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Author: Kunz, James Peter
Resulting in 3 citations.
1. Kalil, Ariel
Kunz, James Peter
Long-Term Effects of Teenage Childbearing on Mental Health in Young Adulthood
Presented: Evanston, IL, Nothrwestern University, Joint Center for Poverty Research: Poverty Research Seminars 2000-2001, May 2001.
Also: http://www.jcpr.org/povsem/teenmoms_paper.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Joint Center for Poverty Research
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); CESD (Depression Scale); Depression (see also CESD); Family Background; Fertility; Health, Mental; Marriage; Parental Marital Status; Self-Esteem

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

High levels of depressive symptoms among teenage mothers are typically attributed to the "impact" or "consequences" of early parenting; recent studies, however, challenge the view that negative life outcomes observed among teenage childbearers are attributable to early childbearing, per se, suggesting instead that pre-childbearing selection factors play an important role. We draw on data from 609 black and white adolescents in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) to test the relative contribution of age and marital status at first birth to depressive symptomatology measured during young adulthood (ages 27-29). At the univariate level, teenage childbearers display, as expected, significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms during young adulthood than women who first give birth as married adults. These differences are dramatically reduced and no longer significant once pre-childbearing individual background characteristics, measured during adolescence, are controlled. Academic achievement and self-esteem measured in early adolescence are especially important in explaining differences among the groups in mental health in later life.
Bibliography Citation
Kalil, Ariel and James Peter Kunz. "Long-Term Effects of Teenage Childbearing on Mental Health in Young Adulthood." Presented: Evanston, IL, Nothrwestern University, Joint Center for Poverty Research: Poverty Research Seminars 2000-2001, May 2001.
2. Kalil, Ariel
Kunz, James Peter
Teenage Childbearing, Marital Status, and Depressive Symptoms in Later Life
Child Development 73,6 (November-December 2002): 1748-1760.
Also: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1467-8624.00503
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); CESD (Depression Scale); Childbearing; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Depression (see also CESD); Household Composition; Marital Status; Mothers, Education; Racial Differences; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem)

This study examined the role of prechildbearing characteristics in later-life depressive symptomatology among 990 married and unmarried teenage childbearers. Data from teenagers in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) were used to test the relative contribution of age and marital status at first birth to depressive symptomatology measured during young adulthood (ages 27-29). Unmarried teenage childbearers displayed higher levels of depressive symptoms in young adulthood than did women who first gave birth as married adults. However, the psychological health of married teenager mothers later in life was as good as that of married adult mothers, whereas unmarried adult mothers and unmarried teenage mothers had similar poor outcomes. The findings of this study suggest that marital status, rather than age of first birth, may be more relevant for later-life psychological health.
Bibliography Citation
Kalil, Ariel and James Peter Kunz. "Teenage Childbearing, Marital Status, and Depressive Symptoms in Later Life." Child Development 73,6 (November-December 2002): 1748-1760.
3. Kunz, James Peter
Welfare and Poverty: Pathways to Adult Economic Outcomes
Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Michigan, 1997
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Educational Attainment; Fatherhood; Labor Market Outcomes; Mothers, Adolescent; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Parenthood; Parents, Single; Poverty; Self-Esteem; Welfare

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience youth cohort, the educational and labor market outcomes of young men in the United States were examined, with emphasis on adolescent fathers. Adolescent fathers complete fewer years of education and are less likely to finish high school compared to adult fathers. As a result of federal welfare reform legislation passed in 1996, states are required to impose lifetime limits on federal welfare benefits to low-income families and are allowed to prohibit benefits to unmarried teenagers. Both provisions have been justified as being in the long-run economic interest of children and teenagers. Proponents of lifetime limits argue that children from welfare families become caught up in a "cycle of dependency" and, as a result, work less, earn less, and become more likely to be on welfare themselves when they become adults. Those who would prohibit assistance to unmarried teenagers argue that these women also compare unfavorably as adults to women who wait until they are married or in their twenties to have children. While it may well be true that both children from welfare families and unmarried teenagers fare more poorly as adults, the pathways by which these results obtain are much less understood. This dissertation explores some of the path ways from poverty, welfare, and single teen motherhood to poor adult outcomes. First, an overview of the theoretical perspectives that have been brought to bear on the intergenerational effects of the Aid to Dependent Families with Children (AFDC) is presented and recent studies of these effects are critiqued. This review finds scant theoretical justification, in either the economic, sociological, or psychological literature, for the belief that welfare, in and of itself, causes poor adult outcomes and concludes that it is difficult to separate the effects of welfare from the effects of poverty. Following this review, two empirical studies examine commonly cited pathways to poor adult outcomes. The first study uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and finds that family welfare receipt during childhood has little effect on measured self-esteem during early adolescence. The second study uses the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to look at the impact of single teen motherhood on later economic outcomes and finds that controlling for unmeasured family background reduces, but does not eliminate, these negative effects. Taken together, these findings suggest that the long-run benefits of placing time limits on welfare and prohibiting aid to teenagers are likely to be overstated.
Bibliography Citation
Kunz, James Peter. Welfare and Poverty: Pathways to Adult Economic Outcomes. Ph.D. Dissertation, The University of Michigan, 1997.