Men, this study found that: (1) there is a significant earnings advantage for young men in the military relative to their civilian counterparts; (2) the earnings of servicemen drop substantially at the time of separation; (3) civilian earnings of former servicemen then rise rapidly and overtake the earnings of their civilian counterparts within one to four years after separation; (4) higher earnings of veterans persist until the end of the period covered by the study; (5) many veterans go back to school to further their education; (6) veterans who obtain college education earn more than men who work in the civilian labor market and then go to college; (7) unemployment trajectories mirror the earnings trajectories; (8) economic returns to military service for minorities are greater than for whites; (9) civilian earnings for Army veterans are lower than other services; (10) small differences exist among those with combat arms, technical, and other types of military service in terms of subsequent civilian earnings.
Bibliography Citation
Daymont, Thomas N. and Paul J. Andrisani. "Economic Returns to Military Service." Technical Report, Center for Labor and Human Resource Studies, Temple University. Prepared for the U.S. Army Recruiting Command, Evaluation Directorate, Fort Sheridan, Illinois, November 1986.
21. Daymont, Thomas N.
Andrisani, Paul J.
Research Uses of the National Longitudinal Surveys: An Update
Review of Public Data Use 2,3 (October 1983): 203-310
Cohort(s): NLS General
Publisher: U.S. Department of Commerce
Keyword(s): Research Methodology

This article comprehensively surveys the research that has been done using the data from the National Longitudinal Surveys, including both the four original NLS cohorts and the new youth cohort. It is an update of the previous survey by William T. Bielby, Clifford Hawley, and David Bills, and documents the accelerated growth and increasing diversification in NLS based research that has taken place since their report. However, in addition to updating that survey, this article also discusses some reasons for the extensive use of the NLS and identifies some research areas in which future NLS studies are likely to yield high intellectual dividends.
Bibliography Citation
Daymont, Thomas N. and Paul J. Andrisani. "Research Uses of the National Longitudinal Surveys: An Update." Review of Public Data Use 2,3 (October 1983): 203-310.
22. Daymont, Thomas N.
Andrisani, Paul J.
The Health and Economic Status of Very Early Retirees
Aging and Work 6,2 (1983): 117-135
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: National Council on the Aging
Keyword(s): Benefits, Disability; Early Retirement; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Mortality; Pensions; Retirees; Retirement; Social Security

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study begins by reviewing key issues raised in the Kingson-Myers debate. Then, using Kingson's analysis as a point of departure, we compare the health and economic status of different groups of Very Early Retirees (VERs). Comparisons of mortality, functional and work limitations indicate that Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) recipients had somewhat more severe health problems and work limitations than unhealthy nonrecipients of SSDI. A substantial number of unhealthy nonrecipients of SSDI received other disability benefits or appeared to be ineligible for SSDI for reasons other than health. Unhealthy VERs who did not receive any disability benefits suffered somewhat greater economic hardship than did recipients of SSDI or other disability benefits. Group differences in health notwithstanding, the finding that a substantial proportion of nonrecipients with severe health problems experienced poverty indicates Kingson's concern that some unhealthy VERs may have been denied SSDI benefits unfairly is warranted. But the analysis also reveals that the social problem is not nearly as large as Kingson's analysis suggests, and a few SSDI recipients may not have deserved benefits.
Bibliography Citation
Daymont, Thomas N. and Paul J. Andrisani. "The Health and Economic Status of Very Early Retirees." Aging and Work 6,2 (1983): 117-135.
23. Duncan, Greg J.
Morgan, James N.
Andrisani, Paul J.
Sense of Efficacy and Subsequent Change in Earnings - A Replication
Journal of Human Resources 16,4 (Fall 1981): 649-666.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/145240
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Attitudes; Earnings; Internal-External Attitude; Labor Force Participation; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Racial Differences

In a recent article, Paul Andrisani, using data from the NLS panels of Young and Older Men, found internal- external attitudes related to the level of and subsequent changes in their economic status. An attempt is made here to replicate part of Andrisani's analysis and is limited to an analysis of the effects of initial efficacy on subsequent change in economic status. The replication indicated somewhat smaller effects of initial efficacy on subsequent changes in earnings in Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) data than in the NLS data but produced larger effects when the time period was extended. However, the evidence did not support Andrisani's conclusion that an attitudinal change among whites and blacks with external attitudes would result in greater initiative and a more successful labor market experience. In a reply, Andrisani contends that Duncan and Morgan's PSID findings are inconsistent with the evidence. Further, Andrisani finds the replication questionable and points out that it ignored about 92% of the data.
Bibliography Citation
Duncan, Greg J., James N. Morgan and Paul J. Andrisani. "Sense of Efficacy and Subsequent Change in Earnings - A Replication." Journal of Human Resources 16,4 (Fall 1981): 649-666.
24. Kohen, Andrew I.
Andrisani, Paul J.
Career Thresholds, Volume 4: A Longitudinal Study of the Educational and Labor Market Experience of Male Youth
Manpower Research Monograph 16, Volume 4. Washington DC: US GPO, 1974
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Dropouts; Earnings; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; High School Completion/Graduates; Marital Status; Migration; Mobility, Job; Occupational Aspirations; Wages

Data from the first through fourth interviews of young men aged 14-24 in 1966 are used to explore enrollment in school, marital status, and geographic movement. The labor market experiences of high school graduates are examined and contrasted with the experiences of dropouts. Data from all out-of-school youth are then examined with special attention paid to interfirm movement (from both 1966-1969 and 1967-1969), and its correlates and determinants, and to changes of occupation and hourly rate of pay. Changes in the educational and occupational goals of respondents enrolled in school during this time are also investigated.
Bibliography Citation
Kohen, Andrew I. and Paul J. Andrisani. Career Thresholds, Volume 4: A Longitudinal Study of the Educational and Labor Market Experience of Male Youth. Manpower Research Monograph 16, Volume 4. Washington DC: US GPO, 1974.
25. Parnes, Herbert S.
Adams, Arvil Van
Andrisani, Paul J.
Kohen, Andrew I.
Nestel, Gilbert
Pre-Retirement Years, Volume 4: Five Years in the Work Lives of Middle-Aged Men
Manpower Research Monograph 15, Volume 4. Washington DC: US GPO, 1975
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Behavior; Earnings; Employment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Household Income; Job Training; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Mobility, Job; Retirement; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control)

A unique set of longitudinal data collected by personal interviews with the same sample of men in 1966, 1967, 1969, and 1971 provides information on a number of facets of the labor market experience and behavior of middle- aged men. Since the data contain a complete record of the labor market activity of the men over a five-year period, both the antecedents and consequences of particular events and courses of action can be examined. Moreover, the five years in question are an unusually interesting half decade, for they should reflect whatever short-run impact the civil rights movement has had upon the relative employment status of middle-aged black men. Also, these years include a three-year span in which the labor market was relatively tight and improving (1966- 1969) as well as a two-year period during which unemployment rose considerably (1969-1971). The fact that changes between 1967 and 1969 can be compared with those between 1969 and 1971 for the same group of individuals permits one to analyze the effect of a change in the economic environment on the labor market experience of the men under consideration.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S., Arvil Van Adams, Paul J. Andrisani, Andrew I. Kohen and Gilbert Nestel. Pre-Retirement Years, Volume 4: Five Years in the Work Lives of Middle-Aged Men. Manpower Research Monograph 15, Volume 4. Washington DC: US GPO, 1975.
26. Parnes, Herbert S.
Nestel, Gilbert
Andrisani, Paul J.
Pre-Retirement Years, Volume 3: A Longitudinal Study of the Labor Market Experience of Men
Manpower Research Monograph 15, Volume 3. Washington DC: US GPO, 1973
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Attrition; Collective Bargaining; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marital Status; Mobility, Interfirm; Mobility, Job; Unions; Wages

A national sample of middle-aged men, first interviewed in the summer of 1966 when they were between 45 and 59 years of age, are reinterviewed for this five-year longitudinal study by a mail questionnaire in mid-1968 and by personal interviews in mid-1969. Data describe the magnitude and patterns of change in the status of the respondents that have occurred over the first three years of the study and identify some of the causes and consequences of these changes.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S., Gilbert Nestel and Paul J. Andrisani. Pre-Retirement Years, Volume 3: A Longitudinal Study of the Labor Market Experience of Men. Manpower Research Monograph 15, Volume 3. Washington DC: US GPO, 1973.
27. Phillips, Robert L.
Andrisani, Paul J.
Daymont, Thomas N.
Military Service Effects for Minority Youth
Presented: Boston, MA, Eastern Economic Association Meetings, March 1988
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Eastern Economic Association
Keyword(s): Earnings; Military Service; Minorities; Minorities, Youth; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Since the advent fifteen years ago of the all volunteer force, there has been various levels of concern about the increasing minority composition of the armed forces. The purpose of this paper is to turn around the focus of concern, examine the reasons that minority youth are attracted to the service as well as assess the impact of service on the youth. Both in-service and post-service aspects are examined. The latter is primarily based upon a pooled cross-section time-series data file from the NLSY. The analysis shows that minority youth have equal opportunity in the armed forces with respect to accession opportunity, pay, promotion, career opportunity, and job-satisfaction. Further, when compared to their non-veteran counterparts, veteran minority youth have greater success in the labor market, both with respect to wages and unemployment experience. The key deficiency was in job assignment within the armed forces; minority youth were overrepresented in the less technical, non-combat skills. Military personnel policy is analyzed and recommendations are suggested with respect to minority assistance.
Bibliography Citation
Phillips, Robert L., Paul J. Andrisani and Thomas N. Daymont. "Military Service Effects for Minority Youth." Presented: Boston, MA, Eastern Economic Association Meetings, March 1988.
28. Phillips, Robert L.
Andrisani, Paul J.
Daymont, Thomas N.
Duran, Catherine A.
Analysis of Armed Forces Personnel Policy on Minority Youth
Presented: Southern Management Association Annual Meeting, 1988
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Southern Management Association
Keyword(s): Earnings; Military Service; Minorities; Minorities, Youth; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

As the largest employer of youth, the personnel policies of the Department of Defense were analyzed with respect to their impact on minorities. The complete cycle was examined; that is, accessions, in-service results, and post-service experience in the labor market. The latter is based upon a pooled cross-section time-series data file from the NLSY. The overall analysis concludes that minority youth: (1) have equal opportunity for accession in the armed forces; (2) do not have an equal chance at technical training; (3) fare just as well as their majority counterparts with respect to pay and promotion; and (4) compare favorably with their nonserving minority counterparts both on in-service pay and benefits as well as post-service earnings and spells of unemployment. Recommendations are made concerning possible policy changes affecting minority job assignment and training.
Bibliography Citation
Phillips, Robert L., Paul J. Andrisani, Thomas N. Daymont and Catherine A. Duran. "Analysis of Armed Forces Personnel Policy on Minority Youth." Presented: Southern Management Association Annual Meeting, 1988.