Search Results

Author: Beaver, Kevin M.
Resulting in 11 citations.
1. Beaver, Kevin M.
Connolly, Eric J.
Schwartz, Joseph A.
Al-Ghamdi, Mohammed Said
Kobeisy, Ahmed Nezar
Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Stability and Change in Levels of Self-Control
Journal of Criminal Justice 41,5 (September-October 2013): 300-308.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004723521300069X
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Genetics; Kinship; Self-Regulation/Self-Control; Siblings

Purpose: There has been an emerging body of research estimating the stability in levels of self-control across different sections of the life course. At the same time, some of this research has attempted to examine the factors that account for both stability and change in levels of self-control. Missing from much of this research is a concerted focus on the genetic and environmental architecture of stability and change in self-control.

Methods: The current study was designed to address this issue by analyzing a sample of kinship pairs drawn from the Child and Young Adult Supplement of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (CNLSY).

Results: Analyses of these data revealed that genetic factors accounted for between 74 and 92 percent of the stability in self-control and between 78 and 89 percent of the change in self-control. Shared and nonshared environmental factors explained the rest of the stability and change in levels of self-control.

Conclusions: A combination of genetic and environmental influences is responsible for the stability and change in levels of self-control over time.

Bibliography Citation
Beaver, Kevin M., Eric J. Connolly, Joseph A. Schwartz, Mohammed Said Al-Ghamdi and Ahmed Nezar Kobeisy. "Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Stability and Change in Levels of Self-Control." Journal of Criminal Justice 41,5 (September-October 2013): 300-308.
2. Boutwell, Brian B.
Connolly, Eric J.
Barbaro, Nicole
Shackelford, Todd K.
Petkovsek, Melissa
Beaver, Kevin M.
On the Genetic and Environmental Reasons Why Intelligence Correlates with Criminal Victimization
Intelligence 62 (May 2017): 155-166.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289617300077
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult, NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Bullying/Victimization; Family Influences; Intelligence; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Siblings

Researchers have expended considerable effort to understand the causes and correlates of criminal victimization. More recently, scholars have focused on identifying individual-level traits that increase the odds of victimization. Generally absent from this line of research, however, is examining the extent to which previously unmeasured genetic and environmental influences contribute to the covariation between victimization and individual-level risk factors. The current study aims to replicate and extend prior research by examining the contribution of genetic and environmental influences on the association between intelligence and victimization by analyzing twin and sibling data from two nationally representative samples of American youth. Quantitative genetic analyses indicate that common additive genetic factors, as well as non-shared environmental factors, explained the phenotypic association between intelligence and victimization. Finally, our results revealed that after correcting for possible familial confounding, the effect of intelligence on victimization experiences remained statistically significant. The findings of the current study replicate and extend prior research on the phenotypic association between indicators of general intelligence and the experience of victimization.
Bibliography Citation
Boutwell, Brian B., Eric J. Connolly, Nicole Barbaro, Todd K. Shackelford, Melissa Petkovsek and Kevin M. Beaver. "On the Genetic and Environmental Reasons Why Intelligence Correlates with Criminal Victimization." Intelligence 62 (May 2017): 155-166.
3. Connolly, Eric J.
Beaver, Kevin M.
Assessing the Salience of Gene-Environment Interplay in the Development of Anger, Family Conflict, and Physical Violence: A Biosocial Test of General Strain Theory
Journal of Criminal Justice 43,6 (November-December 2015): 487-497.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004723521530009X
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Behavior, Violent; Family Decision-making/Conflict; Genetics; Health, Mental; Kinship; Siblings

Behavioral genetic methods were used to assess gene-environment interplay between anger, family conflict, and violence using a subsample of kinship pairs drawn from the Child and Young Adult Supplement of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth.
Bibliography Citation
Connolly, Eric J. and Kevin M. Beaver. "Assessing the Salience of Gene-Environment Interplay in the Development of Anger, Family Conflict, and Physical Violence: A Biosocial Test of General Strain Theory." Journal of Criminal Justice 43,6 (November-December 2015): 487-497.
4. Connolly, Eric J.
Beaver, Kevin M.
Considering the Genetic and Environmental Overlap Between Bullying Victimization, Delinquency, and Symptoms of Depression/Anxiety
Journal of Interpersonal Violence 31,7 (April 2016): 1230-1256.
Also: http://jiv.sagepub.com/content/31/7/1230
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Anxiety; Bullying/Victimization; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Depression (see also CESD); Genetics; Health, Mental; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Emerging evidence from longitudinal research suggests that bullied children are more likely to develop antisocial tendencies and mental health problems later in life. Less research, however, has used genetically sensitive research designs to control for genetic confounding and examine whether the well-supported association between bullying victimization and maladaptive development is partially accounted for by common genetic and environmental influences. Using sibling data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, the current study used a series of bivariate liability-threshold models to disentangle the genetic and environmental influences on observed covariance between repeated bullying victimization, delinquent involvement, and symptoms of depression/anxiety. Results revealed that common additive genetic and nonshared environmental effects accounted for the covariance in liability between bullying victimization and delinquent involvement as well as bullying victimization and symptoms of depression/anxiety. The results suggest the presence of genotype-environment correlation (rGE) between repeated victimization and maladaptive development.
Bibliography Citation
Connolly, Eric J. and Kevin M. Beaver. "Considering the Genetic and Environmental Overlap Between Bullying Victimization, Delinquency, and Symptoms of Depression/Anxiety." Journal of Interpersonal Violence 31,7 (April 2016): 1230-1256.
5. Connolly, Eric J.
Beaver, Kevin M.
Examining the Genetic and Environmental Influences on Self-Control and Delinquency: Results From a Genetically Informative Analysis of Sibling Pairs
Journal of Interpersonal Violence 29,4 (March 2014): 707-735.
Also: http://jiv.sagepub.com/content/29/4/707.abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Genetics; Kinship; Self-Regulation/Self-Control; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The Child and Young Adult Supplement of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (CNLSY) has been used extensively within criminology. A significant amount of criminological research, for example, has explored various issues related to the correlates, causes, and consequences associated with levels of self-control and delinquent involvement. The overwhelming majority of these CNLSY studies, however, have not accounted for the potential effects of genetic factors on these two widely studied criminological variables and thus the findings generated from previous empirical work may be inaccurate due to genetic confounding. The current study partially addresses this possibility by analyzing a sample of kinship pairs nested within the CNLSY. Analyses of these data revealed that genetic factors accounted for between 51% and 92% of the variance in levels of self-control and between 30% and 41% of the variance in delinquency. We discuss the implications of these results for interpreting findings from the large body of existing research using the CNLSY.
Bibliography Citation
Connolly, Eric J. and Kevin M. Beaver. "Examining the Genetic and Environmental Influences on Self-Control and Delinquency: Results From a Genetically Informative Analysis of Sibling Pairs." Journal of Interpersonal Violence 29,4 (March 2014): 707-735.
6. Connolly, Eric J.
Beaver, Kevin M.
Guns, Gangs, and Genes: Evidence of an Underlying Genetic Influence on Gang Involvement and Carrying a Handgun
Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice 13,3 (July 2015): 228-242.
Also: http://yvj.sagepub.com/content/13/3/228
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Behavior, Violent; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Genetics; Handguns, carrying or using; Kinship; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Handgun and gang violence represent two important threats to public safety. Although several studies have examined the factors that increase the risk for gang membership and handgun carrying, few studies have explored the biosocial underpinnings to the development of both gang involvement and carrying a handgun. The current study addressed this gap in the literature by using kinship data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to estimate the genetic and environmental effects on gang membership, handgun carrying, and the covariance between the two. Results revealed that genetic and nonshared environmental influences accounted for much of the association between gang membership and handgun carrying. Implications of these findings for future gang research are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Connolly, Eric J. and Kevin M. Beaver. "Guns, Gangs, and Genes: Evidence of an Underlying Genetic Influence on Gang Involvement and Carrying a Handgun." Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice 13,3 (July 2015): 228-242.
7. Connolly, Eric J.
Beaver, Kevin M.
Prenatal Caloric Intake and the Development of Academic Achievement Among U.S. Children From Ages 5 to 14
Child Development 86,6 (November/December 2015): 1738-1758.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/cdev.12409/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Birth Order; Birthweight; Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Genetics; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Kinship; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Mothers, Health; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Pre/post Natal Behavior; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety; School Quality; Siblings

Few studies have examined the relation between maternal caloric intake during pregnancy and growth in child academic achievement while controlling for important confounding influences. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the current study examined the effects of reduced prenatal caloric intake on growth in scores on the Peabody Individual Achievement Test from ages 5 to 14. While models controlling for within-family covariates showed that prenatal caloric intake was associated with lower reading and mathematical achievement at age 5, models controlling for between-family covariates (such as maternal IQ) and unobserved familial confounders revealed only a statistically significant association between siblings differentially exposed to prenatal caloric intake and mathematical achievement at age 5.
Bibliography Citation
Connolly, Eric J. and Kevin M. Beaver. "Prenatal Caloric Intake and the Development of Academic Achievement Among U.S. Children From Ages 5 to 14." Child Development 86,6 (November/December 2015): 1738-1758.
8. Connolly, Eric J.
Cooke, Eric M.
Beaver, Kevin M.
Brown, Wyatt
Do Developmental Changes in Impulsivity and Sensation Seeking Uniquely Predict Violent Victimization? A Test of the Dual Systems Model
Journal of Criminal Justice 66 (January-February 2020): 101639.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047235219303265
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Bullying/Victimization; Children, Temperament; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Risk-Taking; Self-Control/Self-Regulation

Methods: The current study analyzed longitudinal data from a population-based sample of youth to assess bidirectional associations among impulsivity, sensation seeking, and violent criminal victimization from ages 16 to 23. Latent growth curve models were estimated to examine developmental trajectories of impulsivity and sensation seeking. Autoregressive cross-lagged models were used to assess the direction of effects between variables over time.

Results: Evidence for the dual systems model of self-control was found with impulsivity and sensation seeking developing at different rates from adolescence into young adulthood. Changes in impulsivity were positively associated with changes in violent criminal victimization from adolescence through young adulthood. However, changes in sensation seeking were not associated with changes in victimization.

Bibliography Citation
Connolly, Eric J., Eric M. Cooke, Kevin M. Beaver and Wyatt Brown. "Do Developmental Changes in Impulsivity and Sensation Seeking Uniquely Predict Violent Victimization? A Test of the Dual Systems Model." Journal of Criminal Justice 66 (January-February 2020): 101639.
9. Connolly, Eric J.
Schwartz, Joseph A.
Jackson, Dylan B.
Beaver, Kevin M.
How Far Does the Apple Fall from the Tree? Maternal Delinquency and Sex-specific Patterns of Offspring Delinquent Behavior
Journal of Criminal Justice 54 (January-February 2018): 50-61.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047235217305159
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Parental Influences

Purpose: Examine whether parental offending is directly associated with male and female offspring patterns of delinquent behavior during adolescence and indirectly associated with risk for criminal conviction in young adulthood.

Methods: Latent growth curve models and growth mixture models are estimated using intergenerational data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine the effects of maternal offending on rates of growth and distinct trajectories of delinquent behavior in male and female children.

Results: The results revealed that maternal offending was associated with higher starting levels and slower rates of decline in delinquent behavior in male and female children. Growth mixture modeling, however, revealed that a four-class solution explained patterns of delinquency in male offspring, while a three-class solution explained patterns of delinquency in female offspring. Multivariate analyses indicated that maternal offending was more strongly associated with male offending classes than female offending classes, with males in the high and slowly declining class and moderate and increasing class demonstrating the highest risk for criminal conviction in young adulthood.

Conclusions: Maternal offending is more strongly associated with serious patterns of delinquent behavior and risk for future criminal conviction in male offspring than in female offspring.

Bibliography Citation
Connolly, Eric J., Joseph A. Schwartz, Dylan B. Jackson and Kevin M. Beaver. "How Far Does the Apple Fall from the Tree? Maternal Delinquency and Sex-specific Patterns of Offspring Delinquent Behavior." Journal of Criminal Justice 54 (January-February 2018): 50-61.
10. Connolly, Eric J.
Schwartz, Joseph A.
Nedelec, Joseph L.
Beaver, Kevin M.
Barnes, J. C.
Different Slopes for Different Folks: Genetic Influences on Growth in Delinquent Peer Association and Delinquency During Adolescence
Journal of Youth and Adolescence 44,7 (July 2015): 1413-1427.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10964-015-0299-8/fulltext.html
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Delinquency/Gang Activity; Genetics; Kinship; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

An extensive line of research has identified delinquent peer association as a salient environmental risk factor for delinquency, especially during adolescence. While previous research has found moderate-to-strong associations between exposure to delinquent peers and a variety of delinquent behaviors, comparatively less scholarship has focused on the genetic architecture of this association over the course of adolescence. Using a subsample of kinship pairs (N = 2379; 52% female) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth--Child and Young Adult Supplement (CNLSY), the present study examined the extent to which correlated individual differences in starting levels and developmental growth in delinquent peer pressure and self-reported delinquency were explained by additive genetic and environmental influences. Results from a series of biometric growth models revealed that 37% of the variance in correlated growth between delinquent peer pressure and self-reported delinquency was explained by additive genetic effects, while nonshared environmental effects accounted for the remaining 63% of the variance. Implications of these findings for interpreting the nexus between peer effects and adolescent delinquency are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Connolly, Eric J., Joseph A. Schwartz, Joseph L. Nedelec, Kevin M. Beaver and J. C. Barnes. "Different Slopes for Different Folks: Genetic Influences on Growth in Delinquent Peer Association and Delinquency During Adolescence." Journal of Youth and Adolescence 44,7 (July 2015): 1413-1427.
11. Turner, Michael G.
Livecchi, Crista M.
Beaver, Kevin M.
Booth, Jeb
Moving Beyond the Socialization Hypothesis: The Effects of Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy on the Development of Self-control
Journal of Criminal Justice 39,2 (March-April 2011): 120-127.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047235210002175
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Neighborhood Effects; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Parenting Skills/Styles; Parents, Behavior; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Racial Differences; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety; Self-Regulation/Self-Control; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Purpose: Gottfredson and Hirschi, in A General Theory of Crime, argue that the primary source of self-control is parental socialization. Specifically, parents who fail to supervise their children, to recognize their child's deviant behavior, and to punish such behavior are more likely to raise children with lower levels of self-control. Recent empirical research, however, has broadened the explanatory factors to include sources within schools, neighborhoods, and individual factors as significant contributors to the development of self-control. This study proposes that maternal smoking during pregnancy places additional limits on the development of self-control.

Methods: Using a subsample of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (N = 542), we provide a comprehensive investigation of the variety of sources of self-control to include both individual and environmental covariates.

Results: Results indicate that maternal smoking during pregnancy significantly impacts the development of self-control net of parental, neighborhood, and school socialization. We also found that individual sources of self-control significantly vary across race and neighborhood context.

Conclusions: The sources of self-control are more complex than socialization from parents, schools, and within neighborhoods occurring in childhood and adolescence.

Bibliography Citation
Turner, Michael G., Crista M. Livecchi, Kevin M. Beaver and Jeb Booth. "Moving Beyond the Socialization Hypothesis: The Effects of Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy on the Development of Self-control." Journal of Criminal Justice 39,2 (March-April 2011): 120-127.