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Author: Fredland, John Eric
Resulting in 9 citations.
1. Fredland, John Eric
Little, Roger D.
Educational Levels, Aspirations and Expectations of Military and Civilian Males, Ages 18-22
Armed Forces and Society 10,2 (Winter 1984): 211-228.
Also: http://afs.sagepub.com/content/10/2/211.full.pdf+html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Inter-University Seminar on Armed Forces & Society
Keyword(s): All-Volunteer Force (AVF); Educational Attainment; Hispanics; Military Personnel; Military Service; Racial Differences; Work Attitudes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Based on the 1979 data from the NLSY, this article examines differences between 18-22 year-old servicemen and males of the same cohort who have never served with respect to three dimensions of manpower quality: educational levels, aspirations, and expectations. Blacks, whites and Hispanics are considered separately. Blacks and whites are also disaggregated by branch of service in some analyses. Two purposes are served. First, information on these three dimensions provides insight into the quality of those who serve in comparison with those who do not. Educational level is the most often cited quality measure in the debate over the efficacy of the all-volunteer force. Second, educational aspirations and expectations are also a measure of quality but, in addition, are valuable in assessing the utility of postservice educational programs as a recruiting attraction. It was found that, among whites, the military group has less education than the civilian group; however, the military group contains more high school graduates. Further, when the samples are confined to those having 12 or fewer years of education, the military group averages more education. Finally, because the sample is truncated at age 22, and because military service is an alternative to more schooling, the finding of a greater mean educational level for the civilian group is not surprising. In short, if amount of education is taken as an index of intellectual ability, it is difficult to argue that the military attracts much lower-quality whites than the average. It is particularly difficult to argue that the quality of white servicemen is lower than average, when the civilian group excludes those who have gone on directly from high school to college and graduate school. The results for blacks and Hispanics are much clearer. Blacks and Hispanics who enlist are (as of 1979) clearly superior to the average of their age group, when educational level is the criterion of quality. The most interesting results of this study concern educational aspirations and expectations. It was found that whites, blacks, and Hispanics in the military desire, on average, significantly more years of schooling than their civilian counterparts. Also, the servicemen, on average, actually expect to complete more years of schooling. These results hold even when the civilian group includes those who have gone on directly from high school to college, and they prevail more dramatically when the college group is excluded. They also obtain in the context of a multivariate model.
Bibliography Citation
Fredland, John Eric and Roger D. Little. "Educational Levels, Aspirations and Expectations of Military and Civilian Males, Ages 18-22." Armed Forces and Society 10,2 (Winter 1984): 211-228.
2. Fredland, John Eric
Little, Roger D.
Job Satisfaction Determinants: Differences Between Servicemen and Civilians
Journal of Political and Military Sociology 11 (Fall 1983): 265-280
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: unknown
Keyword(s): Job Satisfaction; Job Training; Marriage; Military Personnel; Military Service; Racial Equality/Inequality

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Univariate analysis indicates that job satisfaction in the military is lower than in the civilian sector. Multivariate analysis demonstrates that military service itself or the personal characteristics of servicemen exert little independent influence. Rather, specific elements of satisfaction which have policy implications-- feelings that the experience will be valuable later, for example--account for most of the difference. Racial differences and the likelihood of being married also suggest some policy alternatives. A small segment of each service who report being very satisfied with their military job appear to be influenced by different job satisfaction factors than the majority.
Bibliography Citation
Fredland, John Eric and Roger D. Little. "Job Satisfaction Determinants: Differences Between Servicemen and Civilians." Journal of Political and Military Sociology 11 (Fall 1983): 265-280.
3. Fredland, John Eric
Little, Roger D.
Long Term Returns to Vocational Training: Evidence from Military Sources
Journal of Human Resources 15,1 (Winter 1980): 49-66.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/145346
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Earnings; Educational Returns; Military Training; Vocational Education

This study investigates long- run returns of mid-career white male workers who received military vocational training during WWII and immediately thereafter. The cross-section earnings regressions strongly suggest that those who utilized their vocational training receive long-term premiums. In contrast, those individuals who did not use their training in subsequent employment did not appear to earn premiums, which indicates that the training effects are job specific.
Bibliography Citation
Fredland, John Eric and Roger D. Little. "Long Term Returns to Vocational Training: Evidence from Military Sources." Journal of Human Resources 15,1 (Winter 1980): 49-66.
4. Fredland, John Eric
Little, Roger D.
Psychic Income and Self Employment
Journal of Private Enterprise 1,1 (Fall 1985): 121-127
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Association of Private Enterprise Education
Keyword(s): Job Satisfaction; Retirement; Self-Employed Workers; Work Attitudes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper reports on preliminary longitudinal empirical research on the characteristics of self-employed workers using the Older Men's cohort for 1966 to 1971. The self-employed, with greater human capital on average, work longer hours for the same income, while reporting equal or better job attitude, greater job commitment, and less immediate retirement plans. Those who have recently become self-employed do not appear to be better off in terms of income, but their reported job attitude and commitment show marked improvement and they postpone their retirement plans. Thus, there is a strong suggestion that their switch to a self-employed status was accompanied by the accrual of a measure of "psychic" income.
Bibliography Citation
Fredland, John Eric and Roger D. Little. "Psychic Income and Self Employment." Journal of Private Enterprise 1,1 (Fall 1985): 121-127.
5. Fredland, John Eric
Little, Roger D.
Self-Employed Workers: Returns to Education and Training
Economics of Education Review 1,3 (Summer 1981): 315-337.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0272775781900029
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Duncan Index; Earnings; Educational Returns; Self-Employed Workers; Vocational Training

An empirical investigation of human capital returns to owners of unincorporated nonfarm businesses is described, and the results are compared with those for a similar cohort of employees. Data are from the Older Men's cohort of the NLS. A single-equation semi-log regression model is employed throughout. Results show that human capital returns to self-employed workers are basically consistent with results for employees, but some differences emerge. As hypothesized, returns to general training are somewhat larger and returns to specific training somewhat smaller for self-employed workers. The time path of returns associated with job tenure also differs.
Bibliography Citation
Fredland, John Eric and Roger D. Little. "Self-Employed Workers: Returns to Education and Training." Economics of Education Review 1,3 (Summer 1981): 315-337.
6. Fredland, John Eric
Little, Roger D.
Socioeconomic Characteristics of the All Volunteer Force: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey, 1979
Final Report, U.S. Department of Defense, 1982
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Defense
Keyword(s): All-Volunteer Force (AVF); Hispanics; Job Satisfaction; Military Service; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Vocational Education

This report contains six separate, although related, studies. Each study compares young male members of the all- volunteer force as of l979 either with men of the same age cohort who are not serving or with those too young to serve at the time of the survey. The studies are cross-sectional. They address the following areas: socioeconomic characteristics, attitudes and intentions to serve of 14 to 17 year old males, vocational training, educational levels, aspirations, and expectations, job problems and characteristics, job satisfaction.
Bibliography Citation
Fredland, John Eric and Roger D. Little. "Socioeconomic Characteristics of the All Volunteer Force: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey, 1979." Final Report, U.S. Department of Defense, 1982.
7. Fredland, John Eric
Little, Roger D.
Socioeconomic Status of World War II Veterans by Race: An Empirical Test of the Bridging Hypothesis
Social Science Quarterly 66,3 (September 1980): 534-551
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: University of Texas Press
Keyword(s): Military Personnel; Military Service; Military Training; Racial Differences; Veterans

Permission to reprint the abstract has been denied by the publisher.

Bibliography Citation
Fredland, John Eric and Roger D. Little. "Socioeconomic Status of World War II Veterans by Race: An Empirical Test of the Bridging Hypothesis." Social Science Quarterly 66,3 (September 1980): 534-551.
8. Fredland, John Eric
Little, Roger D.
World War II Veterans: Pecuniary and Non-Pecuniary Returns to Service
Presented: San Diego, CA, Western Economics Association Meetings, 1980
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Income Dynamics/Shocks; Military Personnel; Military Service; Military Training; Minority Groups; Racial Differences; Training, Occupational; Veterans

This paper investigates some specific attributes of the bridging hypothesis by comparing groups of white and black World War II veterans with their contemporaries who did not serve. Contrary to literature of the 1960s, some studies during the 1970s lend support to the proposition that military service can improve one's place in the income distribution or enhance socioeconomic attainment particularly for members of minority groups. These improvements, some sociologists have argued, may be explained by the "bridging" environment which the military service occupation provides. The authors conclude that the bridging hypothesis is not a satisfactory explanation of the difference between veteran and non-veteran positions in the income distribution or their socioeconomic attainment in the long run. Educational differences are important, but occupational choice and other labor market factors need further investigation.
Bibliography Citation
Fredland, John Eric and Roger D. Little. "World War II Veterans: Pecuniary and Non-Pecuniary Returns to Service." Presented: San Diego, CA, Western Economics Association Meetings, 1980.
9. Little, Roger D.
Fredland, John Eric
Veteran Status, Earnings, and Race: Some Long Term Results
Armed Forces and Society 5,2 (February 1979): 244-260.
Also: http://afs.sagepub.com/content/5/2/244.full.pdf+html
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Inter-University Seminar on Armed Forces & Society
Keyword(s): All-Volunteer Force (AVF); Earnings; Employment; Job Tenure; Life Cycle Research; Military Service; Veterans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article reports on the long term results of military service by focusing on groups of veterans, disaggregated by race, approximately twenty years after their military service in World War II and immediately thereafter. Separate statistical analysis was performed for whites, for blacks, and for non-whites. Results show that veteran status positively affected the l966 earnings of all three groups examined. The authors suggest that the substantial earnings premiums to minority veterans, most of whom are at the right age to be fathers of recent and present enlistees in the all-volunteer force, may help to explain why minorities are joining the military service in disproportionately large numbers. The authors also suggest that the sizes of the l966 earnings premiums may indicate life-cycle benefits to veterans.
Bibliography Citation
Little, Roger D. and John Eric Fredland. "Veteran Status, Earnings, and Race: Some Long Term Results." Armed Forces and Society 5,2 (February 1979): 244-260.