Search Results

Source: Child Development
Resulting in 26 citations.
1. Barber, Jennifer S.
East, Patricia L.
Home and Parenting Resources Available to Siblings Depending on Their Birth Intention Status
Child Development 80,3 (May/June 2009): 921-939.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01306.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Children, Academic Development; Depression (see also CESD); Family Planning; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Home Ownership; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Mothers, Education; Siblings; Wantedness

This study examines the differential availability of family and parenting resources to children depending on their birth planning status. The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data were analyzed, 3,134 mothers and their 5,890 children (M = 7.1 years, range = 1 month-14.8 years), of whom 63% were intended at conception, 27% were mistimed, and 10% were unwanted. Fixed-effects models show that unwanted and mistimed children had fewer resources than intended siblings. Parents' emotional resources to older children decreased after the birth of a mistimed sibling. Findings suggest that cognitive and emotional resources are differentially available to children within a family depending on intention status and that unintended births lead to decreased parental resources for older children in the household. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Barber, Jennifer S. and Patricia L. East. "Home and Parenting Resources Available to Siblings Depending on Their Birth Intention Status." Child Development 80,3 (May/June 2009): 921-939.
2. Boyle, Michael H.
Jenkins, Jennifer M.
Georgiades, Katholiki
Cairney, John
Duku, Eric
Racine, Yvonne
Differential-Maternal Parenting Behavior: Estimating Within- and Between-Family Effects on Children
Child Development 75,5 (2004): 1457-1476.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00751.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Canada, Canadian; Depression (see also CESD); Discipline; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Mothers, Behavior; Parenting Skills/Styles; Parents, Behavior; Siblings

This study examined the impact of differential-maternal parenting behavior, evaluated as a family-level experience, on children's emotional-behavioral problems. Data come from 3 child development studies: 2,128 four- to sixteen-year-olds (Ontario Child Health Study), 7,392 four- to eleven-year-olds (National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth), and 1,992 three- to fourteen-year-olds (National Longitudinal Study of Youth). In 2 of 3 studies, there was consistent evidence that differential-maternal parenting behavior had an adverse impact on all siblings as a group, over and above parenting directed at individual siblings. The strength of association was sensitive to the type of maternal parenting behavior, dimension of child maladjustment, and respondent perspective (stronger for hostile/negative parenting, child externalizing problems, and mother assessments of child emotional-behavioral problems).
Bibliography Citation
Boyle, Michael H., Jennifer M. Jenkins, Katholiki Georgiades, John Cairney, Eric Duku and Yvonne Racine. "Differential-Maternal Parenting Behavior: Estimating Within- and Between-Family Effects on Children." Child Development 75,5 (2004): 1457-1476.
3. Bradley, Robert H.
Corwyn, Robert Flynn
Burchinal, Margaret R.
McAdoo, Harriette Pipes
Coll, Cynthia Garcia
The Home Environments of Children in the United States Part II: Relations with Behavioral Development through Age Thirteen
Child Development 72,6 (November-December 2001): 1868-1886.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1467-8624.t01-1-00383/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Preschool; Ethnic Differences; Hispanics; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Language Development; Methods/Methodology; Motor and Social Development (MSD); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Poverty; Punishment, Corporal; Racial Differences; Well-Being

This study examined the frequency with which children were exposed to various parental actions, materials, events, and conditions as part of their home environments, and how these exposures related to their well-being. Part 1 focused on variations by age, ethnicity, and poverty status. In Part 2, relations between major aspects of the home environment (including maternal responsiveness, learning stimulation and spanking) and developmental outcomes for children from birth through age 13 were investigated. The outcomes examined were early motor and social development. vocabulary development, achievement, and behavior problems. These relations were examined in both poor and nonpoor European American, African American, and Hispanic American families using hierarchial linear modeling. The most consistent relations found were those between learning stimulation and children's developmental status, with relations for responsiveness and spanking varying as a function of outcome, age, ethnicity, and poverty status. The evidence indicated slightly stronger relations for younger as compared with older children.
Bibliography Citation
Bradley, Robert H., Robert Flynn Corwyn, Margaret R. Burchinal, Harriette Pipes McAdoo and Cynthia Garcia Coll. "The Home Environments of Children in the United States Part II: Relations with Behavioral Development through Age Thirteen ." Child Development 72,6 (November-December 2001): 1868-1886.
4. Bradley, Robert H.
Corwyn, Robert Flynn
McAdoo, Harriette Pipes
Coll, Cynthia Garcia
The Home Environments of Children in the United States Part I: Variations by Age, Ethnicity, and Poverty Status
Child Development 72,6 (November-December 2001): 1844-1867.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1467-8624.t01-1-00382/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Ethnic Differences; Fathers, Absence; Fathers, Involvement; Hispanics; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Parents, Behavior; Poverty; Punishment, Corporal; Racial Differences

Although measures of the home environment have gained wide acceptance in the child development literature, what constitutes the "average" or "typical" home environment in the United States, and how this differs across ethnic groups and poverty status is not known. Item-level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth on four age-related versions of the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment-Short Form (HOME-SF) from five biennial assessments (1986-1994) were analyzed for the total sample and for four major ethnic groups. European Americans, Asian Americans, African Americans, and Hispanic Americans. The percentages of homes receiving credit on each item of all four versions of the HOME-SF are described. For the majority of items at all four age levels differences between poor and nonpoor families were noted. Differences were also obtained among African American, European American, and Hispanic American families, but the magnitude of the effect for poverty status was greater than for ethnicity, and usually absorbed most of the ethnic group effects on HOME-SF items. For every item at every age, the effects of poverty were proportional across European American, African American, and Hispanic American groups.
Bibliography Citation
Bradley, Robert H., Robert Flynn Corwyn, Harriette Pipes McAdoo and Cynthia Garcia Coll. "The Home Environments of Children in the United States Part I: Variations by Age, Ethnicity, and Poverty Status." Child Development 72,6 (November-December 2001): 1844-1867.
5. Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Han, Wen-Jui
Waldfogel, Jane
Maternal Employment and Child Cognitive Outcomes in the First Three Years of Life: The NICHD Study of Early Child Care
Child Development 73,4 (July-August 2002): 1052-1072.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1467-8624.00457/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Child Care; Cognitive Development; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Parenting Skills/Styles

With increased numbers of women employed in their children's first year of life and with increased attention being paid by parents and policy makers to the importance of early experiences for children, establishing the links that might exist between early maternal employment and child cognitive outcomes is more important than ever. Negative associations between maternal employment during the first year of life and children's cognitive outcomes at age 3 (and later ages) have been reported using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement. However, it was not known whether these findings would be replicated in another study, nor whether these results were due to features of child care (e.g., quality, type), home environment (e.g., provision of learning), and/or parenting (e.g., sensitivity). This study explored these issues using data on 900 European American children from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care, which provides information on child cognitive scores at 15, 24, and 36 months, as well as data about the home environment (as assessed by the Home Observation of the Measurement of the Environment Scale), parental sensitivity, and child-care quality and type over the first 3 years of life. Maternal employment by the ninth month was found to be linked to lower Bracken School Readiness scores at 36 months, with the effects more pronounced when mothers were working 30 hr or more per week and with effects more pronounced for certain subgroups (i.e., children whose mothers were not sensitive, boys, and children with married parents). Although quality of child care, home environment, and maternal sensitivity also mattered, the negative effects of working 30 hr or more per week in the first 9 months were still found, even when controlling for child-care quality, the quality of the home environment, and maternal sensitivity. Implications for policy are also discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Wen-Jui Han and Jane Waldfogel. "Maternal Employment and Child Cognitive Outcomes in the First Three Years of Life: The NICHD Study of Early Child Care." Child Development 73,4 (July-August 2002): 1052-1072.
6. Caughy, Margaret O'Brien
DiPietro, Janet A.
Strobino, Donna M.
Day-Care Participation as a Protective Factor in the Cognitive Development of Low-Income Children
Child Development 65,2 (April 1994): 457-471.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1131396
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Child Care; Children, Preschool; Children, School-Age; Cognitive Development; Education Indicators; Educational Status; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Income Level; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty; Socioeconomic Factors

The impact of day-care participation during the first 3 years of life on the cognitive functioning of school age children was examined. 867 5- and 6-year-old children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth who completed the 1986 assessment were included in the sample. The dependent measures were scores on the Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) subtests of mathematics and reading recognition. In addition to day-care participation, the impact of the pattern of day-care was examined by analyzing the effect of the number of years in day-care, the timing of initiation of day-care, and type of day-care arrangement. Initiation of day-care attendance before the first birthday was associated with higher reading recognition scores for children from impoverished home environments and with lower scores for children from more optimal environments. In addition, a significant interaction between the type of day-care arrangement and the quality of the home environment emerged for mathematics performance. Center-based care in particular was associated with higher mathematics scores for impoverished children and with lower mathematics scores for children from more stimulating home environments. These findings are discussed in the context of developmental risk.
Bibliography Citation
Caughy, Margaret O'Brien, Janet A. DiPietro and Donna M. Strobino. "Day-Care Participation as a Protective Factor in the Cognitive Development of Low-Income Children." Child Development 65,2 (April 1994): 457-471.
7. Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay
Gordon, Rachel A.
Economic Hardship and the Development of Five- and Six-Year-Olds: Neighborhood and Regional Perspectives
Child Development 67,6 (December 1996): 3338-3367.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1996.tb01917.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Development; Childhood Education, Early; Children, School-Age; Cognitive Development; Education; Ethnic Studies; Family Influences; Geocoded Data; Income; Neighborhood Effects; Occupations; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Racial Differences; Racial Studies; Regions; Socioeconomic Factors; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

The present study examines the association between neighborhood characteristics and the development of 5- and 6-year-olds. We also explore how region might moderate the effects of neighborhoods on children, thus considering both larger (regional) and smaller (community) contexts of families. We find that structural aspects of the neighborhood at the census tract level are associated with child development in the early school-age period. For the sample as a whole neighborhood factors play a role in both cognitive and socioemotional outcomes, even when family factors are controlled. Yet only modest support for neighborhood influences on child development is evident in our main effects models. It appears that neighborhood influences on child development are underestimated or masked unless the associations are examined separately by two areas of the United States: the Midwest and Northeast versus the South and West. Significant associations between neighborhood variables and children's development are seen in the Northeastern and Midwestern regions, but less so in the Southern and Western regions of the United States. Greater economic and social resources as measured by average neighborhood SES (income, education, occupation) and greater ethnic congruity as measured by more neighbors of the same racial heritage as the child are related to higher cognitive functioning, but only in the Northeast and Midwest. Furthermore, children in these regions show more competent behavioral functioning when the relative presence of adults to children in the neighborhood is higher. In these regions, African-American but not white children show higher levels of behavior problems when community male joblessness rates are higher. We speculate about processes that might underlie these neighborhood and regional effects and point to directions for further research. (Copyright 1996 by the Society for Research in Child Development. All rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay and Rachel A. Gordon. "Economic Hardship and the Development of Five- and Six-Year-Olds: Neighborhood and Regional Perspectives." Child Development 67,6 (December 1996): 3338-3367.
8. Cleveland, Hobart Harrington
Wiebe, Richard P.
van den Oord, Edwin J. C. G.
Rowe, David C.
Behavior Problems among Children from Different Family Structures: The Influence of Genetic Self-Selection
Child Development 71,3 (May/June 2000): 733-751.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1467-8624.00182/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Children, Adjustment Problems; Children, Behavioral Development; Family Models; Genetics; Modeling; Siblings

To examine both genetic and environmental influences on children's behavior problems in households defined by marital status and sibling relatedness, this study applied behavioral genetic methodology to four groups totalling 1524 sibling pairs drawn from 796 households: (1) two-parent full siblings, (2) two-parent half siblings, (3) mother-only full siblings, and (4) mother-only half siblings. Model-fitting procedures found that within-group variation on four subscales from the Behavior Problems Index was best explained by a model including both genetic and shared environmental factors. This model was then fit to the behavior problems means of the four groups. Its successful fit to these mean structures suggested that mean-level differences between groups were explained with the same influences that accounted for within-group variation. Genetic influences accounted for 81% to 94% of the mean-level difference in behavior problems between the two-parent, full sibling and the mother-only, half sibling groups. In contrast, shared environmental influences accounted for 67% to 88% of the mean-level difference in behavior problems between the two-parent, full sibling and mother-only, full sibling groups. The genetic influences are interpreted in terms of genetic self-selection into family structures.
Bibliography Citation
Cleveland, Hobart Harrington, Richard P. Wiebe, Edwin J. C. G. van den Oord and David C. Rowe. "Behavior Problems among Children from Different Family Structures: The Influence of Genetic Self-Selection ." Child Development 71,3 (May/June 2000): 733-751.
9. Coley, Rebekah Levine
Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth
Schindler, Holly S.
Fathers' and Mothers' Parenting Predicting and Responding to Adolescent Sexual Risk Behaviors
Child Development 80,3 (May/June 2009): 808-827.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01299.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Behavioral Problems; Family Influences; Parenting Skills/Styles; Risk-Taking; Sexual Behavior

Transactional models of problem behavior argue that less effective parenting and adolescent problem behaviors coevolve, exerting bidirectional influences. This article extends such models by analyzing growth trajectories of sexual risk behaviors and parenting processes among 3,206 adolescents (aged 13-18) and their residential parents. Within individuals, increases in regular family activities prospectively predicted declines in adolescents' risky sexual activities. In contrast, increases in risky sexual activities predicted heightened father knowledge. Between-individual comparisons revealed bidirectional links between more involved parenting, particularly family activities and father knowledge, and lower adolescent risky sexual activity. Results highlight the importance of family activities as a protective force for adolescents and suggest that fathers may react differently than mothers in the face of youth problem behaviors.
Bibliography Citation
Coley, Rebekah Levine, Elizabeth Votruba-Drzal and Holly S. Schindler. "Fathers' and Mothers' Parenting Predicting and Responding to Adolescent Sexual Risk Behaviors." Child Development 80,3 (May/June 2009): 808-827.
10. Connolly, Eric J.
Beaver, Kevin M.
Prenatal Caloric Intake and the Development of Academic Achievement Among U.S. Children From Ages 5 to 14
Child Development 86,6 (November/December 2015): 1738-1758.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/cdev.12409/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Birth Order; Birthweight; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Genetics; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Kinship; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Mothers, Health; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Pre/post Natal Behavior; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety; School Quality; Siblings

Few studies have examined the relation between maternal caloric intake during pregnancy and growth in child academic achievement while controlling for important confounding influences. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the current study examined the effects of reduced prenatal caloric intake on growth in scores on the Peabody Individual Achievement Test from ages 5 to 14. While models controlling for within-family covariates showed that prenatal caloric intake was associated with lower reading and mathematical achievement at age 5, models controlling for between-family covariates (such as maternal IQ) and unobserved familial confounders revealed only a statistically significant association between siblings differentially exposed to prenatal caloric intake and mathematical achievement at age 5.
Bibliography Citation
Connolly, Eric J. and Kevin M. Beaver. "Prenatal Caloric Intake and the Development of Academic Achievement Among U.S. Children From Ages 5 to 14." Child Development 86,6 (November/December 2015): 1738-1758.
11. Dunifon, Rachel
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Who's In the House? Race Differences in Cohabitation, Single Parenthood and Child Development
Child Development 73,4 (July-August 2002): 1249-1264.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1467-8624.00470/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Child Development; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Cohabitation; Control; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Deviance; Family Structure; Fathers, Absence; Household Composition; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Parental Marital Status; Parenting Skills/Styles; Parents, Single; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Racial Differences

This study examined four questions: (1) How does family structure (specifically, single parenthood, married parent, and cohabitating parent) affect children's delinquency and math test scores? (2) Do these effects differ by race? (3) Do parenting practices mediate the links between family structure and children's outcomes? and (4) Does this mediation differ by race? Unlike some previous work in this area, the present study distinguished between the effects of single parenthood and cohabitation. Using fixed effects techniques to control for unobserved heterogeneity between children in the various family structures, single parenthood was found to be associated with reduced well-being among European American children, but not African American children. Cohabitation was associated with greater delinquency among African American children, and lower math scores among European American children. No evidence was found to indicate that parenting mediated the links between family structure and children's outcomes. Finally, it was found that for African American children, measures of maternal warmth and to provision of rules had direct effects on children's delinquency.
Bibliography Citation
Dunifon, Rachel and Lori Kowaleski-Jones. "Who's In the House? Race Differences in Cohabitation, Single Parenthood and Child Development." Child Development 73,4 (July-August 2002): 1249-1264.
12. Foster, E. Michael
Watkins, Stephanie
The Value of Reanalysis: TV Viewing and Attention Problems
Child Development 81,1 (January/February 2010): 368-375.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01400.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Modeling, Fixed Effects; Mothers, Education; Television Viewing

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 1,159), this study reexamines the link between maternal reports of television viewing at ages 1 and 3 and attention problems at age 7. This work represents a reanalysis and extension of recent research suggesting young children's television viewing causes subsequent attention problems. The nonlinear specification reveals the association between television watching and attention problems exists--if at all--only at very high levels of viewing. Adding 2 covariates to the regression model eliminated even this modest effect. The earlier findings are not robust. This study also considers whether its own findings are sensitive to unobserved confounding using fixed-effects estimation. In general, it finds no meaningful relation between television viewing and attention problems. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Foster, E. Michael and Stephanie Watkins. "The Value of Reanalysis: TV Viewing and Attention Problems." Child Development 81,1 (January/February 2010): 368-375.
13. Garrett, Patricia
Ng'Andu, Nicholas
Ferron, John
Poverty Experiences of Young Children and the Quality of Their Home Environments
Child Development 65,2 (April 1994): 331-345.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1994.tb00754.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Birthweight; Children, Home Environment; Education; Family Characteristics; Family Environment; Family Income; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Infants; Poverty; Racial Differences; Self-Esteem; Social Environment; Socioeconomic Factors

This paper assesses the relative contribution of maternal, household, child, and poverty characteristics to the quality of the home environment. The sample consists of 1,887 children birth to 4 years old from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Ordinary least-squares regression is used to explore conceptually distinct aspects of children's poverty experiences. Poverty variables are found to have a statistically significant effect on the quality of the home environment, after controlling for the effects of other variables in the models. Statistically significant interactions among poverty variables are identified. A major finding is that improvements in family income have the strongest effects on the quality of the home environment for children who were born poor or lived much of their lives in poverty. The conclusion emphasizes implications for future research.
Bibliography Citation
Garrett, Patricia, Nicholas Ng'Andu and John Ferron. "Poverty Experiences of Young Children and the Quality of Their Home Environments." Child Development 65,2 (April 1994): 331-345.
14. Jaffee, Sara R.
Van Hulle, Carol A.
Rodgers, Joseph Lee
Effects of Nonmaternal Care in the First 3 Years on Children's Academic Skills and Behavioral Functioning in Childhood and Early Adolescence: A Sibling Comparison Study
Child Development 82,4 (July/August 2011): 1076–1091.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01611.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Child Care; Kinship; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, Multilevel; Mothers, Behavior; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Siblings; Temperament

Nonmaternal care of infant children is increasingly common, but there is disagreement as to whether it is harmful for children. Using data from 9,185 children (5 years and older) who participated in the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the current study compared 2 groups: those for whom nonmaternal care was initiated in the first 3 years and those for whom it was not. Between-family comparisons showed that early nonmaternal care was associated with higher achievement and lower behavior problem scores in childhood and adolescence. However, within-family comparisons failed to detect differences between siblings who had different early nonmaternal care experiences. The study concludes that the timing of entry to nonmaternal care in the first 3 years has neither positive nor negative effects on children's outcomes.
© 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Bibliography Citation
Jaffee, Sara R., Carol A. Van Hulle and Joseph Lee Rodgers. "Effects of Nonmaternal Care in the First 3 Years on Children's Academic Skills and Behavioral Functioning in Childhood and Early Adolescence: A Sibling Comparison Study." Child Development 82,4 (July/August 2011): 1076–1091. A.
15. Kalil, Ariel
Kunz, James Peter
Teenage Childbearing, Marital Status, and Depressive Symptoms in Later Life
Child Development 73,6 (November-December 2002): 1748-1760.
Also: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1467-8624.00503
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); CESD (Depression Scale); Childbearing; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Depression (see also CESD); Household Composition; Marital Status; Mothers, Education; Racial Differences; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem)

This study examined the role of prechildbearing characteristics in later-life depressive symptomatology among 990 married and unmarried teenage childbearers. Data from teenagers in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) were used to test the relative contribution of age and marital status at first birth to depressive symptomatology measured during young adulthood (ages 27-29). Unmarried teenage childbearers displayed higher levels of depressive symptoms in young adulthood than did women who first gave birth as married adults. However, the psychological health of married teenager mothers later in life was as good as that of married adult mothers, whereas unmarried adult mothers and unmarried teenage mothers had similar poor outcomes. The findings of this study suggest that marital status, rather than age of first birth, may be more relevant for later-life psychological health.
Bibliography Citation
Kalil, Ariel and James Peter Kunz. "Teenage Childbearing, Marital Status, and Depressive Symptoms in Later Life." Child Development 73,6 (November-December 2002): 1748-1760.
16. Kalil, Ariel
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
Single Mothers' Employment Dynamics and Adolescent Well-Being
Child Development 76,1 (January/February 2005): 196-212.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2005.00839.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); CESD (Depression Scale); Maternal Employment; Parents, Single; Pearlin Mastery Scale; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); School Completion; School Dropouts; School Progress; Self-Esteem

The links between single mothers' employment patterns and change over time in the well-being of the mothers' adolescent children were investigated using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Adolescents were ages 14 to 16 at baseline, and they and their mothers were followed for 2 years. Relative to being continuously employed in a good job, findings suggest that adolescents whose mothers lose a job without regaining employment show declines in mastery and self-esteem, those whose mothers are continuously employed in a bad job show an increased likelihood of grade repetition, and those whose mothers are either persistently unemployed or lose more than one job show an increased likelihood of school dropout. These effects are not explained by concomitant changes in family income. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Kalil, Ariel and Kathleen M. Ziol-Guest. "Single Mothers' Employment Dynamics and Adolescent Well-Being." Child Development 76,1 (January/February 2005): 196-212.
17. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Duncan, Greg J.
The Structure of Achievement and Behavior across Middle Childhood
Child Development 70,4 (July-August 1999): 930-943.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1467-8624.00067/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Gender Differences; Heterogeneity; LISREL; Modeling; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Racial Differences; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

This research uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to describe and model developmental trajectories across middle childhood. Our sample consists of approximately 1,000 children of NLSY women who were age 6-7 in either 1986 or 1988. Assessments of PIAT math and reading scores and the mother-reported Behavior Problem Index in 1986, 1988, 1990 and 1992 provide data for middle-child trajectories of children age 6-7 in 1986. Assessments in 1988, 1990, 1992 and 1994 provide data for children age 6-7 in 1988. We use the raw-score form of these data to estimate LISREL-based models of their autoregressive structure. As with other samples, average math and reading achievement trajectories are parabolic for NLSY children, with scores increasing at a decreasing rate over this period. Average behavior-problem trajectories are flat. Behind these average shapes is extreme diversity in level, and in some cases, slopes, of individual trajectories, and a pronounced tendency for above average changes between two adjacent assessments to be followed by opposite-signed changes in the subsequent period. Estimates from our structural models showed great heterogeneity in the average level of achievement and behavior for all three outcomes and heterogeneous slopes for reading scores as well. Boys but not girls were found to have heterogeneous slopes for math and behavior problems, while girls but not boys showed a significantly higher degree of persistence if "shocked" off of their expected trajectories.
Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori and Greg J. Duncan. "The Structure of Achievement and Behavior across Middle Childhood." Child Development 70,4 (July-August 1999): 930-943.
18. Luster, Thomas
McAdoo, Harriette Pipes
Factors Related to the Achievement and Adjustment of Young African American Children
Child Development 65,4 (August 1994): 1080-1094.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1994.tb00804.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Child Development; Children; Children, Academic Development; Children, Behavioral Development; Children, Home Environment; Deviance; General Assessment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Poverty; Rural/Urban Differences; Self-Esteem; Simultaneity

Recent studies have shown that children are most likely to experience academic or behavioral problems when they are exposed to several risk factors (i.e., poverty, large family size) simultaneously. This study utilizes data from the NLSY to examine factors related to the achievement and adjustment of black children in the early elementary grades. Consistent with past research, there was a direct relation between the number of risk factors to which children were exposed and the probability that they were experiencing academic or behavioral problems. Positive outcomes (scoring in the top quartile for this sample) were associated with high scores on an "advantage index".
Bibliography Citation
Luster, Thomas and Harriette Pipes McAdoo. "Factors Related to the Achievement and Adjustment of Young African American Children." Child Development 65,4 (August 1994): 1080-1094.
19. Macmillan, Ross
McMorris, Barbara J.
Kruttschnitt, Candace
Linked Lives: Stability and Change in Maternal Circumstances and Trajectories of Antisocial Behavior in Children
Child Development 75,1 (January/February 2004): 205-220.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00664.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Children, Adjustment Problems; Family Influences; Life Course; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Poverty

Drawing on the notion of linked lives, this study examined the effects of stability and change in maternal circumstance on developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior in children 4 to 7 years of age. Using data from a national sample of young mothers and growth curve analysis, the study demonstrated that early maternal circumstances influences early antisocial behavior, whereas stability and change in these circumstances both exacerbate and ameliorate behavior problems. Of particular note, meaningful escape from poverty attenuates antisocial behavior whereas persistence in poverty or long-term movement into poverty intensifies such problems. These findings highlight the importance of structural context for parenting practices and the need to consider child development in light of dynamic and changing life-course fortunes of parents.
Bibliography Citation
Macmillan, Ross, Barbara J. McMorris and Candace Kruttschnitt. "Linked Lives: Stability and Change in Maternal Circumstances and Trajectories of Antisocial Behavior in Children." Child Development 75,1 (January/February 2004): 205-220.
20. Mendle, Jane
Harden, K. Paige
Turkheimer, Eric
Van Hulle, Carol A.
D'Onofrio, Brian M.
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Rodgers, Joseph Lee
Emery, Robert E.
Lahey, Benjamin B.
Associations Between Father Absence and Age of First Sexual Intercourse
Child Development 80,5 (September/October 2009): 1463-1480.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01345.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Adolescent Sexual Activity; Age at First Intercourse; Family Structure; Fathers, Absence; Genetics; Kinship; Sexual Activity; Siblings

Children raised without a biological father in the household have earlier average ages of first sexual intercourse than children raised in father-present households. Competing theoretical perspectives have attributed this either to effects of father absence on socialization and physical maturation or to nonrandom selection of children predisposed for early sexual intercourse into father-absent households. Genetically informative analyses of the children of sister dyads (N = 1,382, aged 14–21 years) support the selection hypothesis: This association seems attributable to confounded risks, most likely genetic in origin, which correlated both with likelihood of father absence and early sexual behavior. This holds implications for environmental theories of maturation and suggests that previous research may have inadvertently overestimated the role of family structure in reproductive maturation.
Bibliography Citation
Mendle, Jane, K. Paige Harden, Eric Turkheimer, Carol A. Van Hulle, Brian M. D'Onofrio, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Joseph Lee Rodgers, Robert E. Emery and Benjamin B. Lahey. "Associations Between Father Absence and Age of First Sexual Intercourse." Child Development 80,5 (September/October 2009): 1463-1480.
21. Price, Joseph P.
Kalil, Ariel
The Effect of Mother-Child Reading Time on Children's Reading Skills: Evidence From Natural Within‐Family Variation
Child Development published online (28 August 2018): DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13137.
Also: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/cdev.13137
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Achievement; Parent-Child Interaction; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

Children's exposure to book reading is thought to be an influential input into positive cognitive development. Yet there is little empirical research identifying whether it is reading time per se, or other factors associated with families who read, such as parental education or children's reading skill, that improves children's achievement. Using data on 4,239 children ages 0-13 of the female respondents of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this study applies two different methodologies to identify the causal impact of mother-child reading time on children's achievement scores by controlling for several confounding child and family characteristics. The results show that a 1 SD increase in mother-child reading time increases children's reading achievement by 0.80 SDs.
Bibliography Citation
Price, Joseph P. and Ariel Kalil. "The Effect of Mother-Child Reading Time on Children's Reading Skills: Evidence From Natural Within‐Family Variation." Child Development published online (28 August 2018): DOI: 10.1111/cdev.13137.
22. Rowe, David C.
Rodgers, Joseph Lee
Meseck-Bushey, Sylvia
Sibling Delinquency and the Family Environment: Shared and Unshared Influences
Child Development 63,1 (February 1992): 59-67.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1992.tb03595.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Birth Order; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Family Environment; Family Income; Family Influences; Family Size; Family Structure; Gender Differences; Genetics; Illegal Activities; Kinship; Pairs (also see Siblings); Racial Differences; Self-Reporting; Siblings

A sibling research design is used to evaluate two hypotheses about sibling resemblance in delinquency: (1) a genetic hypothesis, which requires sibling resemblance to be independent of birth position and family structure; and (2) an environmental hypothesis, which requires moderation of resemblance by family composition and structure. The study used a subset of sibling pairs from the NLSY, a nationally representative data set, and uniquely, families of size 2, 3, and 4 siblings. The genetic hypothesis was generally supported for sisters and mixed sex siblings, but an environmental hypothesis or combination hypothesis may apply to brothers. The median sibling correlations, averaged over family sizes, were: r = .30, brothers; r = .28, sisters; and r = .20, mixed sex siblings.
Bibliography Citation
Rowe, David C., Joseph Lee Rodgers and Sylvia Meseck-Bushey. "Sibling Delinquency and the Family Environment: Shared and Unshared Influences." Child Development 63,1 (February 1992): 59-67.
23. Ryan, Rebecca M.
Claessens, Amy
Markowitz, Anna J.
Associations Between Family Structure Change and Child Behavior Problems: The Moderating Effect of Family Income
Child Development 86,1 (January/February 2015): 112-127.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/cdev.12283/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birthweight; Children, Behavioral Development; Children, Poverty; Divorce; Family Income; Family Structure; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Marital Dissolution; Parental Influences; Parental Marital Status; Parents, Single

This study investigated conditions under which family structure matters most for child well-being. Using data from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 3,936), a national sample of U.S. families, it was estimated how changes in family structure related to changes in children's behavior between age 3 and 12 separately by household income level to determine whether associations depended on families' resources. Early changes in family structure, particularly from a two-biological-parent to single-parent family, predicted increases in behavior problems more than later changes, and movements into single and stepparent families mattered more for children of higher versus lower income parents. Results suggest that for children of higher income parents, moving into a stepfamily may improve, not undermine, behavior.
Bibliography Citation
Ryan, Rebecca M., Amy Claessens and Anna J. Markowitz. "Associations Between Family Structure Change and Child Behavior Problems: The Moderating Effect of Family Income." Child Development 86,1 (January/February 2015): 112-127.
24. Turley Lopez, Ruth N.
Are Children of Young Mothers Disadvantaged Because of Their Mother's Age or Family Background?
Child Development 74,2 (March/April 2003): 465-474.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1467-8624.7402010/pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

Using a national sample of children 3 to 16 years old, this study found that the lower test scores and increased behavior problems of children born to younger mothers are not due to her age but to her family background. First, for nonfirstborn children, maternal age at first birth has a significant effect on test scores, whereas maternal age at the child's birth does not. Second, this study replicated a controversial study by Geronimus, Korenman, and Hillemeier (1994) and found that the disadvantage of children born to younger mothers is greatly reduced when maternal family background is controlled through a comparison of children born to sisters. Third, maternal age is not an important predictor of children's test score rates of improvement over time. This evidence suggests that maternal age is not causal.
Bibliography Citation
Turley Lopez, Ruth N. "Are Children of Young Mothers Disadvantaged Because of Their Mother's Age or Family Background?" Child Development 74,2 (March/April 2003): 465-474.
25. Vandell, Deborah Lowe
Ramanan, Janaki
Effects of Early and Recent Maternal Employment on Children from Low-Income Families
Child Development 63,4 (August 1992): 938-949.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1992.tb01673.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children; Children, Academic Development; Children, School-Age; Family Background; Family Income; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Marital Status; Maternal Employment; Memory for Digit Span (WISC) - also see Digit Span; Mothers; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Poverty; Self-Esteem; Sex Roles; Welfare

The effects of early maternal employment (employment during the child's first 3 years) and recent maternal employment (employment during the previous 3 years) on 189 second-grade children from low-income families were examined. Maternal employment was related to a number of selection factors. In comparison to mothers who were not employed, employed mothers scored higher on a mental aptitude test and were more highly educated. Both early and recent maternal employment were also associated with measures of the current family functioning: there was less poverty and higher HOME environment scores when mothers were employed. Hierarchical multiple regressions showed that children's math achievement was positively predicted by early maternal employment and children's reading achievement was positively predicted by recent maternal employment. even after controlling for selection effects and current family: environment. These results are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms by which maternal employment may affect children's development.
Bibliography Citation
Vandell, Deborah Lowe and Janaki Ramanan. "Effects of Early and Recent Maternal Employment on Children from Low-Income Families." Child Development 63,4 (August 1992): 938-949.
26. Yoshikawa, Hirokazu
Welfare Dynamics, Support Services, Mothers' Earnings, and Child Cognitive Development: Implications for Contemporary Welfare Reform
Child Development 70,3 (May-June 1999): 779-801.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1467-8624.00056/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Child Care; Child Support; Cognitive Ability; Educational Attainment; Human Capital; Job Training; Maternal Employment; Mothers, Income; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Support Networks; Welfare

This prospective longitudinal study, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), addresses the gap in the research literature regarding the effects of welfare reform on children. Key questions addressed include whether welfare dynamics and support services relevant to welfare reform, both measured across the first five years of life, are associated with mothers' earnings in the sixth year and three child cognitive outcomes in the seventh and eighth years: Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) math and reading scores, and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT). Welfare dynamics are represented by total time on welfare, degree of cycling on and off welfare, and degree to which welfare and work are combined. Support services measured include three forms of child care (relative, babysitter, and center based), as well as three forms of human capital supports (child support, job training, and education). Controlling for a range of background factors and for different patterns of welfare use across the first five years, small positive associations with mother's earnings were found for child support, education, and job training. Small positive associations were also found between child support and both math and reading scores. Finally positive associations of medium effect size were found between center care and-both mothers' earnings and child PPVT scores. Although effect sizes are generally small, the results suggest the potential value of welfare reform approaches which emphasize long-term human capital development. Interactions among welfare dynamics and support services suggest subgroup differences. Specifically, positive effects of support services on earnings are strongest among mothers with higher levels of human capital (higher levels of work while on welfare, lower total time on welfare). Babysitter care appears to have negative effects on both reading and math scores of children whose mothers report low levels of work while on we lfare. Implications for welfare reform policy are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Yoshikawa, Hirokazu. "Welfare Dynamics, Support Services, Mothers' Earnings, and Child Cognitive Development: Implications for Contemporary Welfare Reform." Child Development 70,3 (May-June 1999): 779-801.