Search Results

Author: Shaw, Lois B.
Resulting in 35 citations.
1. Dex, Shirley
Shaw, Lois B.
British and American Women at Work: Do Equal Opportunities Policies Matter?
London, England: MacMillan Publishers, Ltd, 1986
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: MacMillan Publishers, Ltd.
Keyword(s): Behavior; Britain, British; Child Care; Cross-national Analysis; First Birth; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Mobility; Occupational Status; Part-Time Work; Work Reentry

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the Mature and Young Women cohorts and the British Women in Employment Survey, this book compares the effects of childbearing on the labor market experiences of women in the United States and Great Britain. The principal findings are that British women tend to stay at home longer after the birth of a child and are more likely than American women to return to work part-time. As a result, British women are more likely than American women to experience downward occupational mobility after childbearing begins. The authors consider some of the possible causes of these differences in work behavior, including differences in: equal opportunity legislation; the availability of childcare subsidies and maternity leave; tax incentives for hiring part-time workers; and in the industrial structure and growth rates of the two countries.
Bibliography Citation
Dex, Shirley and Lois B. Shaw. British and American Women at Work: Do Equal Opportunities Policies Matter? London, England: MacMillan Publishers, Ltd, 1986.
2. Hills, Stephen M.
Shaw, Lois B.
Sproat, Kezia
Teenagers: What Are Their Choices About Work?
In: A Review of Youth Employment Problems, Programs and Policies, Youth Knowledge Development Report: 2:4. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor, 1980
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Age; Family Resources; Local Labor Market; Unemployment Duration; Unemployment Insurance; Vocational Training

This paper presents a series of observations and recommendations that would improve teenagers' employability. Family background is a strong but indirect influence on a young person's success in the labor market. School completion is a major determinant of labor market success. Increased knowledge of the labor market and career alternatives is needed. Vocational training even after high school graduation is useful. Temporary unemployment of youth is usually not detrimental to future success. Job shopping appears to be desirable. Public service or subsidized jobs can provide young people with experience and the opportunity to explore the world of work. Teenage pregnancy is a serious barrier to young women's long-term career success. Transportation inadequacy is an impediment to teenage employment. Discrimination accounts for a substantial part of the labor market problems of youth.
Bibliography Citation
Hills, Stephen M., Lois B. Shaw and Kezia Sproat. "Teenagers: What Are Their Choices About Work?" In: A Review of Youth Employment Problems, Programs and Policies, Youth Knowledge Development Report: 2:4. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor, 1980
3. Latack, Janina C.
Shaw, Lois B.
Routes to Higher Wages and Status: An Analysis of Career Mobility Among Women Workers
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1983
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Job Patterns; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Occupational Status; Occupations; Simultaneity; Wages, Women

This paper examines women's mobility patterns and associated changes in wages and occupational status over a ten- year period. Mobility has different effects on the wages and occupational status of different groups of women. Intrafirm occupational changes lead to higher status jobs and average or above average wage gains for most groups. Intrafirm moves are also the best route to achieving higher wages for older women in sales and service jobs. Avoiding excessive simultaneous employer and occupational job changing is also important for improving wages for most groups. Older black women are an exception, however. Because they were initially concentrated in low-wage jobs, the most mobile were apparently able to improve their positions substantially. Thus, one pattern of mobility is not consistently superior to another as a route to higher wages and status, and different age, race and occupational groups need to follow different strategies to achieve success.
Bibliography Citation
Latack, Janina C. and Lois B. Shaw. "Routes to Higher Wages and Status: An Analysis of Career Mobility Among Women Workers." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1983.
4. Mott, Frank L.
Haurin, R. Jean
Shaw, Lois B.
Statham, Anne
Years for Decision, Volume 5: A Longitudinal Study of the Educational, Labor Market and Family Experiences of Young Women, 1968-1978
Washington DC: National Technical Information Service, 1981
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: National Technical Information Service (NTIS)
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Educational Attainment; Fertility; Marital Disruption; Sex Roles; Siblings; Work Attitudes; Work History

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This report uses data from the NLS of Young Women to examine trends and determinants of employment between 1968 and 1978 for women who were 14 to 24 years of age in 1968. The study highlights the importance of non-economic factors as motivators of employment for young women and the relative independence of work and fertility for young women now reaching adulthood. The study also contrasts the educational progression paths of young men and women, documents the association between divorce, remarriage and economic wellbeing for young women, and describes recent trends in their marital, childbearing, schooling and employment patterns and the association between those phenomena. This volume has been published by MIT Press entitled The Employment Revolution: Young American Women of the 1970s, Frank L. Mott, ed.
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L., R. Jean Haurin, Lois B. Shaw and Anne Statham. Years for Decision, Volume 5: A Longitudinal Study of the Educational, Labor Market and Family Experiences of Young Women, 1968-1978. Washington DC: National Technical Information Service, 1981.
5. Mott, Frank L.
Shaw, Lois B.
The Transition from School to Adulthood
Presented: Washington, DC, Conference on Young Women and Employment, U.S. Department of Labor, 1978.
Also: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED158018&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED158018
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Children; Dropouts; Fertility; High School Completion/Graduates; Job Search; Teenagers; Transition, School to Work; Welfare; Work Knowledge

This paper focuses on young women who either drop out of high school without completing the 12th grade or who complete high school but do not immediately attend college. Not only do child-related considerations cause dropping out, but they then subsequently affect the ability of a woman both to take formal training programs and to find meaningful employment at a reasonable salary. The presence of a child not only inhibits the job hunt and the probability of finding a job but, in addition, has associated child-care costs. Thus, the "threshold" at which it is economically rational to accept a job is probably higher. Youth who will drop out of high school are far less likely to have had extensive employment experiences before leaving school. They are more likely to become discouraged and withdraw from the labor force.
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L. and Lois B. Shaw. "The Transition from School to Adulthood." Presented: Washington, DC, Conference on Young Women and Employment, U.S. Department of Labor, 1978.
6. Mott, Frank L.
Shaw, Lois B.
Work and Family in the School Leaving Years: A Comparison of Female High School Graduates and Dropouts
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1978
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Dropouts; Earnings; Educational Attainment; High School; High School Dropouts; Marriage; Work Knowledge

In this study, the determinants and consequences of dropping out of high school are addressed. Findings show that child-related considerations affect dropping out as well as the ability of a woman to take formal training programs and to find meaningful employment at a reasonable salary. Independent of child considerations, short and long-term implications are also discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L. and Lois B. Shaw. "Work and Family in the School Leaving Years: A Comparison of Female High School Graduates and Dropouts." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1978.
7. Nestel, Gilbert
Mercier, Jacqueline
Shaw, Lois B.
Economic Consequences of Midlife Changes in Marital Status
In: Unplanned Careers: The Working Lives of Middle-Aged Women. L.B. Shaw, ed. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1983
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Jossey-Bass
Keyword(s): Divorce; Marital Status; Poverty; Remarriage; Widows

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The end of a marriage leaves most women to face the emotional trauma of the loss of a spouse, the problems of heading a family alone, and the adjustment to the loss of a major source of income. The welfare of these women and their families is not unrelated to the reason the marriage terminated. It is also affected by whether or not the woman remarries. Data from the NLS of Mature Women are used to explore the experiences of married women who divorce, are separated, or lose their spouse because of death in the period 1967-1976. A multivariate analysis provides a profile of the divorced and widowed women who remarry. The short-run consequences of a change in marital status in the 1967-1977 decade is also provided. Women who remain married throughout the decade become the reference group for these comparisons. The findings indicate that the incidence of poverty is higher among women who change marital status than among those continuously married. Sources of income differ with widows depending on Social Security Survivors Benefits and separated women on welfare payments. Remarriage was not very frequent; one-third of divorced women and one-sixth of the widows had remarried by 1977. Women who were worse off economically and those with little education were most likely to remarry, but black women and older women were less likely to remarry regardless of economic need.
Bibliography Citation
Nestel, Gilbert, Jacqueline Mercier and Lois B. Shaw. "Economic Consequences of Midlife Changes in Marital Status" In: Unplanned Careers: The Working Lives of Middle-Aged Women. L.B. Shaw, ed. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1983
8. Shapiro, David
Shaw, Lois B.
Growth in the Labor Force Attachment of Married Women: Accounting for Changes in the 1970s
Southern Economic Journal 50,2 (October 1983): 461-473.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1058219
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Southern Economic Association
Keyword(s): Children; Employment; Husbands, Income; Schooling; Unemployment; Wages; Wives; Work Attitudes

Our purpose is to determine to what extent this growth can be attributed to changes in characteristics of women in this age range, and to what extent important behavioral changes have occurred. The data and methods of analysis are described in section II, while empirical estimates of the determinants of married women's work activity are presented in section III. Analysis of the importance of the past decade's changes in these determinants/characteristics in accounting for the observed growth in labor supply is provided in section IV. Concluding observations, along with some speculation concerning the future course of married women's labor force attachment, are in section V. This study has examined the labor force participation and hours worked in the preceding year of 30-34 year old white married women in 1967 and in 1978, using NLS data on two panels of women. Consistent with previous research, we find that work attachment is highly significantly related to a woman's own wage and educational attainment, the presence of preschool children in the household, and husband's earnings. Marital history and (in 1978) local labor market conditions also influence labor-supply behavior. Between 1967 and 1978, the impact on work attachment of both the market wage and educational attainment increased, while the impact of husband's earnings declined somewhat.
Bibliography Citation
Shapiro, David and Lois B. Shaw. "Growth in the Labor Force Attachment of Married Women: Accounting for Changes in the 1970s." Southern Economic Journal 50,2 (October 1983): 461-473.
9. Shapiro, David
Shaw, Lois B.
Labor Force Attachment of Married Women Age 30 to 34: an Intercohort Comparison
In: Employment Revolution: Young American Women in the 1970s. F.L. Mott, ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1982
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Keyword(s): Earnings, Husbands; Educational Attainment; Family Structure; Labor Force Participation; Sex Roles; Work Attachment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The most important factors contributing to recent increases in labor force attachment of white married women in their early thirties were their increasing levels of education, decreasing family size, and more favorable attitudes toward working outside the home. Increases in husband's earnings and an unfavorable economic climate had a depressing effect; increases in labor force participation and weeks worked might have been even larger in a different economic environment. Educational attainment became a stronger influence on the labor force participation of both white and black women. The authors did not find evidence for any decrease in the importance of husband's earnings or family structure in affecting white women's labor supply.
Bibliography Citation
Shapiro, David and Lois B. Shaw. "Labor Force Attachment of Married Women Age 30 to 34: an Intercohort Comparison" In: Employment Revolution: Young American Women in the 1970s. F.L. Mott, ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1982
10. Shaw, Lois B.
A Profile of Women Potentially Eligible for the Displaced Homemaker Program under the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of 1978
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1979
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Children; Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA); Displaced Homemakers; Dropouts; High School; Schooling; Underemployment; Unemployment; Welfare

This paper estimates the percentage of women ages 35-54 who were potentially eligible for the displaced homemakers program under the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of 1978. In addition, the paper describes the work experience, skills, and family circumstances of the potentially eligible population. The majority of eligible women differ from the stereotype of the displaced homemaker; although most have spent 15 or more years outside the labor market, most have also had considerable work experience--some of it recent. Evidence shows that low skills and irregular employment, rather than a lack of recent work experience, are responsible for the employment problems of displaced homemakers. In addition, their problems are increased by limited employment opportunities due to discrimination (race, sex, age). Finally, policy implications for the future are provided.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B. "A Profile of Women Potentially Eligible for the Displaced Homemaker Program under the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of 1978." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1979.
11. Shaw, Lois B.
Causes of Irregular Employment Patterns
In: Unplanned Careers: The Working Lives of Middle-Aged Women. L.B. Shaw, ed. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1983
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Jossey-Bass
Keyword(s): Employment; Family Influences; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Migration; Unemployment; Work Attachment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Middle-aged women were found to work intermittently for a variety of reasons. Family responsibilities remained an important reason for irregular work patterns. Health was a major cause of intermittent employment and long periods out of the work force, especially among black women. A family's migration to another area often resulted in interruption of employment for white women. All of these reasons for irregular work patterns suggest family or health constraints or personal preferences that were not strongly influenced by the state of the job market. However, high unemployment rates in some areas affected the work behavior of women who had not previously been well established in the labor market. Job leaving because of business conditions was common among women who had not worked steadily in the preceding five years. Among women who had worked most of the time in the recent past, a small minority, generally the less educated, also experienced job loss and considerable unemployment.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B. "Causes of Irregular Employment Patterns" In: Unplanned Careers: The Working Lives of Middle-Aged Women. L.B. Shaw, ed. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1983
12. Shaw, Lois B.
Changes in the Work Attachment of Married Women, 1966-1976
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1979
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Labor Force Participation; Racial Differences; Work Histories

Using data from the Mature Women cohort, this paper examines trends in the work attachment of married women by comparing the proportion of weeks worked in two successive five-year periods from 1966-1976. The data suggest that it is becoming increasingly uncommon for a woman to remain a full-time housewife throughout the childbearing years. While most women return to work once their children are beyond the primary school years, many work somewhat irregularly, perhaps in response to temporary financial pressures or to unusually good job opportunities. Slightly over one-third of married women work continuously during this time with the percentage gradually increasing. Racial differences in labor force attachment are explored and future trends in the work attachment of middle-aged married women are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B. "Changes in the Work Attachment of Married Women, 1966-1976." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1979.
13. Shaw, Lois B.
Determinants of the Increasing Work Attachment of Married Women
Work and Occupations 12,1 (February 1985): 41-57.
Also: http://wox.sagepub.com/content/12/1/41.abstract
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Family Structure; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Unemployment; Wives; Work Attachment; Work Attitudes; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Between 1966 and 1976, the proportion of married women in their late thirties who exhibited a strong attachment to the labor force increased faster than the proportion with a weaker work attachment. This paper focuses on factors that have encouraged or prevented strong attachment. For white women, the most important factors contributing to the trend toward greater work attachment were: lessening family responsibilities, increases in their previous work experience, and changing attitudes toward women's roles; for black women, lessening family responsibilities, higher educational attainment and improved health were most important. Rising unemployment rates prevented still larger increases in strong attachment to the labor force than those that were observed. While the labor force participation of midlife married women may continue to increase in the future, it is possible that adverse economic conditions could promote intermittent work patterns rather than strong attachment.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B. "Determinants of the Increasing Work Attachment of Married Women." Work and Occupations 12,1 (February 1985): 41-57.
14. Shaw, Lois B.
Determinants of Wage Growth After Labor Market Reentry
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1984
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Discrimination; Earnings; Wage Growth; Work Reentry

This report uses the NLS Mature Women's cohort to examine wage growth after labor market reentry among women who returned to work between 1967 and 1979. Looking at the first few years after reentry, we find evidence of above- average wage growth among women who changed employers after reentering, but little evidence of a wage rebound effect for other reentrants. This finding provides support for the hypothesis that some reentrants' wages are low because their first reentry jobs are below the level that their skills warrant. The long-run results follow a larger group of reentrants over a ten-year period. Among this group, those who worked at full-time jobs experienced a higher rate of wage growth than nonentrants. Employer changing was not a source of wage growth over this longer period. On average, nonentrants in this sample--even those who had worked full time for the entire ten years--showed little wage growth. The higher wage growth among reentrants may be due in part to their undertaking additional education or training when they enter and partly to their lower initial wages, which allow for greater growth before a plateau is reached.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B. "Determinants of Wage Growth After Labor Market Reentry." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1984.
15. Shaw, Lois B.
Does Living in a Single Parent Family Affect High School Completion for Young Women?
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1979
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Parents, Single

This study examines whether living in a single-parent family exerts any effect, beyond the effect that low income may have, on the chances of a daughter's completing high school. Using paired data from the Young and Mature Women cohorts (mothers and daughters living in the same household during the initial screening), analyses suggest that the income effect of living in a single-parent family is of primary importance. However, both income and other factors associated with living in a nonintact family increase the chances of dropping out of school for daughters in low income families headed by a single parent, usually the mother. In high income families, living with one parent has no effect on the chances that a daughter will fail to complete high school. Policy implications as well as directions for further research conclude the paper.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B. "Does Living in a Single Parent Family Affect High School Completion for Young Women?" Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1979.
16. Shaw, Lois B.
Does Working Part-Time Contribute to Women's Occupational Segregation
Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1983.
Also: http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009872112
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Occupational Segregation; Part-Time Work; Preschool Children

During 1968-1980, there was a new influx of young women into atypical occupations. Among women who were 26-36 years of age in 1980, those without children were nearly twice as likely to work in atypical occupations as were women with pre-school children. Even among women with similar family responsibilities, those who held jobs in atypical occupations were somewhat less likely to work part-time than were those in traditional female jobs. An analysis of the interactions between part-time and atypical employment revealed that women who had a higher propensity to work part-time were less likely to work in atypical occupations, and conversely, that those who were more likely to work in atypical occupations were less likely to work part-time. Good job prospects in atypical occupations may be necessary conditions for further occupational desegregation.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B. "Does Working Part-Time Contribute to Women's Occupational Segregation." Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1983.
17. Shaw, Lois B.
Economic Consequences of Marital Disruption for Women in Their Middle Years
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1978
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Children; Family Resources; Marital Disruption; Poverty

The probability of becoming poor in our society is markedly increased by marital disruption. In the present study, most women had been married for 10 to 20 years and had children at home when their marriages ended. The end of the marriage caused a decline in the average economic welfare of the families involved. About one quarter of white families and 55 percent of black families of these middle-aged women had incomes below the poverty line after their marriages ended.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B. "Economic Consequences of Marital Disruption for Women in Their Middle Years." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1978.
18. Shaw, Lois B.
Effects of Age, Length of Work Interruption and State of the Economy on the Reentry Wages of Women
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1982
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Skill Depreciation; Unemployment Rate; Wage Penalty/Career Penalty; Wages; Work History; Work Reentry

This paper looks at the effects of work interruption on the reentry wages of women after controlling for age and the unemployment rate at the time of reentry. Other methodological issues concerning skill depreciation are also raised.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B. "Effects of Age, Length of Work Interruption and State of the Economy on the Reentry Wages of Women." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1982.
19. Shaw, Lois B.
Effects of Education and Occupational Training on the Wages of Mature Women
Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1983.
Also: http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009872113
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Employment; Occupations, Female; Schooling; Training, Occupational; Wages, Women

This paper uses data from the NLS of Mature Women to determine which kinds of job training are beneficial for midlife women and which women receive these kinds of training. On-the-job training, college education, and other occupational training undertaken by workers are considered. Both on-the-job training and college attendance were found to pay off in higher wages. For women who had not attended college, professional or managerial training in settings other than on the job or regular college was also beneficial. Clerical training did not produce higher wages for any group. Other kinds of training such as practical nursing increased the wages of noncollege women. These findings indicate that various kinds of education and training programs are beneficial for middle-aged women, but a woman's previous background is important in determining the kind of program to pursue. On-the-job training is valuable for all groups; other kinds of education and training not only increase wages directly, but also increase the probability that women will receive on-the-job training.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B. "Effects of Education and Occupational Training on the Wages of Mature Women." Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1983.
20. Shaw, Lois B.
Effects of Low Income and Living With a Single Parent on High School Completion for Young Women
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1982
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Family Income; High School Dropouts; Mothers and Daughters; Parents, Single; Racial Differences

This paper examines the effects of living in a single parent family on the high school completion of young women after controlling for the effects of family income. Using a sample of mothers and daughters from the NLS of Mature and Young Women, it was found that, for white women, living with a single parent has no effect on high school completion once the generally lower income in single-parent families is taken into account. For black women, both low income and living with a single parent independently contribute to increased rates of dropping out of school. In considering policies to increase the rate of high school completion, the economic aspect of the problem deserves major attention.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B. "Effects of Low Income and Living With a Single Parent on High School Completion for Young Women." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1982.
21. Shaw, Lois B.
High School Completion for Young Women: Effects of Low Income and Living with a Single Parent. Also published as: Effects of Low Income and Living with a Single Parent
Journal of Family Issues 3,2 (June 1982): 147-163.
Also: http://jfi.sagepub.com/content/3/2/147.abstract
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Dropouts; Educational Attainment; Family Resources; High School; Parental Influences; Parents, Single

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The increase in the proportion of married women in their late thirties exhibiting a strong attachment to the labor market is examined. An analysis of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience for the period 1966-1976 reveals that: (1) major factors influencing black women to become more stongly involved in the LF were fewer family duties, higher level of education, & improved health; (2) lessening family duties, expansion of work history, & evolving attitudes toward the role of women in society most strongly influenced white women in the market place; & (3) even larger increases could have been seen among both black & white women except for a general condition of high unemployment. Patterns describing future involvement of midlife women in the LF are proposed.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B. "High School Completion for Young Women: Effects of Low Income and Living with a Single Parent. Also published as: Effects of Low Income and Living with a Single Parent." Journal of Family Issues 3,2 (June 1982): 147-163.
22. Shaw, Lois B.
Midlife Women at Work: A Fifteen Year Perspective
Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1986
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Jossey-Bass
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Educational Attainment; Husbands, Influence; Labor Force Participation; Marital Status; Occupational Segregation; Racial Differences; Remarriage; Retirement

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Fifteen years of data from a nationally-representative sample of women who were age 30 to 44 when first interviewed in 1967 are analyzed. Chapter One describes the extent of the decreasing family responsibilities and increasing labor market involvement for these women over the fifteen-year period. Chapter Two explores the employment patterns of white and black women following the birth of their first child and the impact of this labor force participation as they reach middle-age. Chapter Three examines the degree of responsibility given to women age 45 to 59 as well as the extent to which authority is related to past work experience and current family roles. Chapter Four discusses the educational investments made by women at midlife, and Chapter Five examines the extent to which they increased their labor market involvement as a result of family disruptions or husband's unemployment or disability. Chapter Six describes the factors that determine women's early withdrawal from the labor market. Chapter Seven illustrates the usefulness of hazard rate models in exploring the transition from divorce to remarriage and finds a striking difference in the mean duration to remarriage between whites and non-whites. Chapter Eight focuses on the expected retirement income and retirement plans of white and black middle-aged women.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B. Midlife Women at Work: A Fifteen Year Perspective. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1986.
23. Shaw, Lois B.
Problems of Labor Market Reentry
In: Unplanned Careers: The Working Lives of Middle-Aged Women. L.B. Shaw, ed. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1983
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Jossey-Bass
Keyword(s): Unemployment; Wages; Work Reentry

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Women's reentry into the labor force after a relatively long absence was investigated in order to determine whether the length of time away, the age of the woman, and the economic climate in the period from 1966 to 1977 affected labor market reentry and the ease or difficulty of becoming reestablished in the labor force. Reentrants who lived in areas of high unemployment ran an increased risk of leaving the labor force again after reentry. Those who reentered the labor force during the middle 1970s after an absence of at least five years had wages nearly 10 percent lower in real terms than the wages of women who had entered in the late sixties or early seventies, but neither the length of time since they had last worked nor the fact that they were somewhat older than women who entered earlier explained their lower wages. One possible explanation is that the slow growth of the economy combined with the influx of young women workers from the baby-boom generation brought increased competition for entry-level jobs that did not require much work experience.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B. "Problems of Labor Market Reentry" In: Unplanned Careers: The Working Lives of Middle-Aged Women. L.B. Shaw, ed. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1983
24. Shaw, Lois B.
Retirement Plans of Middle-Aged Married Women
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1982
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Husbands, Influence; Marriage; Pensions; Retirement; Social Security

Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B. "Retirement Plans of Middle-Aged Married Women." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1982.
25. Shaw, Lois B.
Retirement Plans of Middle-Aged Women
Gerontologist 24,2 (April 1984): 154-159.
Also: http://gerontologist.oxfordjournals.org/content/24/2/154.abstract
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): Husbands, Influence; Pensions; Retirement; Social Security

Although the majority of middle-aged working women do not plan to retire at the same time as their husbands, having a retired husband does influence women to plan for earlier retirement than they would otherwise. Women's retirement plans are strongly influenced by their own pension and Social Security eligibility. Most women with pensions plan to postpone retirement until their pension eligibility begins even if their husbands will be retired before this time. Implications of these findings for future trends in the age of retirement for women are explored.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B. "Retirement Plans of Middle-Aged Women." Gerontologist 24,2 (April 1984): 154-159.
26. Shaw, Lois B.
Unplanned Careers: The Working Lives of Middle-Aged Women
Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1983
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Jossey-Bass
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Sex; Dropouts; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Husbands, Influence; Marital Dissolution; Schooling; Wages; Work Attitudes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Chapter 1, Introduction and Overview--Shaw, Lois B. and O'Brien, Theresa; Chapter 2, Problems of Labor- Market Reentry--Shaw, Lois B.; Chapter 3, Causes of Irregular Employment Patterns-Shaw, Lois B.; Chapter 4, Occupational Atypicality: Changes, Causes, and Consequences-Daymont, Thomas and Statham, Anne; Chapter 5, Attitudes toward Women Working: Changes over Time and Implications for the Labor-Force Behaviors of Husbands and Wives--Statham, Anne and Rhoton, Patricia; Chapter 6, Economic Consequences of Poor Health in Mature Women--Chirikos, Thomas N. and Nestel, Gilbert; Chapter 7, Economic Consequences of Midlife Change in Marital Status--Nestel, Gilbert, Mercier, Jacqueline, and Shaw, Lois B.; Chapter 8, Summary and Conclusions--Shaw, Lois B.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B. Unplanned Careers: The Working Lives of Middle-Aged Women. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1983.
27. Shaw, Lois B.
Chirikos, Thomas N.
Daymont, Thomas N.
Mercier, Jacqueline
Dual Careers, Volume 5: A Decade of Changes in the Lives of Mature Women
Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1981
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Attitudes; Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Force Participation; Marital Status; Occupations, Non-Traditional; Women; Work Reentry

This report presents an overview of the many changes (economic, social, employment, and family-related) affecting the lives of the Mature Women's cohort (1967-77). Discussed are the problems of labor market reentry, causes of irregular employment patterns, the persistence of occupational segregation, the economic consequences of poor health and marital disruption on the lives of these middle-aged women.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B., Thomas N. Chirikos, Thomas N. Daymont and Jacqueline Mercier. Dual Careers, Volume 5: A Decade of Changes in the Lives of Mature Women. Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1981.
28. Shaw, Lois B.
D'Amico, Ronald
Gagen, Mary G.
Gitter, Robert J.
Haurin, Donald R.
Morgan, William R.
Mott, Frank L.
Peters, Elizabeth
Dual Careers, Volume 6: Fifteen Year Report on the National Longitudinal Surveys Mature Women's Cohort
Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1985
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Education; Employment; Family Constraints; Job Patterns; Marital Disruption; Marriage; Racial Differences

Fifteen years of data from the NLS cohort of Mature Women are analyzed. Chapter one describes the extent of the decreasing family responsibilities and increasing labor market involvement for these women over the fifteen-year period. Chapter two explores the employment patterns of white and black women following the birth of their first child. Chapter three examines the degree of responsibility given to women age 45 to 59 for the pay and promotion decisions of others. Chapter four describes the education the women received between 1967 and 1982, and chapter five examines the extent to which they increased their labor market involvement as a result of family disruptions or husband's employment or disability. Chapter six describes the factors that determine women's early withdrawal from the labor market. Chapter seven illustrates the usefulness of hazard rate models in exploring the transition from divorce to remarriage and finds a striking difference in the mean duration to remarriage between whites and non-whites. Chapter eight focuses on the retirement plans and expected pension of white and black middle aged women.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B., Ronald D'Amico, Mary G. Gagen, Robert J. Gitter, Donald R. Haurin, William R. Morgan, Frank L. Mott and Elizabeth Peters. Dual Careers, Volume 6: Fifteen Year Report on the National Longitudinal Surveys Mature Women's Cohort. Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1985.
29. Shaw, Lois B.
Gagen, Mary G.
Retirement Decisions of Husbands and Wives
Columbus, OH, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1984
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Early Retirement; Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Pensions; Retirement

Using the NLS Older Men's cohort, this paper found congruent retirement statuses for husbands and wives among couples in which the wives were employed or formerly employed. Among retired couples, the majority had retired within five years of each other. When considering the influences on spouses' retirement separately, we found that women who would become eligible for a full pension at a later time were likely to delay their retirement. Husbands' pension eligibility increased wives' retirement, and wives' pension eligibility also increased the likelihood of retirement for husbands before age 62, but had no effect at older ages. Health affected each spouse's own retirement, but cross-effects were generally not significant. When we used a multinomial logit model to examine the factors influencing whether husbands and wives retired together or separately, we found evidence that spouses have a tendency to work or retire together, but that either spouse may retire alone when their pension eligibility or health problems have opposing effects.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B. and Mary G. Gagen. "Retirement Decisions of Husbands and Wives." Columbus, OH, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1984.
30. Shaw, Lois B.
O'Brien, Theresa
Introduction and Overview
In: Unplanned Careers: The Working Lives of Middle-Aged Women. L.B. Shaw, ed. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1983
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Jossey-Bass
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Employment; Family Income; Marital Status; Occupational Attainment; Unemployment; Wages; Work History

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This chapter describes broad changes in the family circumstances, attitudes, and employment of middle-aged women over the ten-year period 1967-1977. During this period, over 80 percent of white women and 90 percent of black women worked at some time. About 35 percent of white women and 45 percent of black women worked fairly continuously throughout the ten years, but sporadic work patterns were also common. Women who worked continuously over the decade had real-wage gains of about 15 percent. However, women who reentered the labor force or worked sporadically were no better off in 1977 than the average female worker in 1967. The growing employment of women is important for their families and society. The percentage of families in poverty was reduced by at least 50 percent because of the contribution of working wives.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B. and Theresa O'Brien. "Introduction and Overview" In: Unplanned Careers: The Working Lives of Middle-Aged Women. L.B. Shaw, ed. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1983
31. Shaw, Lois B.
Shapiro, David
Early Work Plans, Actual Work Behavior, and Wages of Young Women
Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1983.
Also: http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009872114
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Labor Force Participation; Occupational Aspirations; Wages, Young Women; Work History

Data from the NLS were used to examine how young women's work plans affect their subsequent work experiences and earnings. Results indicate that over 80 percent of women who consistently planned to work in the early interview years were in the labor force in 1980, but about half of the women who had not planned to work were also in the labor force. Women who had not planned to work appear to have changed their plans because of divorce, low earnings of their husbands, or because their own earnings potential was high. Women who had planned to work failed to realize their plans if they had large families or more children than they had expected. After controlling for education and actual work experience, wages of women who consistently planned to work were about 30 percent higher than those of women who never planned to work.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B. and David Shapiro. "Early Work Plans, Actual Work Behavior, and Wages of Young Women." Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1983.
32. Shaw, Lois B.
Shapiro, David
Women's Work Plans: Contrasting Expectations and Actual Work Experience
Monthly Labor Review 110,11 (November 1987): 7-13.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1987/11/art2abs.htm
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Children; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Family Influences; Labor Force Participation; Wages; Work Attachment; Work Attitudes; Work Experience

Utilizing data from the Young Women's cohort, this paper examines how young women's work plans affect their subsequent work experiences and earnings. It was found that those young women who planned to be in the labor market at age 35 were more likely to be employed when they reached that age. Planning to work, in fact, yielded a significant net wage advantage. Women in their mid-thirties who had, throughout their twenties, consistently planned to work had wages that were nearly thirty percent higher than those of women who had never planned to work even after controlling for work experience and other determinants of wage rates. This wage advantage was even greater for those women who were employed in occupations in which they had expected to be employed.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B. and David Shapiro. "Women's Work Plans: Contrasting Expectations and Actual Work Experience." Monthly Labor Review 110,11 (November 1987): 7-13.
33. Shaw, Lois B.
Shaw, Rachel
From Midlife to Retirement: The Middle-Aged Woman Worker
In: Working Women: Past, Present, Future. K. S. Koziara, et al., eds. Washington, DC: Bureau of National Affairs, 1987
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: BNA - Bureau of National Affairs, Inc.
Keyword(s): Attitudes; Discrimination, Age; Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Displaced Homemakers; Labor Force Participation; Occupations, Female; Retirement; Work Histories; Work Reentry

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This chapter reviews and assesses the current status of research on middle-aged women workers. The diverse work patterns that characterize the labor force participation of the middle-aged and older woman worker, particularly the apparent emergence of a relatively large group of intermittent midlife workers, and the stereotypes associated with the reentry woman are discussed. Findings on occupation and earnings, the continuing impact of sex, age, and race discrimination, midlife women's continuing investment in education and training, and their work commitment and attitudes are reviewed. The paper concludes by identifying gaps in our current knowledge of the middle-aged woman worker, particularly the lack of research on the retirement process, health, and job displacement, and offers suggestions for future research on today's and tomorrow's middle-aged woman worker.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B. and Rachel Shaw. "From Midlife to Retirement: The Middle-Aged Woman Worker" In: Working Women: Past, Present, Future. K. S. Koziara, et al., eds. Washington, DC: Bureau of National Affairs, 1987
34. Shaw, Lois B.
Sproat, Kezia
Mature Women in the Work Force: Research Findings and Policy Recommendations from the National Longitudinal Surveys
Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1980
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Sex; Family Resources; Job Training; Marital Dissolution; Sex Roles; Welfare; Widows; Work Attitudes

This report summarizes findings on mature women's experience in the United States labor force by researchers using data from the NLS. Topics covered include women's attitudes toward work, economic consequences of the end of long-term marriages, the effects of time spent out of the labor force on women's earnings, and the disadvantaged economic position of older black women.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B. and Kezia Sproat. "Mature Women in the Work Force: Research Findings and Policy Recommendations from the National Longitudinal Surveys." Report, Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1980.
35. Shaw, Lois B.
Statham, Anne
Fertility Expectations and the Changing Role of Women
In: Employment Revolution: Young American Women in the 1970s. F.L. Mott, ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1982
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Keyword(s): Earnings, Husbands; Fertility; Sex Roles; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Between 1973 and 1978 there was virtually no change in the average birth expectations of white married women, while black married women expected slightly larger families in 1978 than in 1973. Individual revisions of plans were related to the woman's own work experience or work plans and to their perceptions of women's proper social roles rather than their husband's earnings potential or changes in their husband's earnings. Easterlin's hypothesis that husbands' earnings potential relative to that of their parents' generation is the major force behind recent fertility trends receives little support. The analysis supports the conclusion of Butz and Ward that women's own work opportunities are important.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B. and Anne Statham. "Fertility Expectations and the Changing Role of Women" In: Employment Revolution: Young American Women in the 1970s. F.L. Mott, ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1982