Search Results

Source: Economics of Education Review
Resulting in 53 citations.
1. Altindag, Duha
Cannonier, Colin
Mocan, Naci
The Impact of Education on Health Knowledge
Economics of Education Review 30,5 (October 2011): 792-812.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775710001214
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; College Education; Educational Attainment; Health Factors; High School Completion/Graduates; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Scale Construction

The theory on the demand for health suggests that schooling causes health because schooling increases the efficiency of health production. Alternatively, the allocative efficiency hypothesis argues that schooling alters the input mix chosen to produce health. This suggests that the more educated have more knowledge about the health production function and they have more health knowledge. This paper uses data from the 1997 and 2002 waves of the NLSY97 to conduct an investigation of the allocative efficiency hypothesis by analyzing whether education improves health knowledge. The survey design allows us to observe the increase in health knowledge of young adults after their level of schooling is increased by differential and plausibly exogenous amounts. Using nine different questions measuring health knowledge, we find weak evidence that an increase in education generates an improvement in health knowledge for those who ultimately attend college. For those with high school as the terminal degree, no relationship is found between education and health knowledge. These results imply that the allocative efficiency hypothesis may not be the primary reason for why schooling impacts health outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Altindag, Duha, Colin Cannonier and Naci Mocan. "The Impact of Education on Health Knowledge." Economics of Education Review 30,5 (October 2011): 792-812.
2. Arkes, Jeremy
What Do Educational Credentials Signal and Why Do Employers Value Credentials?
Economics of Education Review 18,1 (February 1999): 133-141.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775798000247
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); College Graduates; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; High School; High School Diploma

Examines whether employers can infer information about workers' precollege abilities from acquired college credentials and value attainment of credentials because they signal these abilities. Analysis of 1993 National Longitudinal Study of Youth data reveals that employers value attainment of a bachelor's degree for these reasons. Academic degrees may mark other worthwhile attributes, such as motivation and perseverance. (12 references) (MLH)
Bibliography Citation
Arkes, Jeremy. "What Do Educational Credentials Signal and Why Do Employers Value Credentials?" Economics of Education Review 18,1 (February 1999): 133-141.
3. Ashworth, Jared
Ransom, Tyler
Has the College Wage Premium Continued to Rise? Evidence from Multiple U.S. Surveys
Economics of Education Review 69 (April 2019): 149-154. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775718304862
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): American Community Survey; College Education; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Educational Returns; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP); Wages

This paper examines trends in the college wage premium (CWP) by birth cohort across the five major household surveys in the United States: the Census/ACS, CPS, NLSY, PSID, and SIPP. We document a general flattening in the CWP for birth cohorts 1970 and onward in each survey and even a decline for birth cohorts 1980-1984 in the NLSY. We discuss potential reasons for this finding and show that the empirical discrepancy is not a function of differences in composition across surveys. Our results provide crucial context for the vast economic literatures that use these surveys to answer important policy questions about intertemporal changes in the returns to skill.
Bibliography Citation
Ashworth, Jared and Tyler Ransom. "Has the College Wage Premium Continued to Rise? Evidence from Multiple U.S. Surveys." Economics of Education Review 69 (April 2019): 149-154. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775718304862.
4. Astorne-Figari, Carmen
Speer, Jamin D.
Are Changes of Major Major Changes? The Roles of Grades, Gender, and Preferences in College Major Switching
Economics of Education Review 70 (June 2019): 75-93.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775718304680
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): College Major/Field of Study/Courses; Gender Differences; Grade Point Average (GPA)/Grades; STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics)

The choice of college major is a key stage in the career search, and over a third of college students switch majors at least once. We provide the first comprehensive analysis of major switching, looking at the patterns of switching in both academic and non-academic dimensions. Low grades signal academic mismatch and predict switching majors - and the lower the grades, the larger the switch in terms of course content. Surprisingly, these switches do not improve students' grades. When students switch majors, they switch to majors that "look like them": females to female-heavy majors, and so on. Lower-ability women flee competitive majors at high rates, while men and higher-ability women are undeterred. Women are far more likely to leave STEM fields for majors that are less competitive -- but still somewhat science-intensive -- suggesting that leaving STEM may be more about fleeing the "culture" of STEM majors than fleeing science and math.
Bibliography Citation
Astorne-Figari, Carmen and Jamin D. Speer. "Are Changes of Major Major Changes? The Roles of Grades, Gender, and Preferences in College Major Switching." Economics of Education Review 70 (June 2019): 75-93.
5. Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen
The Effects of High School Math Curriculum on College Attendance: Evidence from the NLSY97
Economics of Education Review 31,6 (December 2012): 861-870.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775712000726?v=s5
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): College Characteristics; College Enrollment; High School Curriculum

Using a sample of youth who graduated from high school in the late 1990s and early 2000s, this paper examines the impact of high school math curriculum on the decision to go to college. Results that control for unobserved differences between students and their families suggest that a more rigorous high school math curriculum is associated with a higher probability of attending college and of attending a 4-year college. The household fixed effect results imply that students who take an advanced academic math curriculum in high school (algebra II or precalculus, trigonometry, or calculus) are about 17 percentage points more likely to go to college and 20 percentage points more likely to start college at a 4-year school by age 21 compared to those students whose highest math class was algebra I or geometry.
Bibliography Citation
Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen. "The Effects of High School Math Curriculum on College Attendance: Evidence from the NLSY97." Economics of Education Review 31,6 (December 2012): 861-870.
6. Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen
Rothstein, Donna S.
Do Cognitive Skills Moderate the Influence of Neighborhood Disadvantage on Subsequent Educational Attainment?
Economics of Education Review 44 (February 2015): 83-99.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S027277571400096X
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Cognitive Ability; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Educational Attainment; Educational Outcomes; Geocoded Data; Neighborhood Effects; Noncognitive Skills; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

This paper examines how neighborhood quality affects young adults' educational outcomes, and whether neighborhood effects are moderated by cognitive test scores and other proxies for investments during childhood. The empirical results imply that high cognitive test scores help young adults overcome the effects of having lived in a disadvantaged neighborhood during adolescence with respect to attainment of a high school diploma and enrollment in a two- or four-year college. The results are robust to using alternative proxies for investments in children, such as mother's highest grade completed and measures of non-cognitive skills.
Bibliography Citation
Aughinbaugh, Alison Aileen and Donna S. Rothstein. "Do Cognitive Skills Moderate the Influence of Neighborhood Disadvantage on Subsequent Educational Attainment? ." Economics of Education Review 44 (February 2015): 83-99.
7. Bacolod, Marigee Ponla
Hotz, V. Joseph
Cohort Changes in the Transition from School to Work: Evidence from Three NLS Surveys
Economics of Education Review 25,4 (August 2006): 351-373.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775706000240
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Endogeneity; Family Background; Hispanics; Skills; Transition, School to Work; Wage Growth; Wages

This study examines the changes in the school-to-work transition of young adults in the United States over the latter part of the twentieth century. Their transition is portrayed using data from National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women, Young Men, and Youth 1979. In general, we find that indicators of educational attainment, working while in school and non-school related work increased across cohorts for almost all racial/ethnic and gender groups. This was especially true for young women. Furthermore, various indicators of personal and family backgrounds changed in ways consistent with an improvement across cohorts in the preparation of young men and women for their attainment of schooling and work experience and their success in the labor market. The one exception to this general picture of improvement across cohorts was Hispanic men, who experienced a notable decline in educational attainment and in a variety of personal and family background characteristics. With respect to hourly wage rates, we find that wages over the ages 16 through 27 declined across cohorts. However, the rate of growth of wages with age, particularly over adult ages, increased across cohorts, except Hispanic men. Our findings highlight the need for accounting for the endogeneity and selectivity of early skill acquisition. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR; Copyright 2006 Elsevier]
Bibliography Citation
Bacolod, Marigee Ponla and V. Joseph Hotz. "Cohort Changes in the Transition from School to Work: Evidence from Three NLS Surveys." Economics of Education Review 25,4 (August 2006): 351-373.
8. Bjerk, David
Re-examining the Impact of Dropping Out on Criminal and Labor Outcomes in Early Adulthood
Economics of Education Review 31,1 (February 2012): 110-122.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775711001506
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Crime; High School Completion/Graduates; High School Dropouts; Labor Market Outcomes

This paper shows that while high school dropouts fare far worse on average than otherwise similar high school completers in early adulthood outcomes such as success in the labor market and future criminal activity, there are important differences within this group of dropouts. Notably, those who feel “pulled” out of school (i.e., they say they dropped out of school to work or take care of family) do similarly with respect to labor market and criminal outcomes in their early twenties to individuals with similar pre-dropout characteristics who complete high school. It is only those who feel they are more “pushed” out of school (i.e., they say they drop out for other reasons including expulsion, poor grades, moving, and not liking school) who do substantially worse than otherwise similar high school completers. These results suggest that any detrimental impacts from dropping out of school arise primarily when the drop out does not have a plan for how to use his time after dropping out.
Bibliography Citation
Bjerk, David. "Re-examining the Impact of Dropping Out on Criminal and Labor Outcomes in Early Adulthood." Economics of Education Review 31,1 (February 2012): 110-122.
9. Blackburn, McKinley L.
The Role of Test Scores in Explaining Race and Gender Differences in Wages
Economics of Education Review 23,6 (December 2004): 555-576.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775704000330
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Gender Differences; Wage Differentials; Wages

Previous research has suggested that skills reflected in test-score performance on tests such as the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) can account for some of the racial differences in average wages. I use a more complete set of test scores available with the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort to reconsider this evidence, and the results suggest a conclusion similar to earlier research. I also examine the ability of test scores to account for gender differences in wages. Women do not perform as well as men on two math-oriented tests, but they perform better on two speed-oriented tests that appear to have a strong relationship with wages. On net, the test-score difference can help account for only a small part of the gender difference in wages (for any race). Further results suggest that unexplained race and gender differences in wages have been growing over time for the 1979 cohort. [Copyright 2004 Elsevier]
Bibliography Citation
Blackburn, McKinley L. "The Role of Test Scores in Explaining Race and Gender Differences in Wages." Economics of Education Review 23,6 (December 2004): 555-576.
10. Cellini, Stephanie Riegg
Smoothing the Transition to College?: The Effect of Tech-Prep Programs on Educational Attainment
Economics of Education Review 25,4 (August 2006): 394-411.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775706000318
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): College Enrollment; Educational Attainment; High School Curriculum; High School Students; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Schooling, Post-secondary; Vocational Education; Vocational Training

By promoting articulation agreements between high schools and community colleges, Tech-Prep programs aim to smooth the transition to college for the middle majority of US high school students. This paper employs a family fixed effects approach to assess the effectiveness of Tech-Prep programs in increasing educational attainment. Using data from six rounds of the 1997 NLSY and controlling for both selection and within-family spillovers, I find that Tech-Prep programs help participants complete high school and encourage enrollment in two-year colleges. On the other hand, these gains come at the expense of four-year college enrollment, suggesting that Tech-Prep programs may divert students from four-year to two-year colleges in the years immediately following high school. While Tech-Prep programs appear to increase overall educational attainment, they may be falling short of their goal of promoting college enrollment among the middle majority.
Bibliography Citation
Cellini, Stephanie Riegg. "Smoothing the Transition to College?: The Effect of Tech-Prep Programs on Educational Attainment ." Economics of Education Review 25,4 (August 2006): 394-411.
11. Cellini, Stephanie Riegg
Chaudhary, Latika
The Labor Market Returns to a For-Profit College Education
Economics of Education Review 43 (December 2014): 125-140.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775714000934
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): College Characteristics; College Degree; College Enrollment; Colleges; Earnings; Geocoded Data; Modeling, Fixed Effects

A lengthy literature estimating the returns to education has largely ignored the for-profit sector. In this paper, we estimate the earnings gains to for-profit college attendance using restricted-access data from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97). Using an individual fixed effects estimation strategy that allows us to control for time-invariant unobservable characteristics of students, we find that students who enroll in associate's degree programs in for-profit colleges experience earnings gains of about 10 percent relative to high school graduates with no college degree, conditional on employment. Since associate's degree students attend for an average of 2.6 years, this translates to a 4 percent return per year of education in a for-profit college, slightly lower than estimates of returns for other sectors found in the literature.
Bibliography Citation
Cellini, Stephanie Riegg and Latika Chaudhary. "The Labor Market Returns to a For-Profit College Education." Economics of Education Review 43 (December 2014): 125-140.
12. Cowan, Benjamin W.
Forward-Thinking Teens: The Effects of College Costs on Adolescent Risky Behavior
Economics of Education Review 30,5 (October 2011): 813-825.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775711000616
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Use; College Cost; Drug Use; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Risk-Taking; Sexual Activity

This paper analyzes the effect of college costs on teenagers’ engagement in risky behaviors before they are old enough to attend college. Individuals with brighter prospects for future schooling attainment may engage in less drug and alcohol use and risky sexual activity because they have more to lose if such behaviors have harmful effects in their lives. If teens correctly predict that higher college costs make future college enrollment less likely, then adolescents facing different expected costs may choose different levels of risky behavior. I find that lower college costs in teenagers’ states of residence raise their subjective expectations regarding college attendance and deter teenage substance use and sexual partnership. Specifically, a $1,000 reduction in tuition and fees at 2-year colleges in a youth's state of residence (roughly a 50% difference at the mean) is associated with a decline in the number of sexual partners the youth had in the past year (by 26%), the number of days in the past month the youth smoked (by 14%), and the number of days in the past month the youth used marijuana (by 23%). These findings suggest that the often-studied correlation between schooling and health habits emerges in adolescence because teenagers with brighter college prospects curb their risky behavior in accordance with their expectations. The results also imply that policies that improve teenagers’ educational prospects may be effective tools for reducing youthful involvement in such behaviors.
Bibliography Citation
Cowan, Benjamin W. "Forward-Thinking Teens: The Effects of College Costs on Adolescent Risky Behavior." Economics of Education Review 30,5 (October 2011): 813-825.
13. Currie, Janet
Neidell, Matthew J.
Getting Inside the "Black Box" of Head Start Quality: What Matters and What Doesn't
Economics of Education Review 26,1 (February 2007): 83-99.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775706000215
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Poverty; Children, Preschool; Head Start; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Poverty; Record Linkage (also see Data Linkage); School Progress

Critics of Head Start contend that many programs spend too much money on programs extraneous to children. On the other hand, Head Start advocates argue that the families of severely disadvantaged children need a broad range of services. Given the available evidence, it has been impossible to assess the validity of these claims. In this study, we match detailed administrative data with data on child outcomes from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, including test scores, behavior problems, and grade repetition. We find that former Head Start children have higher reading and vocabulary scores where Head Start spending was higher. Holding per capita expenditures constant, children in programs that devoted higher shares of their budgets to child-specific expenditures have fewer behavior problems and are less likely to have been retained in grade. [Copyright 2007 Elsevier]
Bibliography Citation
Currie, Janet and Matthew J. Neidell. "Getting Inside the "Black Box" of Head Start Quality: What Matters and What Doesn't." Economics of Education Review 26,1 (February 2007): 83-99.
14. Darolia, Rajeev
Working (and Studying) Day and Night: Heterogeneous Effects of Working on the Academic Performance of Full-time and Part-time Students
Economics of Education Review 38 (February 2014): 38-50.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775713001544
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Achievement; Labor Force Participation; School Performance; Work Hours

A growing number of students are working while in college and to a greater extent. Using nationally representative data from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, I analyze the effect of working on grades and credit completion for undergraduate students in the United States. Strategies to identify the causal relationship between working and academic performance include student-level fixed effects to control for permanent, unobserved characteristics that may affect both work and study intensity, and system GMM models to account for potentially endogenous relationships between working and academic performance that vary over time. I examine the consequences of working for heterogeneous subgroups, with a particular focus on differences between full-time and part-time students. I find no evidence that students’ grades are harmed by marginal work hours, but that full-time students complete fewer credits per term when increasing work.
Bibliography Citation
Darolia, Rajeev. "Working (and Studying) Day and Night: Heterogeneous Effects of Working on the Academic Performance of Full-time and Part-time Students." Economics of Education Review 38 (February 2014): 38-50.
15. Dougherty, Christopher
Numeracy, Literacy and Earnings: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Economics of Education Review 22,5 (October 2003): 511-522.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775703000402
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): College Education; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Literacy

The analysis is concerned with the contributions of numeracy and literacy to earnings, for three reasons. First, no clear pattern emerges from existing findings relating to the contributions of different types of ability, and numeracy and literacy appear to be a natural basic starting point. Second, measures to improve numeracy and literacy are often given priority in policies intended to help those with lowest educational attainment. Third, with the growth of the knowledge-based economy, and the increasing importance of digital technology, it is of interest to compare the levels and rates of change of the contributions of numeracy and literacy as reflected in earnings. The results suggest that numeracy has a highly significant effect on earnings, mostly through its effect on college attainment, but also directly, controlling for attainment, and interactively with attainment, and its effect may be subject to increasing returns. While the magnitude of the effect is small in absolute terms, it is substantial when compared with other effects, and it appears to be increasing at a rate of 6% per year. Despite the fact that it has an even greater effect than numeracy on college attainment, literacy has a smaller and less significant effect on earnings, with no evidence of an interactive effect with attainment, nonlinearity, or change through time. Because of the absence of nonlinearity, measures to improve literacy may have more impact than measures to improve numeracy on the earnings of the least able, but the difference is not great and the quantitative effects appear to be small. [Copyright 2003 Elsevier]
Bibliography Citation
Dougherty, Christopher. "Numeracy, Literacy and Earnings: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." Economics of Education Review 22,5 (October 2003): 511-522.
16. Doyle, William R.
Skinner, Benjamin T.
Estimating the Education-Earnings Equation Using Geographic Variation
Economics of Education Review 53 (August 2016): 254-267.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775715300303
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): College Enrollment; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Gender Differences; Geocoded Data; Geographical Variation

We expand on the literature on the causal impact of postsecondary education on earnings by introducing a richer set of location-based measures as instruments for years of education. Utilizing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997, we implement six different sets of instruments based on geographic variation: presence of a four-year or two-year college in the county, inverse log distance to in-state two-year colleges, distance-weighted tuition and distance-weighted enrollment at in-state two-year colleges, and inverse log distance to all colleges. We find that these alternative measures yield differing estimates of the impact of educational attainment on earnings. Using our preferred measure of geographic variation, one additional year of postsecondary attainment results in a 9.5% increase in yearly earnings. We find a larger impact of postsecondary attainment for women, and no measurable impact of postsecondary attainment for men.
Bibliography Citation
Doyle, William R. and Benjamin T. Skinner. "Estimating the Education-Earnings Equation Using Geographic Variation." Economics of Education Review 53 (August 2016): 254-267.
17. Fishe, Raymond P. H.
Trost, Robert P.
Lurie, Phillip M.
Labor Force Earnings, and College Choice of Young Women: An Examination of Selectivity Bias and Comparative Advantage
Economics of Education Review 1,2 (Spring 1981): 169-191.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0272775781900431
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Children; College Education; College Graduates; Colleges; Earnings; Educational Returns; I.Q.; Marital Status

A generalized approach to selectivity bias is derived and applied to the joint decision of college attendance and labor force participation for young women. The results here indicate that these decisions are strongly correlated. Moreover, the estimated rate of return to college education is found to be very sensitive to this correlation. This fact suggests that ignoring the relationship between these two decisions leads to rate of return estimates that are biased downward for those who attend college and biased upward for those who do not attend college.
Bibliography Citation
Fishe, Raymond P. H., Robert P. Trost and Phillip M. Lurie. "Labor Force Earnings, and College Choice of Young Women: An Examination of Selectivity Bias and Comparative Advantage." Economics of Education Review 1,2 (Spring 1981): 169-191.
18. Fredland, John Eric
Little, Roger D.
Self-Employed Workers: Returns to Education and Training
Economics of Education Review 1,3 (Summer 1981): 315-337.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0272775781900029
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Duncan Index; Earnings; Educational Returns; Self-Employed Workers; Vocational Training

An empirical investigation of human capital returns to owners of unincorporated nonfarm businesses is described, and the results are compared with those for a similar cohort of employees. Data are from the Older Men's cohort of the NLS. A single-equation semi-log regression model is employed throughout. Results show that human capital returns to self-employed workers are basically consistent with results for employees, but some differences emerge. As hypothesized, returns to general training are somewhat larger and returns to specific training somewhat smaller for self-employed workers. The time path of returns associated with job tenure also differs.
Bibliography Citation
Fredland, John Eric and Roger D. Little. "Self-Employed Workers: Returns to Education and Training." Economics of Education Review 1,3 (Summer 1981): 315-337.
19. Griffin, Peter
Ganderton, Philip T.
Evidence on Omitted Variable Bias in Earnings Equations
Economics of Education Review 15,2 (April 1996): 139-148.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0272775796000015
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Economics of Discrimination; Economics of Gender; Economics of Minorities; Family Background; Human Capital; Job Tenure; Labor Economics; Occupational Choice; Occupations; Racial Differences; School Quality; Schooling; Skills; Training, Occupational; Training, On-the-Job; Wage Differentials; Wage Levels

In this paper we propose that family background variables are significant in earnings equations because they measure investments in children made by families in the home, over and above formal schooling investments and schooling quality. Together these variables account for a significant proportion of the difference between estimated rates of return to schooling across racial groups. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we observe a convergence of rates of return across racial groups after accounting for differences in these variables. The estimated equations are used to predict that average minority earnings would be almost identical to white earnings if minorities experienced the same family background and school quality as whites.
Bibliography Citation
Griffin, Peter and Philip T. Ganderton. "Evidence on Omitted Variable Bias in Earnings Equations." Economics of Education Review 15,2 (April 1996): 139-148.
20. Griffith, Amanda Leigh
Rothstein, Donna S.
Can't Get There From Here: The Decision To Apply To A Selective College
Economics of Education Review 28,5 (October 2009): 620-628.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775709000259
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): College Education; College Enrollment; Income Level; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale)

In an attempt to increase applications from low-income students, some selective 4-year colleges are developing programs to target and attract low-income students. However, relatively little research has looked at factors important in the college application process, and in particular, how these factors differ for low-income students. This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) to analyze factors influencing students' college application decisions, with a focus on the decision to apply to a selective 4-year college. We hypothesize that distance from a student's home to selective colleges may play a role in the application decision and differentially impact low-income students. Our results suggest that distance does matter, although the effects do not vary by family income level. [Copyright 2009 Elsevier]
Bibliography Citation
Griffith, Amanda Leigh and Donna S. Rothstein. "Can't Get There From Here: The Decision To Apply To A Selective College." Economics of Education Review 28,5 (October 2009): 620-628.
21. Hill, Elizabeth T.
Post-School-Age Training among Women: Training Methods and Labor Market Outcomes at Older Ages
Economics of Education Review 20,2 (April 2001): 181-191.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S027277579900059X
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Education; Labor Market Outcomes; Training; Training, On-the-Job; Wage Growth; Wage Levels; Women

This study uses the NLS Mature Women's Cohort to examine labor market effects of education and training on women at pre-retirement ages, comparing training methods: formal education, on-the-job training, and other training. Results show that younger, more educated women tend to train more than other women and that some women appear in a "training track." While both education and on-the-job training are associated with higher wage levels, on-the-job training is most strongly associated with wage growth. Women who acquire training as adults tend to work at older ages. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bibliography Citation
Hill, Elizabeth T. "Post-School-Age Training among Women: Training Methods and Labor Market Outcomes at Older Ages." Economics of Education Review 20,2 (April 2001): 181-191.
22. Hitt, Collin
Trivitt, Julie
Cheng, Albert
When You Say Nothing at All: The Predictive Power of Student Effort on Surveys
Economics of Education Review 52 (June 2016): 105-119.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775716300541
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Educational Longitudinal Study (ELS:2002); High School and Beyond (HSB); National Education Longitudinal Survey (NELS); National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth); Noncognitive Skills; Nonresponse

Character traits and noncognitive skills are important for human capital development and long-run life outcomes. Research in economics and psychology now shows this convincingly. But research into the exact determinants of noncognitive skills has been slowed by a common data limitation: most large-scale datasets do not contain adequate measures of noncognitive skills. This is particularly problematic in education policy evaluation. We demonstrate that within any survey dataset, there is important latent information that can be used as a proxy measure of noncognitive skills. Specifically, we examine the amount of conscientious effort that students exhibit on surveys, as measured by their item response rates. We use six nationally-representative, longitudinal surveys of American youth. We find that the percentage of questions skipped during the baseline year when respondents were adolescents is a significant predictor of later-life educational attainment, net of cognitive ability. Insofar as item response rates affect employment and income, they do so through their effect on education attainment. The pattern of findings gives compelling reasons to view item response rates as a promising behavioral measure of noncognitive skills for use in future research. We posit that response rates are a measure of conscientiousness, though additional research is required to determine what exact noncognitive skills are being captured by item response rates.
Bibliography Citation
Hitt, Collin, Julie Trivitt and Albert Cheng. "When You Say Nothing at All: The Predictive Power of Student Effort on Surveys." Economics of Education Review 52 (June 2016): 105-119.
23. Hoffman, Emily P.
Determinants of Youths' Educational and Occupational Goals: Sex and Race Differences
Economics of Education Review 6,1 (Winter 1987): 41-48.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/027277578790032X
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Gender Differences; Occupational Aspirations; Occupational Status; Racial Differences

This study explores whether there are differences between black and white, and male and female youth in their educational and occupational goals, and whether these differences changed between 1966-1968 and 1979. Both reduced form and structural equations were estimated, using the NLS of Young Men, Young Women, and NLSY data sets. Occupational prestige goal and educational goal were found to be simultaneously related to each other. Sex and race differences in determinants of educational and occupational goals were found to exist, and to have changed over time, for both the 1966-1968 and the 1979 cohorts.
Bibliography Citation
Hoffman, Emily P. "Determinants of Youths' Educational and Occupational Goals: Sex and Race Differences." Economics of Education Review 6,1 (Winter 1987): 41-48.
24. Johnson, Eric
Reynolds, C. Lockwood
The Effect of Household Hospitalizations on the Educational Attainment of Youth
Economics of Education Review 37 (December 2013): 165-182.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775713001271
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): College Graduates; Dropouts; Educational Attainment; Gender Differences; High School Completion/Graduates; Hospitalization; Household Influences

We utilize data from the NLSY97 to investigate the effect of week-long hospitalizations of household members on the educational attainment of youth. These significant household health events could result in a combination of financial and time constraints on the household, limiting the educational opportunities available to survey respondents. We find that household hospitalizations lead to reductions in the likelihood of completing high school, attending college and completing a bachelor's degree. These negative effects are disproportionately experienced by male respondents. Respondents with higher pre-hospitalization ability appear to be insulated from these health events. Birth-order and the gender composition of siblings also appear to play a role. We find that the oldest children in the household bear the burden of a hospitalization, substantially lowering the educational attainment of these respondents, while insulating their younger siblings. Similarly, the presence of a brother appears to insulate respondents from the negative impacts of household hospitalizations.
Bibliography Citation
Johnson, Eric and C. Lockwood Reynolds. "The Effect of Household Hospitalizations on the Educational Attainment of Youth." Economics of Education Review 37 (December 2013): 165-182.
25. Kaestner, Robert
Grossman, Michael
Effects of Weight on Children's Educational Achievement
Economics of Education Review 28,6 (December 2009): 651–661.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775709000557
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Achievement; Body Mass Index (BMI); Children, Academic Development; Obesity; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); School Progress; Weight

In this paper, we investigate the association between weight and children's educational achievement, as measured by scores on Peabody Individual Achievement Tests in math and reading, and grade attainment. Data for the study came from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), which contains a large, national sample of children between the ages of 5 and 12 between 1986 and 2004.We obtained estimates of the association between weight and achievement using several regression model specifications that controlled for a variety of observed characteristics of the child and his or her mother, and time-invariant characteristics of the child. Our results suggest that, in general, children who are overweight or obese have achievement test scores that are about the same as children with average weight.
Bibliography Citation
Kaestner, Robert and Michael Grossman. "Effects of Weight on Children's Educational Achievement ." Economics of Education Review 28,6 (December 2009): 651–661. A.
26. Kroeger, Sarah
Thompson, Owen
Educational Mobility across Three Generations of American Women
Economics of Education Review 53 (August 2016): 72-86.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775716302552
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult, NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Educational Outcomes; Grandchildren; Grandparents; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mobility

We analyze the intergenerational transmission of education in a three-generation sample of women from the 20th century US. We find strong three-generation educational persistence, with the association between the education of grandmothers and their granddaughters approximately two times stronger than would be expected under the type of first-order autoregressive transmission structure that has been assumed in much of the existing two-generation mobility literature. These findings are robust to using alternative empirical specifications and sample constructions, and are successfully replicated in a second independently drawn data set. Analyses that include males in the youngest and oldest generations produce very similar estimates. A variety of potential mechanisms linking the educational outcomes of grandparents and grandchildren are discussed and where possible tested empirically.
Bibliography Citation
Kroeger, Sarah and Owen Thompson. "Educational Mobility across Three Generations of American Women." Economics of Education Review 53 (August 2016): 72-86.
27. Leigh, Duane E.
Gill, Andrew Matthew
Do Community Colleges Really Divert Students from Earning Bachelor's Degrees?
Economics of Education Review 22,1 (February 2003): 23-31.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775701000577
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): College Education; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Educational Attainment; Schooling, Post-secondary; Transfers, Public

This paper provides new estimates of the 'diversion effect' argument advanced by critics of community colleges. As emphasized by Rouse (J. Business Econ. Statist. 13 (1995) 217), information on students' desired level of schooling is essential to properly measure the diversion effect of community colleges as well as their 'democratization effect' increasing access to higher education. Using information on desired years of schooling from early waves of the NLSY, we find that the choice between alternative postsecondary education tracks including the choice of community college students between transfer and terminal programs is highly sensitive to years of desired schooling. Diversion effect estimates are also found to depend on whether we condition on desired schooling. For individuals who express a desire to complete at least 16 years of schooling, our diversion effect estimates lie between −0.7 and −1.0 years. These estimates are clearly dominated by positive democratization effect estimates. On balance, therefore, we find for individuals desiring a bachelor's degree that community colleges increase average educational attainment by between 0.4 and 1.0 years. [Copyright 2003 Elsevier]
Bibliography Citation
Leigh, Duane E. and Andrew Matthew Gill. "Do Community Colleges Really Divert Students from Earning Bachelor's Degrees?" Economics of Education Review 22,1 (February 2003): 23-31.
28. Leigh, Duane E.
Gill, Andrew Matthew
The Effect of Community Colleges on Changing Students' Educational Aspirations
Economics of Education Review 23,1 (February 2004): 95-103.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775703000633
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): College Education; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Educational Attainment; Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Family Background; Racial Studies

The education literature provides numerous estimates of community college diversion and democratization effects measured in terms of educational attainment. Kane and Rouse [J Econ Pers 13 (1999) 64] suggest testing for diversion by comparing the impacts of two-year and four-year colleges on the changes in educational aspirations that underlie actual years of schooling completed. Using NLSY data, we obtain community college 'differential aspirations effect' estimates that range from as high as −0.68 of a year to as low as our preferred estimate of −0.43 of a year. We put these estimates in perspective by showing that they are less than half of the conventionally measured diversion effect estimated for our sample. Regarding democratization, we find that attending a community college results in a substantial expansion in the educational aspirations of students (our 'incremental aspirations effect'), regardless of their family backgrounds and race and ethnicity. [Copyright 2004 Elsevier]
Bibliography Citation
Leigh, Duane E. and Andrew Matthew Gill. "The Effect of Community Colleges on Changing Students' Educational Aspirations." Economics of Education Review 23,1 (February 2004): 95-103.
29. Light, Audrey L.
Estimating Returns to Schooling: When Does the Career Begin?
Economics of Education Review 17,1 (February 1998): 31-45.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775797000113
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Life Cycle Research; Schooling; Schooling, Post-secondary; Wage Models; Work Experience

Because the life cycle is not neatly divided into a period of full-time schooling followed by a period of full-time employment, it is unclear where analysts should "start the clock" on the career for purposes of estimating the returns to schooling. This study uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to determine how estimated returns to schooling are influenced by the choice of career starting date. Schooling and experience measures are defined for four alternative starting dates and then used to estimate a standard wage model for samples of white and non-white men. Estimated returns to schooling increase dramatically as an increasingly later starting date is used because increasingly large amounts of unmeasured, "pre-career" work experience bias the schooling effects. A specification that controls more accurately for the accumulation of schooling and work experience is suggested as an alternative to the orthodox model. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bibliography Citation
Light, Audrey L. "Estimating Returns to Schooling: When Does the Career Begin?" Economics of Education Review 17,1 (February 1998): 31-45.
30. Loke, Vernon
Parental Asset Accumulation Trajectories and Children's College Outcomes
Economics of Education Review 33 (April 2013): 124-133.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775712001471
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Assets; College Education; Educational Outcomes; Expectations/Intentions; Growth Curves; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Net Worth; Parental Influences

The effects of parental assets on children's educational outcomes have mainly been explored from the perspective of asset holdings. However, the process of asset accumulation may also have effects. While asset-based policies are predicated on the premise of asset accumulation, little is known about the effects of different asset accumulation trajectories. This study attempts to fill this gap. The results indicate that youths born into households that had asset holdings significantly higher than zero have better college outcomes compared to youths born into households with lower levels of net worth that did not increase significantly over time. However, when lower-wealth households experience significant asset accumulation over time, youths from these households have similar educational outcomes as youths from wealthier households. Finally, the results indicate that the effects of assets are partially or fully mediated by the mother's educational expectations. Implications for asset-based policy are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Loke, Vernon. "Parental Asset Accumulation Trajectories and Children's College Outcomes." Economics of Education Review 33 (April 2013): 124-133.
31. Loury, Linda Datcher
Siblings and Gender Differences in African-American College Attendance
Economics of Education Review 23,3 (2004): 213-219.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02727757/23/3
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Black Studies; College Education; College Enrollment; Gender Differences; Racial Differences; Siblings

Differences in college enrollment growth rates for African-American men and women have resulted in a large gender gap in college attendance. This paper shows that, controlling for spurious correlation with unobserved variables, having more college-educated older siblings raises rather than lowers the likelihood of college attendance for African-Americans. Furthermore, over one-third of the gender gap is due to the greater influence of older college-educated brothers and sisters on women than on men. This finding has implications for explanations of sibling effects on schooling by gender, for policies to reduce race and gender differences in schooling, and for calculating benefits of programs that increase college enrollments.

2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Bibliography Citation
Loury, Linda Datcher. "Siblings and Gender Differences in African-American College Attendance ." Economics of Education Review 23,3 (2004): 213-219.
32. Lubotsky, Darren
Kaestner, Robert
Do 'Skills Beget Skills'? Evidence on the Effect of Kindergarten Entrance Age on the Evolution of Cognitive and Non-cognitive Skill Gaps in Childhood
Economics of Education Review 53 (August 2016): 194-206.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775716301753
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Age at School Entry; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Childhood Education, Early; Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-B, ECLS-K); Noncognitive Skills; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

We use exogenous variation in the skills that children have at the beginning of kindergarten to measure the extent to which "skills beget skills" in this context. Children who are relatively older when they begin kindergarten score higher on measures of cognitive and non-cognitive achievement at the beginning of kindergarten. Their scores on cognitive assessments grow faster during kindergarten and first grade. However, after first grade the scores of younger entrants catch up. We find no evidence that the growth in non-cognitive measures differs between older and younger entrants. Finally, we provide evidence suggesting that schools are not the cause of the younger students' faster growth after first grade.
Bibliography Citation
Lubotsky, Darren and Robert Kaestner. "Do 'Skills Beget Skills'? Evidence on the Effect of Kindergarten Entrance Age on the Evolution of Cognitive and Non-cognitive Skill Gaps in Childhood." Economics of Education Review 53 (August 2016): 194-206.
33. Marcus, Richard D.
Earnings and the Decision to Return to School
Economics of Education Review 5,3 (1986): 309-317.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0272775786900828
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Earnings; Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Transition, School to Work

This paper finds that a significant predictor of returning to school is below expected earnings in the NLS Young Men's cohort. These "unlucky" workers find that the foregone cost of schooling was lower than they thought. At the same time, the low relative earnings of these "unlucky" workers may cause them also to revise expected value of further schooling. Since they do actually decide to return to school, two interpretations of this revision in the value in further schooling are possible. Either the revision is upward, indicating that they believe that additional schooling will bring earnings up to that expected for persons with further education; or the revision is downward, but that revision must be dominated by a greater reduction in the expected cost of schooling for an economically sensible decision to return to school.
Bibliography Citation
Marcus, Richard D. "Earnings and the Decision to Return to School." Economics of Education Review 5,3 (1986): 309-317.
34. McFarlin, Isaac, Jr.
Do School Teacher Parents Make a Difference?
Economics of Education Review 26,5 (October 2007): 615-628.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775706001476
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Educational Attainment; Family Background; Family Structure; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); National Education Longitudinal Survey (NELS); Occupations, Female; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Socioeconomic Status (SES); Teachers/Faculty

Two national probability samples are used to uncover whether children benefit from having school teacher parents. The inquiry is motivated by frequent commentaries by teachers that substandard student performance is associated with unhelpful parenting practices. If teachers believe that parents are crucial for determining child outcomes, then we may better learn of the potential for parenting to affect children's development by examining the environments teachers create for their own children. I find significant school teacher effects on children's cognitive and behavioral outcomes, after accounting for family SES, mothers' cognitive ability, occupational aspirations, college field of study, and her early preferences for family life. Once I control for self-selection into teaching and home environment quality, which parents create for children, I find that school teacher parents significantly make a difference in lowering the incidence of behavioral problems in male children.
Bibliography Citation
McFarlin, Isaac, Jr. "Do School Teacher Parents Make a Difference?" Economics of Education Review 26,5 (October 2007): 615-628.
35. McGee, Andrew Dunstan
Skills, Standards, and Disabilities: How Youth with Learning Disabilities Fare in High School and Beyond
Economics of Education Review 30,1 (February 2011): 109-129.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775710001044
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Disability; GED/General Educational Diploma/General Equivalency Degree/General Educational Development; Geographical Variation; High School Completion/Graduates; High School Diploma; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Pearlin Mastery Scale; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); Unemployment Rate, Regional

Learning disabled youth in the Child and Young Adult samples of the NLSY79 are more likely to graduate from high school than peers with the same measured cognitive ability, a difference that cannot be explained by differences in noncognitive skills, families, or school resources. Instead, I find that learning disabled students graduate from high school at higher rates than youth with the same cognitive abilities because of high school graduation policies that make it easier for learning disabled youth to obtain a high school diploma. The effects of these graduation policies are even more remarkable given that I find evidence that learning disabled youth have less unmeasured human capital than observationally equivalent youth as after high school they are less likely to be employed or continue on to college and earn less than their observationally equivalent non-learning disabled peers.
Bibliography Citation
McGee, Andrew Dunstan. "Skills, Standards, and Disabilities: How Youth with Learning Disabilities Fare in High School and Beyond." Economics of Education Review 30,1 (February 2011): 109-129.
36. Monks, James
The Returns to Individual and College Characteristics: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Economics of Education Review 19,3 (June 2000): 279-289.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775799000230
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): College Graduates; Colleges; Earnings; Educational Returns; Gender Differences; Private Schools; Racial Differences

There is growing interest in the heterogeneity of earnings among college graduates. This study examines earnings differentials across both individual and institutional characteristics. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, it can be seen that graduates from highly or most selective colleges and universities earn significantly more than graduates from less selective institutions. Additionally, graduates from graduate degree granting and research universities, and private universities earn more than their counterparts from liberal arts colleges and public institutions. There is, however, variation across racial and gender groups in the returns to individual and college characteristics. These findings are important in an educational environment where the (market) value of a liberal arts education is under scrutiny, and where the higher costs of private versus public colleges and universities are being questioned. Copyright: 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bibliography Citation
Monks, James. "The Returns to Individual and College Characteristics: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." Economics of Education Review 19,3 (June 2000): 279-289.
37. Montmarquette, Claude
Cannings, Kathy
Mahseredjian, Sophie
How Do Young People Choose College Majors?
Economics of Education Review 21,6 (December 2002): 543-557.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775701000541
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): College Graduates; College Major/Field of Study/Courses; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Gender Differences; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Modeling, Probit; Racial Differences

Previous studies on the determinants of the choice of college major have assumed a constant probability of success across majors or a constant earnings stream across majors. Our model disregards these two restrictive assumptions in computing an idiosyncratic expected earnings variable to explain the probability that a student will choose a specific major among four choices of concentrations. The construction of an expected earnings variable requires information on the student's perceived probability of success, the predicted earnings of graduates in all majors and the student's expected earnings if he (she) fails to complete a college program. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we evaluate the chances of success in all majors for all the individuals in the sample. Second, the individuals' predicted earnings of graduates in all majors are obtained using Rumberger and Thomas's [Econ. Educ. Rev. 12 (1993) 1] regression estimates from a 1987 Survey of Recent College Graduates. Third, we obtain idiosyncratic estimates of earnings alternative of not attending college or by dropping out with a condition derived from our college major decision-making model applied to our sample of college students. Finally, with a mixed multinomial logit and probit models and an heteroscedastic extreme value model, we explain the individuals' choice of a major. The results of the paper show that the expected earnings variable is essential in the choice of a college major. There are, however, significant differences in the impact of expected earnings by gender and race. [Copyright 2002 Elsevier]
Bibliography Citation
Montmarquette, Claude, Kathy Cannings and Sophie Mahseredjian. "How Do Young People Choose College Majors?" Economics of Education Review 21,6 (December 2002): 543-557.
38. Munasib, Abdul
Bhattacharya, Samrat
Is the 'Idiot's Box' Raising Idiocy? Early and Middle Childhood Television Watching and Child Cognitive Outcome
Economics of Education Review 29,5 (October 2010): 873-883.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775710000300
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Geographical Variation; Mothers, Behavior; Obesity; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Regions; Television Viewing; Variables, Instrumental; Weight

There is widespread belief that exposure to television has harmful effects on children's cognitive development. Most studies that point to a negative correlation between hours of television watching and cognitive outcomes, fail to establish causality. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) we study young children between 5 and 10 years of age during late 1990s and early 2000s. We find strong evidence of negative correlations between hours of television watched and cognitive test scores. However, once parent's characteristics and unobserved child characteristics are taken into account these correlations go away. We find that hours of television viewed per se do not have any measurable impact on children's test scores. Our results are robust to different model specifications and instrumental variable estimates. We conclude that despite the conventional wisdom and the ongoing populist movement, proactive policies to reduce children's television exposure are not likely to improve children's cognitive development and academic performance.

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Bibliography Citation
Munasib, Abdul and Samrat Bhattacharya. "Is the 'Idiot's Box' Raising Idiocy? Early and Middle Childhood Television Watching and Child Cognitive Outcome." Economics of Education Review 29,5 (October 2010): 873-883.
39. Murnane, Richard J.
Willett, John B.
Braatz, Margaret Jay
Duhaldeborde, Yves
Do Different Dimensions of Male High School Students' Skills Predict Labor Market Success a Decade Later? Evidence from the NLSY
Economics of Education Review 20,4 (August 2001): 311-320.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S027277570000056X
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Ethnic Differences; Hispanics; Labor Market Outcomes; Racial Differences; Self-Esteem; Skills; Wage Gap; Wages; Wages, Men

This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine whether measures of the skills of male teenagers predict their wages at ages 27 and 28. Three types of skills are examined: academic skills, skill at completing elementary mental tasks quickly and accurately, and self-esteem. Psychological literature supports the position that self-esteem may predict subsequent wages because it predicts the ability to work productively in groups and perseverance in the face of adversity. The results show that all three types of skills play roles in predicting subsequent wages. The different skills are of differing importance in explaining gaps between the average wages of White males and those of Black males and Hispanic males. Copyright: 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bibliography Citation
Murnane, Richard J., John B. Willett, Margaret Jay Braatz and Yves Duhaldeborde. "Do Different Dimensions of Male High School Students' Skills Predict Labor Market Success a Decade Later? Evidence from the NLSY." Economics of Education Review 20,4 (August 2001): 311-320.
40. Nam, Jaehyun
Ansong, David
The Effects of a Dedicated Education Savings Account on Children's College Graduation
Economics of Education Review 48 (October 2015): 198-207.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775715000886
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): College Degree; Educational Attainment; Parental Investments; Propensity Scores; Savings

Emerging research in the asset-building field suggests economic resources in general are associated with positive educational outcomes. However, there is little empirical evidence specifically concerning the effects of parents holding a dedicated education savings account on their children's attainment of associate's and bachelor's degrees. There is a need for more replication studies to help confirm that the emerging evidence is accurate and applicable with different populations and under different situations. This study helps fill this research gap by using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 97. Data are analyzed using propensity score adjusted regression techniques. Results show if parents create a savings account earmarked for their children's education, the children are more likely to attain college degrees. These findings suggest that current asset-based policies and programs that encourage low- and moderate-income parents to create and hold education savings accounts can also serve as a policy strategy to help improve higher educational attainment of children from lower income households.
Bibliography Citation
Nam, Jaehyun and David Ansong. "The Effects of a Dedicated Education Savings Account on Children's College Graduation." Economics of Education Review 48 (October 2015): 198-207.
41. Neumark, David B.
Rothstein, Donna S.
School-To-Career Programs and Transitions to Employment and Higher Education
Economics of Education Review 25,4 (August 2006): 374-393.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775706000173
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Employment; Higher Education; Transition, School to Work; Transitional Programs

The 1994 federal School-to-Work Opportunities Act (STWOA) provided more than $1.5 billion over 5 years to support increased career preparation activities in the country's public schools. A new longitudinal data source with rich information on school-to-career (STC) programs—the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97)—provides previously unparalleled opportunities to study the effectiveness of STC programs. This paper uses the NLSY97 to assess the effects of STC programs on transitions to employment and higher education among youths leaving high school, with a focus on attempting to estimate the causal effects of this participation given possible non-random selection of youths into STC programs. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR; Copyright 2006 Elsevier]
Bibliography Citation
Neumark, David B. and Donna S. Rothstein. "School-To-Career Programs and Transitions to Employment and Higher Education." Economics of Education Review 25,4 (August 2006): 374-393.
42. Park, Seonyoung
Returning to School for Higher Returns
Economics of Education Review 30,6 (December 2011): 1215-1228.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775711001099
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Modeling, Fixed Effects; Risk-Taking; Schooling; Wage Rates; Wages

On the basis of those respondents in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) who change jobs with an intervening period of education reinvestment, the conventional assumption of linearity of log wages in years of schooling is strongly rejected: a typical reinvestment for the 1980 through 1993 period is associated with a rise of about 3.5 percentage points in the estimated return to an additional year of schooling. The estimated marginal rate of return generally rises in the former education level, and reaches the maximum at 15 years of the former level (therefore 16 years of education after reinvestment), where an additional year of investment is associated with a rise in real hourly rate of pay by approximately 20%. Evidence also shows that, while the level of individuals’ risk tolerance affects significantly the probability of returning to school, correcting for sample selectivity makes little difference in the results. Findings in the current paper survive a variety of robustness tests. The current cohort-based evidence is more helpful than existing evidence from cross-sectional data to individuals making schooling decisions.
Bibliography Citation
Park, Seonyoung. "Returning to School for Higher Returns." Economics of Education Review 30,6 (December 2011): 1215-1228.
43. Ransom, Michael R.
Ransom, Tyler
Do High School Sports Build or Reveal Character? Bounding Causal Estimates of Sports Participation
Economics of Education Review 64 (June 2018): 75-89.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775718300347
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Activities, After School; Educational Attainment; Exercise; High School Curriculum; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); National Education Longitudinal Survey (NELS); National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth); Obesity; Sports (also see ATHLETICS)

We examine the extent to which participation in high school athletics in the United States has beneficial effects on future education, labor market, and health outcomes. Due to the absence of plausible instruments in observational data, we use recently developed methods that relate selection on observables with selection on unobservables to estimate bounds on the causal effect of athletics participation. We do not find consistent evidence of individual education or labor market benefits. However, we do find that male (but not female) athletes are more likely to exercise regularly as adults, but are no less likely to be obese.
Bibliography Citation
Ransom, Michael R. and Tyler Ransom. "Do High School Sports Build or Reveal Character? Bounding Causal Estimates of Sports Participation." Economics of Education Review 64 (June 2018): 75-89.
44. Renna, Francesco
Teens’ Alcohol Consumption and Schooling
Economics of Education Review 27,1 (February 2008): 69-78.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775706001051
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Academic Development; Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Use; Educational Attainment; GED/General Educational Diploma/General Equivalency Degree/General Educational Development; High School Diploma; High School Dropouts; Modeling, Instrumental Variables; Self-Esteem; State-Level Data/Policy

While research outside economics has found that drinking has a negative effect on cognitive skills, some economists have failed to find any negative relationship between drinking and academic performance. This paper argues that the reason for this discrepancy is due to the way education is measured in the economic literature. Herein, binge drinking in the senior year of high school is found to reduce the probability of receiving a high school diploma and to increase the probability of graduating with a General Education Development (GED). Moreover, this study finds that alcohol policies do not affect the dropout rate measured at the age of 25, but they do affect the probability that a student will graduate on time. In conclusion, bingeing is found to be responsible for inducing individuals to temporarily drop out of school. Eventually, these individuals return to school to complete their education, most likely by obtaining a GED diploma.
Bibliography Citation
Renna, Francesco. "Teens’ Alcohol Consumption and Schooling." Economics of Education Review 27,1 (February 2008): 69-78.
45. Ribar, David C.
A Multinomial Logit Analysis of Teenage Fertility and High School Completion
Economics of Education Review 12,2 (June 1993): 153-164.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/027277579390026D
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing; Education; Educational Attainment; Family Background; Family Planning; High School; High School Completion/Graduates; Household Composition; Pregnancy, Adolescent; Regions; Welfare

Uses data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine economic, institutional, and sociological antecedents of high school completion and adolescent fertility. Welfare generosity appears to have a significant positive effect on adolescent childbearing. Other important determinants of teenage parenthood and educational attainment are family planning clinic availability, family background, religiousness, physical maturity, race, and ethnicity. (MLH)
Bibliography Citation
Ribar, David C. "A Multinomial Logit Analysis of Teenage Fertility and High School Completion." Economics of Education Review 12,2 (June 1993): 153-164.
46. Rumberger, Russell W.
The Changing Economic Benefits for College Graduates
Economics of Education Review 3,1 (Spring 1984): 3-11.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0272775784900037
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): College Graduates; Earnings; Educational Returns

This paper examines the relative economic benefits for white male college graduates in l97l and l976. It focuses on two factors that may account for some of the observed differences in the economic value of college: different indicators of economic benefits and variations in benefits by college degree and major. The results suggest that the relative economic benefits for white male college graduates changed little in the first half of the l970s. In both years, relative benefits do depend, however, on the area and type of college degree as well as the particular economic measure being considered.
Bibliography Citation
Rumberger, Russell W. "The Changing Economic Benefits for College Graduates." Economics of Education Review 3,1 (Spring 1984): 3-11.
47. San, Gee
The Early Labor Force Experience of College Students and their Post-College Success
Economics of Education Review 5,1 (Winter 1986): 65-76.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0272775786901640
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): College Education; Earnings; Labor Force Participation; Part-Time Work

Research on the part-time employment of college students has concentrated on the effect of in-school employment on academic achievement and study persistence (completion of the degree program). However, none of the studies that addressed on-campus employment has examined the impact of college students' part-time employment on their post- college success. Studies which focus only on college students' academic achievement or study persistence do not tell whether the students' part-time employment will ultimately affect their post-college success. This study seeks to fill the gap in the literature by examining the impact of college students' labor force experience on their post-college success. In particular, a model is developed of college students' postcollege earnings in which earnings depend upon the students' family income, family background, quality of education, and labor market experience, as well as other observable and unobservable individual effects. Pooled time-series cross-section data from the NLS of Young Men 14-24 (1966-1975) are used to estimate this model. The results of the study provide insights into the answers to several related questions of policy importance. How do students' work or nonwork time activities affect their academic success and their post-college wages? How do financial aid packages affect students' post-college earnings? Given that cuts in financial aid have been enacted and are likely to be maintained in the future, how will such cuts affect students' work-time decisions and their post-college earnings? Empirical evidence from this study suggests that students' in school work experience has a positive effect on their post-college earnings for at least three years but has no effect on their employment. In some specifications of the model, the positive effect on earnings lasts at least five years. The empirical evidencealso shows that cuts in student financial aid will inevitably induce students to work more. This may either adversely affect students' study persistence or favorably increase their post-college earnings because of the benefits of in-school labor force experience. The net effect of these two contrasting forces proves to be positive for the sample used; a cut in financial aid appears to increase expected future earnings.
Bibliography Citation
San, Gee. "The Early Labor Force Experience of College Students and their Post-College Success." Economics of Education Review 5,1 (Winter 1986): 65-76.
48. Siahaan, Freddy
Lee, Daniel Y.
Kalist, David E.
Educational Attainment of Children of Immigrants: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Economics of Education Review 38 (February 2014): 1-8.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775713001349
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Immigrants; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Parental Influences

This study investigates the educational attainment of children of immigrants in the United States. By employing a more detailed classification of children of immigrants, we examine whether a foreign place of birth of either parent or child affects the child's educational attainment. Our results indicate that the full-second generation (U.S.-born children with both foreign-born parents) achieves the highest educational attainment, while the full-first generation (foreign-born children with both foreign-born parents) achieves the second highest educational attainment compared to the other groups of children of immigrants and native children. Full-first and full-second generation females also achieve higher educational attainment than their native female peers. The results support the optimism theory of assimilation in which the educational attainment of children of immigrants relies on the combination of their foreign-born parents’ strong values on education and the children's English proficiency.
Bibliography Citation
Siahaan, Freddy, Daniel Y. Lee and David E. Kalist. "Educational Attainment of Children of Immigrants: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." Economics of Education Review 38 (February 2014): 1-8.
49. Stern, David
Paik, Il-Woo
Catterall, James S.
Nakata, Yoshi-Fumi
Labor Market Experience of Teenagers With and Without High School Diplomas
Economics of Education Review 8,3 (Summer 1989): 233-245.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0272775782900036
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Dropouts; Educational Attainment; Employment; High School Dropouts; Unemployment Rate; Wages

Using data from the NLSY and the High School and Beyond Survey, this paper estimates the effect of a high school diploma on success in the labor market over and above the effects of such prior characteristics as race, family background, IQ, school performance, and other unmeasured characteristics. Analyses of both data sets reveal that most or all of the differences in unemployment and wages between graduates and dropouts is attributable to a "coefficient effect" i.e., to differences in how measured characteristics are translated into labor market success rather than to differences in the measured characteristics themselves.
Bibliography Citation
Stern, David, Il-Woo Paik, James S. Catterall and Yoshi-Fumi Nakata. "Labor Market Experience of Teenagers With and Without High School Diplomas." Economics of Education Review 8,3 (Summer 1989): 233-245.
50. Tobias, Justin L.
Model Uncertainty and Race and Gender Heterogeneity in the College Entry Decision
Economics of Education Review 21,3 (June 2002): 211-219.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775701000024#
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Cognitive Ability; College Enrollment; Family Characteristics; Gender Differences; Modeling; Racial Differences; School Quality

This paper uses a flexible modeling strategy to examine the roles of measured ability, family characteristics and proxies for secondary schooling quality as determinants of the decision to enter college. While previous work on this topic has been careful to determine which explanatory variables to include when modeling college entry decisions, few studies have been concerned about appropriate distributional assumptions, (i.e. choice of link function). In this paper, I extend my binary choice analysis to the class of Student-t link functions, which enables me to approximately regard the often-used probit and logit models as special cases. Unconditional estimates which average over competing models and integrate out model uncertainty are also obtained. Using NLSY data, I apply these methods and find that the link functions and estimated impacts of ability and family characteristics on the probabilities of enrolling in college are not constant across race and gender groups.
Bibliography Citation
Tobias, Justin L. "Model Uncertainty and Race and Gender Heterogeneity in the College Entry Decision." Economics of Education Review 21,3 (June 2002): 211-219.
51. Webber, Douglas A.
Are College Costs Worth it? How Ability, Major, and Debt Affect the Returns to Schooling
Economics of Education Review 53 (August 2016): 296-310.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775715300224
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): American Community Survey; College Cost; College Degree; Cost-Benefit Studies; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Debt/Borrowing; Earnings; Educational Returns; Student Loans

This paper examines the financial value over the course of a lifetime of pursuing a college degree under a variety of different settings (e.g. major, student loan debt, individual ability). I account for ability/selection bias and the probability that entering freshmen will not eventually graduate.

I find the financial proposition of attending college is a sound investment for most individuals and cost scenarios, although some scenarios do not pay off until late in life, or ever. I estimate the present discounted value of attending college for the median student to vary between $85,000 and $300,000 depending on the student's major. Most importantly, the results of this paper emphasize the role that risk (e.g. the nontrivial chance that a student will not eventually graduate) plays in the cost-benefit analysis of obtaining a college degree.

Bibliography Citation
Webber, Douglas A. "Are College Costs Worth it? How Ability, Major, and Debt Affect the Returns to Schooling." Economics of Education Review 53 (August 2016): 296-310.
52. Zavodny, Madeline
Does Watching Television Rot Your Mind? Estimates of the Effect on Test Scores
Economics of Education Review 25,5 (October 2006): 565-573.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775705000907
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Endogeneity; High School and Beyond (HSB); Modeling, Fixed Effects; National Education Longitudinal Survey (NELS); Socioeconomic Factors; Television Viewing; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Tests and Testing

This study examines whether the number of hours of television watched by young adults is associated with performance on standardized exams and whether any such relationship is causal. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1980's), the High School and Beyond survey and the National Education Longitudinal Study all indicate a negative cross-sectional relationship between hours of television viewing and test scores, even after controlling for a variety of socioeconomic characteristics. However, endogeneity bias may underlie this negative relationship. Models that include individual or family fixed effects to partially control for endogeneity suggest that television viewing does not negatively affect performance on standardized exams. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR; Copyright 2006 Elsevier]
Bibliography Citation
Zavodny, Madeline. "Does Watching Television Rot Your Mind? Estimates of the Effect on Test Scores." Economics of Education Review 25,5 (October 2006): 565-573.
53. Zietz, Joachim
Joshi, Prathibha V.
Academic Choice Behavior of High School Students: Economic Rationale and Empirical Evidence
Economics of Education Review 24,3 (June 2005): 297-308.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775704000901
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Aptitude; Education; Family Background; Family Characteristics; High School; Human Capital; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety; Schooling; Time Use

This study examines the determinants of US students' choice of alternative programs of study in high school. An explicit theoretical framework grounded in optimizing behavior is derived. The empirical work is based on the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. The set of variables include student and family characteristics, peer behavior, and students' involvement in work outside the school. The estimation results confirm the theoretical predictions. They suggest that academic aptitude, pre-high school academic performance, and lifetime consumption goals as driven by peer pressure and family background are by far the most important determinants of program choice.
Bibliography Citation
Zietz, Joachim and Prathibha V. Joshi. "Academic Choice Behavior of High School Students: Economic Rationale and Empirical Evidence ." Economics of Education Review 24,3 (June 2005): 297-308.