Search Results

Author: Leigh, Duane E.
Resulting in 27 citations.
1. Duncan, Gregory M.
Leigh, Duane E.
Wage Determination in the Union and Nonunion Sectors: A Sample Selectivity Approach
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 34,1 (October 1980): 2-33.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2522631
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Family Influences; Marital Status; Schooling; Unions; Vocational Training; Wage Differentials

This paper re-examines the question of whether wages are determined differently in the union and nonunion sectors. This study uses a methodology proposed by Heckman and Lee to correct for the possibility that wage differences may determine the union status of workers as well as vice versa. The authors find that union status is strongly related to the predicted union-nonunion wage differential, but their evidence nevertheless reinforces Bloch and Kuskin's empirical finding that the union earnings function is less sensitive than nonunion earnings function to changes in nearly every observable attribute of workers, such as education and experience. The authors also conclude that previous studies using separately estimated union and nonunion wage equations may have understated the success of unions in raising the relative wages of their members.
Bibliography Citation
Duncan, Gregory M. and Duane E. Leigh. "Wage Determination in the Union and Nonunion Sectors: A Sample Selectivity Approach." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 34,1 (October 1980): 2-33.
2. Gill, Andrew Matthew
Leigh, Duane E.
Do the Returns to Community Colleges Differ between Academic and Vocational Programs?
Journal of Human Resources 38,1 (Winter 2003): 134-155.
Also: http://jhr.uwpress.org/content/XXXVIII/1/134.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): College Dropouts; College Education; College Graduates; Colleges; Earnings; Transfers, Skill; Vocational Education; Vocational Training

This paper provides new evidence about the payoffs to community colleges' terminal training programs as distinct from their traditional transfer function. Using NLSY data, we offer three main findings. First, four-year college graduates who started at a community tcollege are not at a substantial earnings disadvantage relative to those who started at a four-year college. Second, community college students in terminal training programs enjoy a positive payoff comparable to that received by four-year college starters who do not graduate. Finally, we find evidence of positive self-selection for community college students who choose the terminal training track.
Bibliography Citation
Gill, Andrew Matthew and Duane E. Leigh. "Do the Returns to Community Colleges Differ between Academic and Vocational Programs?" Journal of Human Resources 38,1 (Winter 2003): 134-155.
3. Hills, Stephen M.
Leigh, Duane E.
Employer-Sponsored Training, Union Status, and the Wage Rates of Young Women
Presented: Vancouver, B.C., Meetings of the Western Economic Association, 1987
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Job Training; Racial Differences; Training; Unions; Wage Rates; Wages, Young Women

Using data from the NLSY, this study tests to see if the difference in wage rates for unionized and non-unionized young women is, in part, due to additional training which women may receive in unionized jobs. Results show that in the first few years of their working lives, the company training that non-college bound women receive has little impact on the wage rates they earn. Thus training does not play a role in explaining the sizeable union/non-union difference in wages. In fact, few of the human capital variables have the impact expected on young women's wage rates. Results for young women are contrasted with results for young men and questions are raised regarding the early choices that women can be expected to make in the labor market.
Bibliography Citation
Hills, Stephen M. and Duane E. Leigh. "Employer-Sponsored Training, Union Status, and the Wage Rates of Young Women." Presented: Vancouver, B.C., Meetings of the Western Economic Association, 1987.
4. Leigh, Duane E.
An Analysis of the Determinants of Occupational Upgrading
New York, NY: Academic Press, 1978
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: Academic Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Earnings; Employment; Human Capital Theory; Job Tenure; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Schooling; Vocational Education

The occupational mobility of individual workers is examined in attempting to test several hypotheses drawn from human capital theory and the dual labor market hypothesis. The tests involve a comparison of the occupational advancement of black and white males in similar age categories using two sources of longitudinal data. Census data allow the measurement of occupational change between l965 and l970, while change over the l966-69 period is examined using the NLS of Young Men. Results indicate that education and post-school investments in vocational training and job tenure have positive effects of roughly similar magnitudes on the upgrading of blacks and whites. Controlling for these personal endowments, the effect on upgrading of mobility between employers is also estimated.
Bibliography Citation
Leigh, Duane E. An Analysis of the Determinants of Occupational Upgrading. New York, NY: Academic Press, 1978.
5. Leigh, Duane E.
An Analysis of the Interrelation between Unions, Race, and Wage and Nonwage Compensation
Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1978
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Earnings; Endogeneity; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Quits; Retirement; Unions

Using data from the NLS of Older and Young Men, this report presents estimates of the effect of unions on relative wage rates and on a variety of measures of nonwage compensation. For white workers, results obtained from a two- equation model in which wages and union status are endogenously determined indicate that the usual single-equation estimates of union-nonunion wage differentials overstate the true relative wage impact of unions. This conclusion does not hold, however, for black workers. The relatively large relative wage estimates obtained for blacks confirm previous results showing larger union-nonunion wage differentials for blacks than whites. Among nonwage variables, unions are found to decrease the quit propensities of workers in both racial groups. Similarly, a comparison of the occupational mobility of workers who remain with the same employer indicates that unionized whites do not enjoy systematically greater promotional opportunities relative to unionized blacks within internal labor markets.
Bibliography Citation
Leigh, Duane E. "An Analysis of the Interrelation between Unions, Race, and Wage and Nonwage Compensation." Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1978.
6. Leigh, Duane E.
Do Union Members Receive Compensating Wage Differentials? Note
American Economic Review 71,5 (December 1981): 1049-1055.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1803489
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Blue-Collar Jobs; Job Tenure; Mobility, Job; Unions; Wage Differentials

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Two conclusions may be drawn from the findings presented here. First, Duncan-Stafford's longitudinal evidence showing that higher union wages represent a compensating differential for undesirable working conditions does not generalize to NLS data for Young Men. Second, the NLS evidence appears to be more consistent with a collective voice view of unionism than it is with the interdependencies hypothesis advanced by Duncan and Stafford. In particular, results obtained for union joiners and leavers indicate that working conditions in the union sector are at least equal to those in nonunion jobs, as would be expected if, despite their higher wages, organized workers have a direct impact through their unions in altering disagreeable working conditions.
Bibliography Citation
Leigh, Duane E. "Do Union Members Receive Compensating Wage Differentials? Note." American Economic Review 71,5 (December 1981): 1049-1055.
7. Leigh, Duane E.
How Accurate are Workers' Perceptions of Future Pension Benefits?
Working Paper, Department of Economics, Washington State University, Pullman, 1982
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Department of Economics, Washington State University
Keyword(s): Pensions; Retirement; Unions; Wage Effects

Using data from the NLS of Older Men, this paper examines the accuracy of workers' perceptions of their future pension benefits by comparing expected benefits measured in l97l to benefits measured in l976. The empirical results suggest, controlling for the effects of variables likely to be related to accuracy of perceptions, that workers generally underestimate the level of pension income they will receive upon retirement. Extent of underestimation is found to be largest for individuals not yet old enough to retire and smallest for individuals who actually retired during the time period examined. There is no evidence of a systematic difference between union and nonunion workers in the accuracy with which future benefits are perceived.
Bibliography Citation
Leigh, Duane E. "How Accurate are Workers' Perceptions of Future Pension Benefits?" Working Paper, Department of Economics, Washington State University, Pullman, 1982.
8. Leigh, Duane E.
Job Experience and Earnings Among Middle-Aged Men
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 15,2 (May 1976): 130-146.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-232X.1976.tb01111.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley
Keyword(s): Earnings; Educational Returns; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Mobility, Job; Occupational Aspirations; Schooling; Vocational Training; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The purpose of this paper is to improve on the specification of job experience as measured by current age minus age at completion of schooling. Using work history information for middle-aged men, a model is investigated that focuses on the determination of first-job occupation, occupational change between first job and current job, and current wage rate. The primary finding is that it is work experience accompanied by occupational advancement rather than work experience per se that has an effect on the distribution of wage rates.
Bibliography Citation
Leigh, Duane E. "Job Experience and Earnings Among Middle-Aged Men." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 15,2 (May 1976): 130-146.
9. Leigh, Duane E.
Occupational Advancement in the Late 1960s: An Indirect Test of the Dual Labor Market Hypothesis
Journal of Human Resources 11,2 (Spring 1976): 155-171.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/145450
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Census of Population; Job Tenure; Labor Market, Secondary; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Work History

The occupational mobility of black and white males during the late 1960s is examined to test the hypotheses that large and systematic racial differentials exist in both between-firm and within-firm job upgrading. Longitudinal data from the 1970 Census and the NLS of Older and Young Men are used in the empirical analysis. Neither sample provides evidence of a systematic racial differential in the effect of interfirm mobility on occupational advancement. The evidence with respect to intrafirm advancement is less unequivocal. Given the racial differential in initial occupational levels, however, only small black-white differences in advancement appear within internal labor markets.
Bibliography Citation
Leigh, Duane E. "Occupational Advancement in the Late 1960s: An Indirect Test of the Dual Labor Market Hypothesis." Journal of Human Resources 11,2 (Spring 1976): 155-171.
10. Leigh, Duane E.
Racial Differentials in Returns to Human Capital Investments: Further Evidence from the Longitudinal Surveys
Mimeo, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1974
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Human Capital Theory; Job Tenure; Occupational Attainment; Racial Differences; Vocational Training; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The author analyzes the impact of formal schooling and vocational training on alternative measures of labor market success for men. The results agree with Freeman and Flanagan that during the period between 1966-1969, occupational advancement is significantly related to formal education for whites; for blacks, post school vocational training and firm specific experience lead to greater advancement. For both racial groups, the advancement is greater among young men; but, for neither age cohort is occupational segregation sufficiently strong to negate the advancement of black men.
Bibliography Citation
Leigh, Duane E. "Racial Differentials in Returns to Human Capital Investments: Further Evidence from the Longitudinal Surveys." Mimeo, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1974.
11. Leigh, Duane E.
Racial Differentials in Union Relative Wage Effects: A Simultaneous Equations Approach
Journal of Labor Research 1,1 (March 1980): 95-114.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/p33x3jl503330013/
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: John M. Olin Institute at George Mason University
Keyword(s): Job Training; Racial Differences; Regions; Schooling; Simultaneity; Unions; Wage Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study investigated the effect of relative wages on union status and the effect of unions in raising wages using a three-equation model determining unionism and union and nonunion wage rates. Parameters of the model were estimated using the NLS examples of Young and Older Men. The primary focus of the analysis was on racial differentials of these effects within age groups. Estimation of the unionism equation indicated that for both age cohorts, union status is generally as sensitive to the personal characteristics and industry of employment of blacks as it is for whites. Among middle-aged men, the predicted union-nonunion wage differential has a positive and significant impact on union status, with the estimates obtained for whites exceeding that for blacks. The effect of relative wages for young men was found to be positive but not statistically significant for either racial group. The interpretation given these results is that choice of union status appears to be more constrained by employer selectivity for young workers and for middle-aged blacks than it is for middle-aged whites.
Bibliography Citation
Leigh, Duane E. "Racial Differentials in Union Relative Wage Effects: A Simultaneous Equations Approach." Journal of Labor Research 1,1 (March 1980): 95-114.
12. Leigh, Duane E.
Racial Discrimination and Labor Unions: Evidence from the NLS Sample of Middle-Aged Men
Journal of Human Resources 13,4 (Fall 1978): 568-577.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/145265
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Blue-Collar Jobs; Collective Bargaining; Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Unions; Wage Levels; Wages

This study examines the relationship between unions and labor market discrimination. Despite a few differences in data bases, most of the findings reported in this paper support Ashenfelter's earlier analysis of the same study. With respect to industrial unions, collective bargaining coverage was found to produce a larger covered-noncovered wage differential for blacks than for whites. These unions appear to have an important wage leveling effect across skill categories of jobs and there is no evidence that blacks are disproportionately excluded from membership. Alternatively, craft unions appear to practice entry discrimination against blacks, and covered- noncovered earnings differentials earned by skilled and semiskilled whites are significantly higher than those earned by blacks. In addition, wage differentials received by unionized workers in construction are considerably larger than those received by craft unions outside the building trades. The overall impact of craft unions on black-white earnings ratio in 1969 was to depress the ratio slightly relative to what it would have been in the absence of unionism.
Bibliography Citation
Leigh, Duane E. "Racial Discrimination and Labor Unions: Evidence from the NLS Sample of Middle-Aged Men." Journal of Human Resources 13,4 (Fall 1978): 568-577.
13. Leigh, Duane E.
The Determinants of Workers' Union Status: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Surveys
Journal of Human Resources 20,4 (Fall 1985): 555-566.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/145684
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Geographical Variation; Occupations; Racial Differences; Unions

According to the literature on determinants of union status, substantial differences exist in the likelihood of union membership by persons with various characteristics. It is unknown if this trend is due to differences in individual worker's preferences for union representation rather than differences in the availability of unionized jobs; Farber (1983) encountered a censoring problem in estimating his queue for explaining the process. However, using the 1980 wave of the Young Men Cohort of the NLS largely avoids this problem and permits direct estimation of crucial probabilities associated with the model. There are important differences in econometric methodologies and the data sets analyzed, but the results support Farber's conclusion that queuing for vacancies in existing union jobs is an important labor market phenomenon. Supply constraints on the availability of union jobs dominate worker preferences in explaining differences in extent of unionization by occupation and region.
Bibliography Citation
Leigh, Duane E. "The Determinants of Workers' Union Status: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Surveys." Journal of Human Resources 20,4 (Fall 1985): 555-566.
14. Leigh, Duane E.
The Effect of Unionism on Workers' Valuation of Future Pension Benefits
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 34,4 (July 1981): 510-521.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2522474
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Keyword(s): Blue-Collar Jobs; Pensions; Retirement; Unions; White Collar Jobs

The author focuses on the impact of unionism on pension benefits that middle-aged male workers expect to receive at retirement. The valuation of future benefits is examined because expected benefits rather than actual expenditures by employers in pensions should be the more important variable in explaining the labor market behavior of individual workers. Data from the NLS of Older Men 45-59 suggest that union workers are more knowledgeable than non-union workers about their retirement benefits. Among firms providing benefits, expected benefits are actually lower in union firms than in non-union establishments; however, nonunion firms are less likely to to provide pension benefits.
Bibliography Citation
Leigh, Duane E. "The Effect of Unionism on Workers' Valuation of Future Pension Benefits." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 34,4 (July 1981): 510-521.
15. Leigh, Duane E.
The National Longitudinal Surveys: A Selective Survey of Recent Evidence
Review of Public Data Use 10,3 (October 1983): 185-201
Cohort(s): NLS General
Publisher: U.S. Department of Commerce
Keyword(s): Earnings; Educational Returns; Employment; NLS Description; Retirement; Wives

This paper provides a selective survey of recent empirical studies, largely by economists, which are based on the four original age-sex-cohorts of the NLS. The survey is organized around the following labor market issues: (1) the estimated returns to schooling; (2) the impact of early labor market experience on subsequent employment and earnings; (3) the effect of discontinuous work experience on the earnings and labor supply decisions of married women; and (4) the retirement decision of older workers.
Bibliography Citation
Leigh, Duane E. "The National Longitudinal Surveys: A Selective Survey of Recent Evidence." Review of Public Data Use 10,3 (October 1983): 185-201.
16. Leigh, Duane E.
Union Preferences, Job Satisfaction, and the Union-Voice Hypothesis
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 25,1 (January 1986): 65-71.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-232X.1986.tb00669.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley
Keyword(s): Job Satisfaction; Quits; Racial Differences; Unions; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

According to Freeman's (1976) exit-voice model of unionism, unions provide their members with a collective voice to address grievances, moderating the effects of worker dissatisfaction on turnover. The model was tested using data from the 1980 Young Men's cohort. The survey assessed work dissatisfaction and desires for union representation for both union and nonunion workers. Union workers expressed significantly higher levels of job dissatisfaction than nonunion workers, but regardless of the level of satisfaction, they desired union representation more strongly. This finding, in relation to lower union worker quit rates, provided support for the exit-voice model. Nonunion workers' desires for unionism sharply increased with rising levels of job dissatisfaction. While desires for union representation grew with pay satisfaction for union workers, they decreased with pay satisfaction and education for nonunion workers. Finally, nonwhite workers expressed the strongest desires for union representation, especially nonunion, nonwhite workers.
Bibliography Citation
Leigh, Duane E. "Union Preferences, Job Satisfaction, and the Union-Voice Hypothesis." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 25,1 (January 1986): 65-71.
17. Leigh, Duane E.
Unions and Nonwage Racial Discrimination
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 32,4 (July 1979): 439-450.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2522960
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Job Training; Labor Market Outcomes; Pensions; Schooling; Unions

This paper departs from earlier studies of racial differences in union impact by concentrating on differences on two nonwage labor market outcomes: the exit propensity of individual workers and their opportunities for occupational upgrading. Using data from the NLS of Young and Older Men, the author finds that unionism lengthens tenure and reduces quits for blacks and whites alike in both categories. Similarly, no systematic racial difference is found in the opportunities for occupational advancement available to unionized blacks in comparison to unionized whites. The author concludes that union bargaining over nonwage conditions of employment does not have the effect of negating the positive impact of unions on the ratio of black to white wages documented in previous studies.
Bibliography Citation
Leigh, Duane E. "Unions and Nonwage Racial Discrimination." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 32,4 (July 1979): 439-450.
18. Leigh, Duane E.
What Kinds of Training 'Work' for Noncollege Bound Youth?
Report for the General Accounting Office, 1989
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: General Accounting Office (GAO) (pre July 2004)
Keyword(s): Apprenticeships; College Education; Gender Differences; Job Training; Private Sector; Racial Differences; Schooling; Schooling, Post-secondary; Training; Training, Post-School

This report investigates the role that private sector postsecondary training institutions (other than the federal government and military) can play in closing the "skills gap" between employment opportunities and a changing workforce that is predicted to occur as the U.S. moves into the 21st century. The first section of the report reviews previous research on post school training conducted on the five NLS cohorts. Section two utilizes data from the NLSY to examine differential access to job training opportunities and the impact of particular types of formal training on wages and annual earnings. Results of the various analyses indicate that: (1) women are less likely than men to gain access to apprenticeship programs, more likely to participate in proprietary school training programs, and no less likely than men to be engaged in company-sponsored training; (2) high school completion significantly increased the likelihood of participation in postschool training; and (3) company-sponsored training had a strong positive impact on wages and annual earnings both for the sample as a whole and for workers disaggregated by race and ethnicity.
Bibliography Citation
Leigh, Duane E. "What Kinds of Training 'Work' for Noncollege Bound Youth?" Report for the General Accounting Office, 1989.
19. Leigh, Duane E.
Why is There Mandatory Retirement? An Empirical Re-Examination
Journal of Human Resources 19,4 (Fall 1984): 512-531.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/145945
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Job Training; Retirement

In attempting to provide a more comprehensive empirical analysis of the determinants of mandatory retirement practices, this paper adds to the empirical predictions of Lazear's "incentives" model several implications drawn from a specific training model of mandatory retirement. These implications relate mandatory retirement to costs of monitoring worker performance and investments in specific human capital. Using data from the NLS Older Men sample, evidence is presented supporting the conclusion that both monitoring costs and specific training are important elements of an economic explanation of mandatory retirement.
Bibliography Citation
Leigh, Duane E. "Why is There Mandatory Retirement? An Empirical Re-Examination." Journal of Human Resources 19,4 (Fall 1984): 512-531.
20. Leigh, Duane E.
Duncan, Gregory M.
Endogeneity of Union Status: An Empirical Demonstration
Unpublished manuscript, Department of Economics, Washington State University, Pullman, 1983
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: Department of Economics, Washington State University
Keyword(s): Endogeneity; Unions; Variables, Instrumental; Wage Determination; Wage Effects; Wages

An unsettled issue in the literature relating to the relative wage effect of unions is the appropriate treatment of union status in a wage determination model. In the context of a three-equation model determining union membership and union and nonunion sector wage rates, this paper presents an instrumental variables (IV) procedure for estimating the parameters of the wage equations and a test of the exogeneity of union status using the Hausman specification test. An advantage of our IV procedure in comparison to the widely used inverse Mill's ration procedure is that our procedure is a distribution-free estimator, whereas the inverse Mill's ration estimator hinges on the assumption that the joint probability distributions of the error terms are bivariate normal. Using data for a sample of middle-aged white workers, we estimate the parameters of the union and nonunion wage equations with both procedures. On the key question of the endogeneity of union status, the Hausman test decisively rejects the null hypothesis of exogeneity. The inverse Mill's ratio procedure, in contrast, provides coefficient estimates on the selectivity terms that fail to indicate evidence of sample selectivity in either sector.
Bibliography Citation
Leigh, Duane E. and Gregory M. Duncan. "Endogeneity of Union Status: An Empirical Demonstration." Unpublished manuscript, Department of Economics, Washington State University, Pullman, 1983.
21. Leigh, Duane E.
Gifford, Kirk D.
Workplace Transformation and Worker Upskilling Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Working Paper, Department of Economics, Washington State University, April 1996
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Economics, Washington State University
Keyword(s): Education; Firm Size; Occupations; Skill Depreciation; Skilled Workers; Skills; Training, Occupational; Training, On-the-Job; Transfers, Skill

How common is workplace transformation in the American economy? What are its implications for workforce skill requirements and training investments? The existing literature addresses these questions using firm-reported survey data. Using new data available in the 1993 wave of the NLSY, this paper examines these questions from the perspective of individual workers. Our empirical results suggest that workplace transformation is commonplace. Fully 40 percent of the private sector workers surveyed report that, in the space of just one year. a change occurred at work that was significant enough to require them to learn new job skills. The extent of workplace change varies widely by industry, occupation, firm size, and education; but there appears to be no sector of the economy that is totally immune. Incidence of formal training is found, not surprisingly given the measurement of workplace change, to depend on a similar set of variables. However, duration of training is also strongly affected by such factors as industry, occupational skill level, establishment size, and education. We also present results on the determinants of formal training broken down by computer skills, teamwork training, and basic skills. I folding constant worker and firm characteristics, computer skills training is especially strongly affected by firm investment in new equipment; while new government regulations and new equipment are key determinants of teamwork training and basic skills training.
Bibliography Citation
Leigh, Duane E. and Kirk D. Gifford. "Workplace Transformation and Worker Upskilling Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." Working Paper, Department of Economics, Washington State University, April 1996.
22. Leigh, Duane E.
Gifford, Kirk D.
Workplace Transformation and Worker Upskilling: The Perspective of Individual Workers
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 38,2 (April 1999): 174-191.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/0019-8676.00123/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley
Keyword(s): Job Training; Skills; Training; Training, Employee

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

How common is workplace transformation in the American economy? What are its implications for work force skill requirements and training investments? The existing literature addressing these questions is based on firm-reported survey data. Using new data available in the 1993 wave of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), this article examines the same questions from the perspective of individual workers. Our empirical results suggest that workplace transformation is commonplace. Fully 40 percent of private-sector workers surveyed report that in the space of just one year, a change occurred at work that required them to learn new job skills. About 23 percent of all respondents reported experiencing a workplace change we term an organizational transformation. Incidence of formal training is positively related to indicators of organizational transformation, but the effect of these indicators is found to be sensitive to the inclusion of other important workplace change variables (namely, new products, new equipment, and new government regulations). While we expected to find strong positive relationships with product development and physical capital investment, government regulation has a surprisingly large impact on formal training.
Bibliography Citation
Leigh, Duane E. and Kirk D. Gifford. "Workplace Transformation and Worker Upskilling: The Perspective of Individual Workers." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 38,2 (April 1999): 174-191.
23. Leigh, Duane E.
Gill, Andrew Matthew
Do Community Colleges Really Divert Students from Earning Bachelor's Degrees?
Economics of Education Review 22,1 (February 2003): 23-31.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775701000577
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): College Education; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Educational Attainment; Schooling, Post-secondary; Transfers, Public

This paper provides new estimates of the 'diversion effect' argument advanced by critics of community colleges. As emphasized by Rouse (J. Business Econ. Statist. 13 (1995) 217), information on students' desired level of schooling is essential to properly measure the diversion effect of community colleges as well as their 'democratization effect' increasing access to higher education. Using information on desired years of schooling from early waves of the NLSY, we find that the choice between alternative postsecondary education tracks including the choice of community college students between transfer and terminal programs is highly sensitive to years of desired schooling. Diversion effect estimates are also found to depend on whether we condition on desired schooling. For individuals who express a desire to complete at least 16 years of schooling, our diversion effect estimates lie between −0.7 and −1.0 years. These estimates are clearly dominated by positive democratization effect estimates. On balance, therefore, we find for individuals desiring a bachelor's degree that community colleges increase average educational attainment by between 0.4 and 1.0 years. [Copyright 2003 Elsevier]
Bibliography Citation
Leigh, Duane E. and Andrew Matthew Gill. "Do Community Colleges Really Divert Students from Earning Bachelor's Degrees?" Economics of Education Review 22,1 (February 2003): 23-31.
24. Leigh, Duane E.
Gill, Andrew Matthew
Labor Market Returns to Community Colleges: Evidence for Returning Adults
Journal of Human Resources 32,2 (Spring 1997): 334-353.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/146218
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Colleges; Earnings; High School Completion/Graduates; Labor Market Outcomes; Training, Occupational

Kane and Rouse (1993) furnish evidence that enrollment in a two-year or four-year-college program increases earnings by 5 to 8 percent per year of college credits, whether or nor a degree is earned. This evidence has provided the intellectual basis for policy recommendations to increase access by adult, workers to long-term education and training programs, such as those supplied by community colleges. Yet to be answered, however, is the question whether these favorable return estimates hold for experienced adult workers who return to school. For both A.A. and nondegree community college programs, our results indicate returns that are positive and of essentially the same size for returning adults as they are for continuing high school graduates. Among males in nondegree programs, in fact, returning adults enjoy an incremental earnings effect of 8 to 10 percent above that received by continuing students. (Copyright Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System 1997)
Bibliography Citation
Leigh, Duane E. and Andrew Matthew Gill. "Labor Market Returns to Community Colleges: Evidence for Returning Adults." Journal of Human Resources 32,2 (Spring 1997): 334-353.
25. Leigh, Duane E.
Gill, Andrew Matthew
The Effect of Community Colleges on Changing Students' Educational Aspirations
Economics of Education Review 23,1 (February 2004): 95-103.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272775703000633
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): College Education; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Educational Attainment; Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Family Background and Culture; Racial Studies

The education literature provides numerous estimates of community college diversion and democratization effects measured in terms of educational attainment. Kane and Rouse [J Econ Pers 13 (1999) 64] suggest testing for diversion by comparing the impacts of two-year and four-year colleges on the changes in educational aspirations that underlie actual years of schooling completed. Using NLSY data, we obtain community college 'differential aspirations effect' estimates that range from as high as −0.68 of a year to as low as our preferred estimate of −0.43 of a year. We put these estimates in perspective by showing that they are less than half of the conventionally measured diversion effect estimated for our sample. Regarding democratization, we find that attending a community college results in a substantial expansion in the educational aspirations of students (our 'incremental aspirations effect'), regardless of their family backgrounds and race and ethnicity. [Copyright 2004 Elsevier]
Bibliography Citation
Leigh, Duane E. and Andrew Matthew Gill. "The Effect of Community Colleges on Changing Students' Educational Aspirations." Economics of Education Review 23,1 (February 2004): 95-103.
26. Leigh, Duane E.
Hills, Stephen M.
Male-Female Differences in the Potential for Union Growth Outside Traditionally Unionized Industries
Journal of Labor Research 8,2 (June 1987): 131-142.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/4k3n44336u171572/
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: John M. Olin Institute at George Mason University
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Private Sector; Public Sector; Unions

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using recent NLS data on preferences for union representation, this paper examines whether differences by sex exist in the potential for union organizing outside of traditionally unionized industries. The methodology used distinguishes between workers' preferences for union representation and the relative supply of union jobs in explaining interindustry differences in the extent of unionization. Within the private sector, women employed in industries other than traditionally unionized industries are found to have at least as strong a preference for unionization as comparable men, but a considerably lower opportunity for unionized employment given the desire for union representation. Comparing the public sector with traditionally organized industries, the greater extent of unionization in the public sector is largely explained by a stronger desire for union representation on the part of both male and female public sector employees.
Bibliography Citation
Leigh, Duane E. and Stephen M. Hills. "Male-Female Differences in the Potential for Union Growth Outside Traditionally Unionized Industries." Journal of Labor Research 8,2 (June 1987): 131-142.
27. Leigh, Duane E.
Hills, Stephen M.
Public Sector-Private Sector Differences in Reasons Underlying Expressed Union Preferences
Journal of Collective Negotiations in the Public Sector 16,1 (1987): 1-14
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Baywood Pub. Co.
Keyword(s): Behavior; Collective Bargaining; Private Sector; Public Sector; Unions

Recent waves of the Young Men and Young Women NLS samples provide information not only on how respondents would vote in a hypothetical union representation election, but also on the primary reason for their vote. This paper uses the primary reason information to examine whether differences exist between public sector and private sector workers in the reasons underlying expressed voting preferences. The major finding of the paper is that the relatively large demand of public employees for union representation reflects a relatively strong preference for collective action. Our interpretation of this finding is that public employees recognize the economic payoff to collective behavior in the political arena.
Bibliography Citation
Leigh, Duane E. and Stephen M. Hills. "Public Sector-Private Sector Differences in Reasons Underlying Expressed Union Preferences." Journal of Collective Negotiations in the Public Sector 16,1 (1987): 1-14.