Search Results

Author: Averett, Susan L.
Resulting in 34 citations.
1. Argys, Laura M.
Averett, Susan L.
Rees, Daniel I.
Welfare Generosity, Pregnancies and Abortions Among Unmarried Recipients
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1997
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Abortion; Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Childbearing; Family Studies; Fertility; Marital Status; Modeling; Modeling, Probit; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In an attempt to reduce births to women on welfare, many states have instituted family caps which eliminate increases in welfare payments for recipients who have additional children. Most proponents of family caps believe that any reduction in births will be accomplished through a decrease in pregnancies. However, a reduction in births to recipient mothers may instead result from an increase in abortions. By exploiting state differences in AFDC benefit levels we are able to examine the link between reduced benefits, pregnancy and pregnancy resolution. Using a sample of unmarried AFDC recipients from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we estimate a bivariate probit model of the determinants of pregnancy while on AFDC and, conditional on becoming pregnant, the probability of obtaining an abortion. Our results suggest that that lower welfare benefits are not strongly associated with reductions in pregnancies or increases in abortions.
Bibliography Citation
Argys, Laura M., Susan L. Averett and Daniel I. Rees. "Welfare Generosity, Pregnancies and Abortions Among Unmarried Recipients." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 1997.
2. Argys, Laura M.
Averett, Susan L.
Rees, Daniel I.
Welfare Generosity, Pregnancies, and Abortions among Unmarried AFDC Recipients
Journal of Population Economics 13,4 (December 2000): 569-594.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/h4rlqcavxt004b18/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Abortion; Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Fertility; Modeling, Probit; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Even before the 1996 overhaul of the U.S. welfare system, a number of states had ended the practice of paying extra benefits to families who have additional children while receiving welfare. Proponents believe that this reform can reduce births to recipients, however many worry that it may encourage women to obtain abortions. Using a sample of unmarried AFDC recipients from the NLSY, we estimate a bivariate probit model of pregnancy and, conditional on becoming pregnant, the probability of abortion. Our results lend some support for the proposition that reducing incremental AFDC benefits will decrease pregnancies without increasing abortions.
Bibliography Citation
Argys, Laura M., Susan L. Averett and Daniel I. Rees. "Welfare Generosity, Pregnancies, and Abortions among Unmarried AFDC Recipients." Journal of Population Economics 13,4 (December 2000): 569-594.
3. Argys, Laura M.
Rees, Daniel I.
Averett, Susan L.
Witoonchart, Benjama
Birth Order and Risky Adolescent Behavior
Economic Inquiry 44,2 (April 2006): 215-233.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1093/ei/cbj011/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Adolescent Sexual Activity; Alcohol Use; Birth Order; Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Drug Use; Risk-Taking; Sexual Activity; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

It is commonly believed that birth order is an important determinant of success. However, previous studies in this area have failed to provide convincing evidence that birth order is related to test scores, education, or earnings. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth–1979, we investigate the association between birth order and adolescent behaviors such as smoking, drinking, marijuana use, sexual activity, and crime. Our estimates show that middle borns and last borns are much more likely to use substances and be sexually active than their firstborn counterparts. These results provide the strongest evidence to date that birth order is related to measurable behaviors.
Bibliography Citation
Argys, Laura M., Daniel I. Rees, Susan L. Averett and Benjama Witoonchart. "Birth Order and Risky Adolescent Behavior." Economic Inquiry 44,2 (April 2006): 215-233.
4. Averett, Susan L.
Child Care Costs and Female Labor Supply: An Empirical Investigation of the Effects of the Child Care Tax Credit on Female Labor Supply & Demand for Child Care
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Colorado, 1991. DAI-A 52/06, p. 2235, December 1991
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Child Care; Labor Supply; Mothers; Taxes

While the increasing labor force participation rates of mothers with young children is a well documented phenomenon, little is known about the role child care costs play in this increase, or how these costs influence the demand for quality and quantity of child care. This dissertation is a theoretical and empirical exploration of the effects of the child care credit in the U.S. income tax system on female labor supply and the choice of formal versus informal child care arrangements. This tax credit, inherent in the U.S. federal income tax code since 1976, provides a subsidy to working families towards both the quantity and quality of formal child care purchased. This subsidy creates a nonlinear budget set similar in shape to that created by a progressive income tax. Data from the youth cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys are utilized to estimate the labor supply function of the mother. The labor supply response is found to be quite large with respect to changes in the wage net of care costs. A variety of specifications are estimated and the results appear to be robust. Policy simulations are performed to determine the effects of various proposals concerning the federal funding of child care. The results from simulating the model indicate that subsidization of child care costs through policies enacted by the government can influence female labor supply. Specifically, a government policy that has the effect of raising net wage rate, perhaps by increasing the percentage of child care costs that are subsidized, can have substantial impacts on female labor supply.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. Child Care Costs and Female Labor Supply: An Empirical Investigation of the Effects of the Child Care Tax Credit on Female Labor Supply & Demand for Child Care. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Colorado, 1991. DAI-A 52/06, p. 2235, December 1991.
5. Averett, Susan L.
Dalessandro, Sharon
Racial and Gender Differences in the Returns to 2-Year and 4-Year Degrees
Education Economics 9,3 (December 2001): 281-292.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09645290110086144
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Carfax Publishing Company ==> Taylor & Francis
Keyword(s): Economics of Gender; Economics of Minorities; Gender; Human Capital; Occupational Choice; Racial Studies; Training, Occupational; Training, On-the-Job

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the 1993 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this paper documents differences in the rate of return to 2-year and 4-year degrees across race and gender. We find for each race and gender group that a baccalaureate degree is more valuable than an associate's degree, and the return to an associate's degree is greater than attending some college, which is in turn more valuable than simply finishing high school. Our results indicate that these effects are statistically different for black and white men. Finally, according to our research, one avenue of low-cost education for women and black men is to attend a 2-year school and then finish the degree at a 4-year institution.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. and Sharon Dalessandro. "Racial and Gender Differences in the Returns to 2-Year and 4-Year Degrees." Education Economics 9,3 (December 2001): 281-292.
6. Averett, Susan L.
Fletcher, Erin K.
Prepregnancy Obesity and Birth Outcomes
IZA Discussion Paper No. 9052, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), May 2015
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Mothers; Obesity; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We investigate the association between prepregnancy obesity and birth outcomes using fixed effect models comparing siblings from the same mother. A total of 7,496 births to 3,990 mothers from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 survey are examined. Outcomes include macrosomia, gestational length, incidence of low birthweight, preterm birth, large and small for gestational age (LGA, SGA), c-section, infant doctor visits, mother's and infant's days in hospital post-partum, whether the mother breastfed, and duration of breastfeeding. Association of income outcomes with maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was examined using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression to compare across mothers and fixed effects to compare within families. In fixed effect models we find no statistically significant association between most outcomes and prepregnancy obesity with the exception of LGA, SGA, low birth weight and preterm birth. We find that prepregnancy obesity is associated with a with lower risk of low birthweight, SGA, and preterm birth but controlling for prepregnancy obesity, increases in GWG lead to increased risk of LGA. Contrary to previous studies, which have found that maternal obesity increases the risk of c-section, macrosomia and LGA, while decreasing the probability of breastfeeding, our sibling comparison models reveal no such association. In fact, our results suggest a protective effect of obesity in that women who are obese prepregnancy have longer gestation lengths, and are less likely to give birth to a preterm or low birthweight infant.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. and Erin K. Fletcher. "Prepregnancy Obesity and Birth Outcomes." IZA Discussion Paper No. 9052, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), May 2015.
7. Averett, Susan L.
Fletcher, Erin K.
Prepregnancy Obesity and Birth Outcomes
Maternal and Child Health Journal 20,3 (March 2016): 655-664.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10995-015-1865-0
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Birth Outcomes; Birthweight; Mothers; Obesity; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objective: To investigate the association between prepregnancy obesity and birth outcomes using fixed effect models comparing siblings from the same mother.

Methods: A total of 7496 births to 3990 mothers from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 survey are examined. Outcomes include macrosomia, gestational length, incidence of low birthweight, preterm birth, large and small for gestational age (LGA, SGA), c-section, infant doctor visits, mother's and infant's days in hospital post-partum, whether the mother breastfed, and duration of breastfeeding. Association of outcomes with maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was examined using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression to compare across mothers and fixed effects to compare within families.

Results: In fixed effect models we find no statistically significant association between most outcomes and prepregnancy obesity with the exception of LGA, SGA, low birth weight, and preterm birth. We find that prepregnancy obesity is associated with a lower risk of low birthweight, SGA, and preterm birth but controlling for prepregnancy obesity, increases in GWG lead to increased risk of LGA.

Conclusions: Contrary to previous studies, which have found that maternal obesity increases the risk of c-section, macrosomia, and LGA, while decreasing the probability of breastfeeding, our sibling comparison models reveal no such association. In fact, our results suggest a protective effect of obesity in that women who are obese prepregnancy have longer gestation lengths, and are less likely to give birth to a preterm or low birthweight infant.

Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. and Erin K. Fletcher. "Prepregnancy Obesity and Birth Outcomes." Maternal and Child Health Journal 20,3 (March 2016): 655-664.
8. Averett, Susan L.
Fletcher, Erin K.
The Relationship Between Maternal Pre-pregnancy BMI and Preschool Obesity
In: Applied Demography and Public Health in the 21st Century: Volume 8 of Applied Demography Series. M.N. Hoque, B. Pecotte and M.A. McGehee, eds., Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 2017: 201-219.
Also: http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-43688-3_12
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Modeling, OLS; Mothers, Health; Obesity; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Preschool Children; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The increasing prevalence of obesity during pregnancy raises concerns over the intergenerational transmission of obesity and its potential to exacerbate the current obesity epidemic. The fetal origins hypothesis posits that the intrauterine environment might have lasting effects on children's outcomes. A large literature establishes that mother's pre-pregnancy obesity is correlated with obesity in her children. However, previous research is largely based on comparing individuals across families and hence cannot control for unobservable factors associated with both maternal and child obesity. We use both within-family comparisons and an instrumental variable approach on a sample of 4435 children to identify the effect of maternal pre-pregnancy obesity on obesity in preschool-aged children. Consistent with extant research, OLS models that rely on across-family comparisons indicate a significant correlation between maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and preschool obesity . However, maternal fixed effects render those associations insignificant. Instrumenting for mother's BMI with her sisters' BMI values confirms the null result indicating that the in utero transmission of obesity is likely not driving the increase in childhood obesity.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. and Erin K. Fletcher. "The Relationship Between Maternal Pre-pregnancy BMI and Preschool Obesity" In: Applied Demography and Public Health in the 21st Century: Volume 8 of Applied Demography Series. M.N. Hoque, B. Pecotte and M.A. McGehee, eds., Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 2017: 201-219.
9. Averett, Susan L.
Gennetian, Lisa Anoush
Peters, H. Elizabeth
Fathers as Providers of Child Care
Presented: Bethesda, MD, Conference on Father Involvement, October 1996
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Author
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Care; Child Development; Cognitive Development; Family Studies; Fathers, Involvement; Maternal Employment; Part-Time Work; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Sex Roles

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Fathers are an important, but understudied, source of child care. In this paper we address two questions. First, what are the patterns of father care, and second, what are the cognitive and socio-emotional developmental consequences for children with working mothers whose fathers provide care? We find that father care is often used in conjunction with other forms of child care. Fathers are most likely to provide care when the mothers are working a non-day shift or are working part-time. The consequences of father care for a child's cognitive development differ by the age of the child. Father care during the first year of a child's life has a positive impact on developmental outcomes relative to other types of child care. In contrast, children in nonparental modes of child care have better cognitive outcomes in the second and third years. Nonparental care during the second or third year provides opportunities for cognitive stimulation and social interaction with peers and no nparental adults that may be less available to children who are cared for by their fathers.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L., Lisa Anoush Gennetian and H. Elizabeth Peters. "Fathers as Providers of Child Care." Presented: Bethesda, MD, Conference on Father Involvement, October 1996.
10. Averett, Susan L.
Gennetian, Lisa Anoush
Peters, H. Elizabeth
Paternal Child Care and Children's Development
Journal of Population Economics 18,3 (September 2005): 391-414.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/p63563120r7688h5/fulltext.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Care; Family Income; Fathers and Children; Fathers, Involvement; Fathers, Presence; Maternal Employment; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper uses the NLSY-Child data to assess the effects on cognitive and social-emotional development of father care as a child care arrangement among children in two-parent families with working mothers. Our results show that father care for infants is no better or worse than other types of arrangements. However, toddlers in non-paternal modes of child care (e.g., relatives, family day care or center care) have slightly better cognitive outcomes than those whose fathers provided care. Although our analyses do not provide a definitive explanation for this finding, there is a substantial influx of fathers in our data who provide child care in years 2 and 3 and these fathers appear compositionally different from fathers who provided care during a child's infancy. In particular, there is some indication that these fathers who are newly providing care during a child's toddler years may be temporary care providers due to changing economic circumstances.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L., Lisa Anoush Gennetian and H. Elizabeth Peters. "Paternal Child Care and Children's Development." Journal of Population Economics 18,3 (September 2005): 391-414.
11. Averett, Susan L.
Gennetian, Lisa Anoush
Peters, H. Elizabeth
Patterns and Determinants of Paternal Child Care During a Child's First Three Years of Life
Marriage and Family Review 29,2-3 (2000): 115-136.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J002v29n02_08
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Haworth Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Child Care; Fathers and Children; Fathers, Involvement; Foster Care; Hispanics; Racial Differences; Work Hours

This study examined patterns and determinants of father care of young children while mothers are working. The authors use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), a nationally representative sample of individuals born from 1957 through 1964 who were interviewed as teenagers and reinterviewed every subsequent year. The final sample for this study included 1188 children and their 863 mothers. The results showed that full-time working mothers are less likely to use father care. Fathers in occupations that require non-day shifts are more likely to provide child care. While some studies have shown that fathers are more likely to provide care if they are unemployed, the data here show that fathers who provide care are no more likely to be unemployed than fathers who do not provide care. Of all the children in the sample whose mothers worked during their first year of life, 4.2% were cared for exclusively by their fathers and 4.4% were cared for by their fathers and some other care provider. Children who lived in states where the costs of child care are higher were more likely to be cared for exclusively by fathers. Hispanics were less likely to use only father care, and families in which the mother identified with traditional gender roles were less likely to use father only care. Families living in the South were less likely to use some father care. The determinants of father care varied with the extent of the care provides as well as with the age of the child. Working mothers who identified with traditional gender role patterns were less likely to use father care exclusively during the child's first year, but the effect becomes insignificant if the child had both father care and other types of care. Work schedules were generally important in predicting the use of father care with other care. While Hispanics were less likely to provide father care, those living in areas with high unemployment were more likely to provide care. Whites and African Americans living in areas of high unemployment were less likely to provide father care. These findings suggest that one way to increase father involvement is to support flexible work schedules for fathers.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L., Lisa Anoush Gennetian and H. Elizabeth Peters. "Patterns and Determinants of Paternal Child Care During a Child's First Three Years of Life." Marriage and Family Review 29,2-3 (2000): 115-136.
12. Averett, Susan L.
Hotchkiss, Julie L.
The Probability of Receiving Benefits at Different Hours of Work
Working Paper, Easton PA: Department of Economics, Lafayette College, 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Economics, Lafayette College
Keyword(s): Benefits; Benefits, Fringe; Benefits, Insurance; Insurance, Health; Retirement; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Workers' probability of being offered medical, retirement, and life insurance benefits is estimating using a sample from the 1991 NLSY. Exogeneity of workers' wages and hours of work is rejected and thus instrumented out of the benefits equations. We find that the predicted probability of being offered each of these benefits is less than 50 percent for those traditionally defined as full-time employed (working 35 hours per week). This finding has important implications for the success of welfare reform and the impact of health care reform. We also find that for our sample of young workers, women are more likely to be offered each benefit at any given hours.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. and Julie L. Hotchkiss. "The Probability of Receiving Benefits at Different Hours of Work." Working Paper, Easton PA: Department of Economics, Lafayette College, 1995.
13. Averett, Susan L.
Hotchkiss, Julie L.
The Probability of Receiving Benefits at Different Hours of Work
Presented: San Francisco, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Benefits; Benefits, Fringe; Benefits, Insurance; Gender Differences; Health Care; Health Reform; Vocational Guidance; Wages; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Workers' probability of being offered medical, retirement, and life insurance benefits is estimating using a sample from the 1991 NLSY. Exogeneity of workers' wages and hours of work is rejected and thus instrumented out of the benefits equations. We find that the predicted probability of being offered each of these benefits is less than 50 percent for those traditionally defined as full-time employed (working 35 hours per week). This finding has important implications for the success of welfare reform and the impact of health care reform. We also find that for our sample of young workers, women are more likely to be offered each benefit at any given hours.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. and Julie L. Hotchkiss. "The Probability of Receiving Benefits at Different Hours of Work." Presented: San Francisco, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, 1995.
14. Averett, Susan L.
Korenman, Sanders D.
Black-White Differences in Social and Economic Consequences of Obesity
International Journal of Obesity 23,2 (February 1999): 166-173.
Also: http://www.nature.com/ijo/journal/v23/n2/pdf/0800805a.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Stockton Press
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Ethnic Differences; Labor Market Outcomes; Marriage; Obesity; Racial Differences; Self-Esteem; Socioeconomic Background

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate social and economic effects of obesity for black and white females, and to explore possible explanations for race differences in obesity effects. SUBJECTS: 1354 non-Hispanic black and 3097 non-Hispanic, non-black, women aged 25-33yr. in 1990 from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979-1990. MEASUREMENTS: Body mass index (BMI) evaluated at age 17-24 yr. (1982) and 25-33 yr. (1990). METHODS: Logistic and linear regression of six labour market and marriage outcomes on early or attained BMI. Detailed controls for family socioeconomic background. RESULTS: Socioeconomic effects of obesity appear larger for whites than blacks. Obesity is associated with low self-esteem among whites, but not blacks. Differences in self-esteem do not account for race differences in the effects of obesity on socioeconomic status. Lower probability of marriage and lower earnings of husbands among those who marry account for the majority of the income differences between obese white women and those of recommended weight. Occupational differences account for more than one fifth of the effect of obesity on the hourly wages of both white and black women. CONCLUSION: Cultural differences may protect black women from the self-esteem loss associated with obesity for whites. However, differences in self-esteem do not account for the effects of obesity on socioeconomic status. Because the effect of obesity on the economic status of white women works primarily through marriage, it may therefore be less amenable to policy intervention to improve the labor market prospects of obese women.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. and Sanders D. Korenman. "Black-White Differences in Social and Economic Consequences of Obesity." International Journal of Obesity 23,2 (February 1999): 166-173.
15. Averett, Susan L.
Korenman, Sanders D.
The Economic Reality of the Beauty Myth
NBER Working Paper No. 4521, National Bureau of Economic Research, November, 1993.
Also: http://nber.nber.org/papers/W4521
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Earnings; Family Background and Culture; Family Income; Height, Height-Weight Ratios; Income; Marital Status; Obesity; Racial Equality/Inequality; Wage Differentials

We investigate income, marital status, and hourly pay differentials by body mass (kg/m2) in a sample of 23 to 31 year olds drawn from the 1988 NLSY. Obese women have lower family incomes than women whose weight-for-height is in the "recommended" range. Results for men are weaker and mixed. We find similar results when we compare same-sex siblings in order to control for family background (e.g., social class) differences. Differences in economic status by body mass for women increase markedly when we use an earlier weight measure or restrict the sample to persons who were single and childless when the early weight was reported. There is some evidence of labor market discrimination against obese women. However, differences in marriage probabilities and in spouse's earnings account for 50 to 95 percent of their lower economic status. There is no evidence that obese African American women suffer an economic penalty relative to other African American women.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. and Sanders D. Korenman. "The Economic Reality of the Beauty Myth." NBER Working Paper No. 4521, National Bureau of Economic Research, November, 1993.
16. Averett, Susan L.
Korenman, Sanders D.
The Economic Reality of the Beauty Myth
Journal of Human Resources 31,2 (Spring 1996): 304-330.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/146065
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Black Studies; Discrimination; Earnings; Family Background and Culture; Height, Height-Weight Ratios; Income; Labor Market Outcomes; Marital Status; Obesity; Siblings

A study investigates income, marital status, and hourly pay differentials by body mass in a sample of 23- and 31-year-olds drawn from the 1988 National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience of Youth. Obese women have lower family incomes than women whose weight-for-height is in the "recommended" range. The results for men are weaker and mixed. The study finds similar results when it compares same-sex siblings in order to control for family background differences. Differences in economic status by body mass for women increase markedly when an earlier weight measure is used or the sample is restricted to persons who were single and childless when the early weight was reported. There is some evidence of labor market discrimination against obese women. Differences in marriage probabilities and spouse's earnings, however, account for 50% to 95% of their lower economic status. There is little evidence that obese African American women suffer an economic penalty to other African American women. [Copyright Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System 1996]
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. and Sanders D. Korenman. "The Economic Reality of the Beauty Myth." Journal of Human Resources 31,2 (Spring 1996): 304-330.
17. Averett, Susan L.
Peters, H. Elizabeth
Gennetian, Lisa Anoush
Patterns and Determinants of Paternal Child Care During a Child's First Three Years of Life
In: Fatherhood: Research, Interventions, and Policies, Volume 1. H. E. Peters and R. D. Day, eds. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press, Inc., 2000.
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Haworth Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Child Care; Fathers and Children; Fathers, Presence; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness

Also co-published simultaneously in Marriage and Family Review 29, 2/3 and 4, 2000

Conference: Conference on Father Involvement (Oct 1996 : Bethesda, MD, US). This paper uses retrospective child care data from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine the patterns and determinants of paternal child care during a child's 1st 3 yrs of life. Data were from 2-parent families and focused on 1,188 children of 863 mothers who worked sometime between the child's birth date and the child's 3rd birthday. It was found that father care is a fairly stable form of care; the average number of months that father care is used during a year is similar to the duration of other forms of child care. Paternal care is often used in conjunction with other types of child care including relative, nonrelative, and center care. Findings also show that different characteristics predict paternal child care according to the timing and extent of care. For those fathers who are the exclusive providers of child care during the 1st yr of life, the incidence of paternal child care is associated with race or ethnicity and a mother's identification with nontraditional gender roles. For those fathers who provide some of the total care during the 1st 3 yrs of a child's life, the incidence of paternal child care is more highly associated with the flexibility of a mother's and father's work schedule. ((c) 2000 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved). Note(s): An earlier version was presented at the Conference on Father Involvement and at the annual meetings of the Population Association of America, Mar, 1997.; Special Issue: Fatherhood: Research, interventions and policies. Part I.

Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L., H. Elizabeth Peters and Lisa Anoush Gennetian. "Patterns and Determinants of Paternal Child Care During a Child's First Three Years of Life" In: Fatherhood: Research, Interventions, and Policies, Volume 1. H. E. Peters and R. D. Day, eds. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press, Inc., 2000.
18. Averett, Susan L.
Peters, H. Elizabeth
Waldman, Donald M.
Tax Credits, Labor Supply and Child Care
Report No 92-9. Chicago IL: Population Research Center, NORC-University of Chicago, November 1992
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: National Opinion Research Center - NORC
Keyword(s): Child Care; Children; Labor Force Participation; Maternal Employment; Taxes; Women

This paper is a theoretical and empirical exploration of the effects of the child care tax credit in the U.S. income tax system on female labor supply and choice of child care arrangements. The tax credit provides a subsidy to working families towards the purchase of child care. This subsidy creates a nonlinear budget set similar to that created by a progressive income tax. Data from the 1986 interview of the youth cohort of the NLS are utilized to estimate the labor supply function of women with young children. Our estimates control for the type of child care arrangements made, explicitly allowing women to use market care or informal care. Our empirical work demonstrates that married women's labor supply is elastic with respect to the wage net of child care costs and the child care tax credit. Furthermore, we find that increasing the value (percent of expenditures subsidized) of the child care tax credit will increase hours supplied to the labor market by married women with children under age six.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L., H. Elizabeth Peters and Donald M. Waldman. Tax Credits, Labor Supply and Child Care. Report No 92-9. Chicago IL: Population Research Center, NORC-University of Chicago, November 1992.
19. Averett, Susan L.
Peters, H. Elizabeth
Waldman, Donald M.
Tax Credits, Labor Supply and Child Care: Theory and Measurement
Presented: Denver, CO, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1992
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior; Child Care; Children; Labor Force Participation; Labor Supply; Taxes; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While the increase in labor supply of mothers with young children since World War II is a well known phenomena, little is understood about the role child care costs play in this increase. This paper is a theoretical and empirical exploration of the effects of the child care tax credit inherent in the U.S. income tax system on female labor supply and choice of child care arrangements. This tax credit provides a subsidy to working families towards both the quantity and quality of child care purchased. This subsidy creates a nonlinear budget set similar to that of a progressive income tax. Data from the NLSY are utilized to estimate the labor supply function of women with young children. The estimates control for the type of child care arrangements made, explicitly allowing women to use market care and informal care. These results give an estimate of the behavioral impacts of subsidizing child care and should be of interest to policy makers.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L., H. Elizabeth Peters and Donald M. Waldman. "Tax Credits, Labor Supply and Child Care: Theory and Measurement." Presented: Denver, CO, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1992.
20. Averett, Susan L.
Peters, H. Elizabeth
Waldman, Donald M.
Tax Credits, Labor Supply, and Child Care
The Review of Economics and Statistics 79,1 (February 1997): 125-135.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2951439
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Keyword(s): Child Care; Labor Supply; Marital Status; Modeling; Taxes; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We explore the impact of the child care tax credit in the U.S. income tax system on the labor supply decisions of married women with young children by incorporating the cost of child care into a structural labor supply model. Using data from the 1986 NLSY, we find that government subsidies to child care increase labor supply substantially. Our policy simulations show that an increase in the value of the child care tax credit (i.e., percent of expenditures subsidized) would have a much larger effect on labor supply than an increase in the annual expenditure limits of the subsidy or making the subsidy refundable. (Copyright 1997 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.)
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L., H. Elizabeth Peters and Donald M. Waldman. "Tax Credits, Labor Supply, and Child Care." The Review of Economics and Statistics 79,1 (February 1997): 125-135.
21. Averett, Susan L.
Sikora, Asia
Argys, Laura M.
For Better or Worse: Relationship Status and Body Mass Index
Economics and Human Biology 6,3 (December 2008): 330-349.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X08000543
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Ethnic Differences; Gender Differences; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marriage; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Obesity; Racial Differences

Recent increases in the incidence of obesity and declines in marriage have prompted policymakers to implement policies to mitigate these trends. This paper examines the link between these two outcomes. There are four hypotheses (selection, protection, social obligation and marriage market) that might explain the relationship between marital status transitions and changes in Body Mass Index (BMI). The selection hypothesis suggests that those with a lower BMI are more likely to be selected into marriage. The protection hypothesis states that married adults will have better physical health as a result of the increased social support and reduced incidence of risky behavior among married individuals. The social obligation hypothesis states that those in relationships may eat more regular meals and/or richer and denser foods due to social obligations which may arise because of marriage. Finally, the marriage market hypothesis indicates that when adults are no longer in the marriage market they may not maintain a healthy BMI because doing so is costly and they are in a stable union-or on the other hand, adults may enhance their prospects in the marriage market by losing weight. Taking advantage of longitudinal data and complete marriage histories in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we estimate individual fixed effects models to examine associations between the change in log BMI and the incidence of overweight and obesity, and changes in relationship status controlling for the effects of aging and other respondent characteristics. We find no support for the marriage protection hypothesis. Rather we find evidence supporting the social obligation and marriage market hypotheses-BMI increases for both men and women during marriage and in the course of a cohabiting relationship. Separate analyses by race and ethnicity reveal substantial differences in the response of BMI to relationship status across these groups.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L., Asia Sikora and Laura M. Argys. "For Better or Worse: Relationship Status and Body Mass Index." Economics and Human Biology 6,3 (December 2008): 330-349.
22. Averett, Susan L.
Sikora, Asia
Argys, Laura M.
For Better or Worse: Relationship Status and Body Mass Index
Working Paper, Research Department Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, September 2007.
Also: http://www.atl-res.com/macro/papers/Averett%20paper.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Ethnic Differences; Gender Differences; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Marriage; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Obesity; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recent increases in the incidence of obesity and declines in marriage have prompted policymakers to implement policies to mitigate these trends. There are four hypotheses (selection, protection, social obligation and marriage market) that might explain the relationship between marital status transitions and changes in BMI. The selection hypothesis indicates that those with a lower BMI are more likely to be selected into marriage. The protection hypothesis states that married adults will have better physical health due to the increased social support and marriage and reduced incidence of risky behavior among married individuals. The social obligation hypothesis states that those in relationships may eat more regular meals and/or richer and denser foods due to social obligations one of which may be marriage. Finally, the marriage market hypothesis, as we term it, indicates that when adults are no longer in the marriage market they may not maintain a healthy BMI because doing so is costly and they are in a stable union—or on the other hand, adults may prepare for the marriage market by losing weight. Taking advantage of the longitudinal aspect and complete marriage histories provided in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we estimate individual fixed effects model to examine the change in log body mass index (BMI) and the incidence of overweight and obesity, as a function of changes in relationship status controlling for the effects of aging and other respondent characteristics. We find no support for the marriage protection hypothesis. Rather we find evidence supporting the social obligation and marriage market hypotheses--BMI increases for both men and women during marriage and the course of a cohabiting relationship. Separate analyses by race and ethnicity reveal substantial differences in the response of BMI to relationship status.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L., Asia Sikora and Laura M. Argys. "For Better or Worse: Relationship Status and Body Mass Index." Working Paper, Research Department Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, September 2007.
23. Averett, Susan L.
Stifel, David C.
Food for Thought: The Cognitive Effects of Childhood Malnutrition in the United States
Working Paper, Department of Economics & Business, Lafayette College, June 2007. Also presented at the 2006 Annual Conference of the Population Association of America (PAA); 2006 Economics and Human Biology Annual Conference.
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Economics, Lafayette College
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birthweight; Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Endogeneity; Modeling, Instrumental Variables; Nutritional Status/Nutrition/Consumption Behaviors; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC); Variables, Instrumental; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

An earlier version was presented at the 2006 Population Association of America Annual Conference, the 2006 Eastern Economic Association Annual Conference, and the 2006 Economics and Human Biology Annual Conference.

The U.S. faces two types of childhood malnutrition – the prevalence of overweight children has increased dramatically over the past two decades and the degree of underweight has been unacceptably high. Both forms of malnutrition create public health problems. Less is known about how childhood over- or underweight affects a child's cognitive functioning. We use data from the children of the NLSY79 to investigate the cognitive consequences of child malnutrition. We use several estimation methods to control for various forms of endogeneity. Our results suggest that malnourished children tend have lower cognitive abilities when compared to well-nourished children.

Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. and David C. Stifel. "Food for Thought: The Cognitive Effects of Childhood Malnutrition in the United States." Working Paper, Department of Economics & Business, Lafayette College, June 2007. Also presented at the 2006 Annual Conference of the Population Association of America (PAA); 2006 Economics and Human Biology Annual Conference.
24. Averett, Susan L.
Stifel, David C.
Race and Gender Differences in The Cognitive Effects of Childhood Overweight
Applied Economics Letters 17,17 (March 2010): 1673-1679.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13504850903251256
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Routledge ==> Taylor & Francis (1998)
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Gender Differences; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Racial Differences; Variables, Instrumental; Weight

The increase in the prevalence of overweight children (ages 6-13 years) in the United States over the past two decades is likely to result in adverse public health consequences. We use data from the children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort to investigate an additional consequence of childhood overweight - its effect on relative cognitive development. To control for unobserved heterogeneity, we estimate individual (child) fixed effect (FE) models and instrumental variable (IV) models. Although recent research suggests that there is a negligible effect of childhood overweight on cognitive ability, our results demonstrate that the effects are uncovered when examining the relationship separately by race. In particular, we find that overweight white boys have math and reading scores approximately an SD lower than the mean. Overweight white girls have lower math scores whereas overweight black boys and girls have lower reading scores. Our results suggest that in addition to well-documented health consequences, overweight children may also be at risk in terms of experiencing adverse education outcomes, which could lead to lower future wages. Also in: The Applied Economics of Weight and Obesity, Edited by Mark P. Taylor; Routledge, 2013; pp.68-74.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. and David C. Stifel. "Race and Gender Differences in The Cognitive Effects of Childhood Overweight." Applied Economics Letters 17,17 (March 2010): 1673-1679.
25. Averett, Susan L.
Stifel, David C.
The Economic Determinants and Cognitive Effects of Childhood Malnutrition in the United States
Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America (PAA) Annual Meetings, March-April 2006
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birthweight; Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Geocoded Data; Neighborhood Effects; Nutritional Status/Nutrition/Consumption Behaviors; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); School Characteristics/Rating/Safety; Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC); State-Level Data/Policy; Variables, Instrumental

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The U.S. is currently facing a two-pronged battle against child malnutrition -- the prevalence of overweight children has increased dramatically over the past two decades and the percentage of children who are underweight remains unacceptably high. Both forms of malnutrition create well-known public health problems. But, less is known about how childhood over- or underweight affect cognitive functioning, behavior or self-esteem. In this research, we use data from the NLSY to investigate the causes of childhood malnutrition using quantile regression methods. We then use these findings and instrumental variables methods to separately estimate the effects of child malnutrition on self-esteem, cognitive functioning and behavior problems. We use county and state level data on availability of fast food outlets and fast food prices, and school district level data on soda consumption and physical education requirements as instruments to identify the effect of malnutrition on these child outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. and David C. Stifel. "The Economic Determinants and Cognitive Effects of Childhood Malnutrition in the United States." Presented: Los Angeles, CA, Population Association of America (PAA) Annual Meetings, March-April 2006.
26. Averett, Susan L.
Wang, Yang
Effects of Higher EITC Payments on Children's Health, Quality of Home Environment, and Noncognitive Skills
Public Finance Review 46,4 (July 2018): 519-557.
Also: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1091142116654965
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Health; Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Noncognitive Skills

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In 1993, the benefit levels of the earned income tax credit (EITC) were changed significantly based on the number of children in the household. Exploiting this policy change and employing a difference-in-differences plus mother fixed effects framework, we find significantly improved home environment quality for children of unmarried mothers, regardless of their race/ethnicity, and lowered probabilities of having accidents and improved mother-rated health for children of married white mothers. Children of unmarried black and Hispanic mothers also had better mother-rated health. Our results provide new evidence of positive spillover effects of the 1993 EITC expansion and therefore have important policy implications.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. and Yang Wang. "Effects of Higher EITC Payments on Children's Health, Quality of Home Environment, and Noncognitive Skills." Public Finance Review 46,4 (July 2018): 519-557.
27. Averett, Susan L.
Wang, Yang
The Effects of Earned Income Tax Credit Payment Expansion on Maternal Smoking
Health Economics 22,11 (November 2013): 1344-1359.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hec.2886/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Children; Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Educational Attainment; Income; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The Earned Income Tax Credit is the largest antipoverty program in the USA. In 1993, the Earned Income Tax Credit benefit levels were changed significantly based on the number of children in the family such that families with two or more children experienced an exogenous expansion in their incomes. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort, we use a triple-difference plus fixed effects framework to examine the effect of this change on the probability of smoking among low-educated mothers. We find that the probability of smoking for White low-educated mothers of two or more children significantly decreased relative to those with only one child, and this result is robust to various specification tests. This result provides new evidence on the protective effect of income on health through changes in a health-related behavior and therefore has important policy implications. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. and Yang Wang. "The Effects of Earned Income Tax Credit Payment Expansion on Maternal Smoking." Health Economics 22,11 (November 2013): 1344-1359.
28. Averett, Susan L.
Wang, Yang
The Effects of EITC Payment Expansion on Maternal Smoking
Presented: Paris, France, 2nd Irdes Workshop on Applied Health Economics and Policy Evaluation, June 2011.
Also: http://www.irdes.fr/EspaceRecherche/Colloques/Ahepe/Ahepe2011PresentationAverett.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Irdes Institute for Research and Information in Health Economics
Keyword(s): Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Mothers, Health; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using data from the NLSY79, they demonstrate that the EITC expansion in 1993 which significantly increased EITC benefits for families with two children relative to families with one child decreased the probability of smoking for white mothers but not for black mothers.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. and Yang Wang. "The Effects of EITC Payment Expansion on Maternal Smoking." Presented: Paris, France, 2nd Irdes Workshop on Applied Health Economics and Policy Evaluation, June 2011.
29. Averett, Susan L.
Wang, Yang
The Effects of the Earned Income Tax Credit on Children's Health, Quality of Home Environment, and Non-Cognitive Skills
IZA Discussion Paper No. 9173, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), July 2015.
Also: http://ftp.iza.org/dp9173.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Accidents; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Educational Attainment; Family Income; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Illnesses; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Mothers, Education; Obesity; Program Participation/Evaluation

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In 1993, the benefit levels of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) were changed significantly based on the number of children in the household. Employing a difference-indifferences plus mother fixed-effects framework, we find better mother-rated health for children of unmarried black mothers and married white and Hispanic mothers, lower accident rates for children of married white and Hispanic mothers, and improved home environment quality for children of unmarried white and Hispanic mothers. Our results provide new evidence of the effects of the 1993 EITC expansion and therefore have important policy implications.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. and Yang Wang. "The Effects of the Earned Income Tax Credit on Children's Health, Quality of Home Environment, and Non-Cognitive Skills." IZA Discussion Paper No. 9173, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), July 2015.
30. Averett, Susan L.
Whittington, Leslie A.
Does Maternity Leave Induce Births?
Southern Economic Journal 68,2 (October 2001): 403-417.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1061601
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Southern Economic Association
Keyword(s): Family Studies; Fertility; Gender Differences; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity

Alleviating the tension between the conflicting responsibilities women may face as mothers and as workers is a topic of current policy interest. Expansion of guaranteed maternity leave to all employed women in the United States is suggested as one possible 'family-friendly' solution. Controversy surrounding the issue of increased maternity leave centers around the potential cost to firms of widespread access to leave. One specific concern is that the availability of maternity leave will actually increase births among eligible working women. This paper uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine the impact of maternity leave on fertility.
Bibliography Citation
Averett, Susan L. and Leslie A. Whittington. "Does Maternity Leave Induce Births?" Southern Economic Journal 68,2 (October 2001): 403-417.
31. Fletcher, Erin K.
Averett, Susan L.
Does Fat Beget Fat? The Relationship between Maternal Pre-Pregnancy BMI and Preschool Obesity
Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Body Mass Index (BMI); Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Modeling, Fixed Effects; Modeling, Instrumental Variables; Mothers; Obesity; Pre/post Natal Behavior; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The increasing prevalence of obesity during pregnancy raises concerns over the intergenerational transmission of obesity and its potential to exacerbate the current obesity epidemic. The fetal origins hypothesis posits that the intrauterine environment may have lasting effects on children's outcomes and mother's pre-pregnancy obesity has been associated with pediatric obesity. However, previous research is largely based on comparing individuals across families and hence cannot control for unobservable factors associated with both maternal and child obesity. We use within-family comparisons and instrumental variables to identify the effect of maternal pre-pregnancy obesity on obesity in children. Consistent with extant research, OLS models that rely on across-family comparisons indicate a significant correlation between maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and child obesity. However, maternal fixed effects render those associations insignificant. Instrumenting for mother’s BMI with her sisters' BMI confirms the null result indicating that the in utero transmission of obesity is likely not driving the increase in childhood obesity.
Bibliography Citation
Fletcher, Erin K. and Susan L. Averett. "Does Fat Beget Fat? The Relationship between Maternal Pre-Pregnancy BMI and Preschool Obesity." Presented: San Diego CA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April-May 2015.
32. Fletcher, Erin K.
Averett, Susan L.
Obesity during Pregnancy and Children's Outcomes
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birth Outcomes; Birthweight; Body Mass Index (BMI); Childhood; Mothers, Health; Obesity; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Maternal obesity has been linked to adverse outcomes for mothers throughout pregnancy and childbirth and is a strong predictor of both infant and maternal mortality. Despite a wide array documenting these effets, the lasting effects of obesity on birth outcomes and childhood cognition has yet to be studied in depth. In this paper, we exploit the longitudinal nature of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine the effect of maternal obesity on birth and early childhood outcomes. Our preliminary results show a strongly negative association between obesity and standardized test scores given to young children as well as increased risk for high birth weight.
Bibliography Citation
Fletcher, Erin K. and Susan L. Averett. "Obesity during Pregnancy and Children's Outcomes." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
33. McLennan, Michele
Averett, Susan L.
Black and White Women: Differences in College Attendance Does the Rate of Return Matter?
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2001
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Educational Attainment; Fertility; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper, we focus our attention on the college attendance decisions of women by race and specifically whether they respond to the rate of return. Our results suggest that both black and white women increase the probability of college attendance if they are faced with higher rates of return. We provide further evidence that early childbearing reduces the probability of attending college for both white and black women, even after controlling for family and individual background characteristics.
Bibliography Citation
McLennan, Michele and Susan L. Averett. "Black and White Women: Differences in College Attendance Does the Rate of Return Matter?" Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Meetings, March 2001.
34. Stifel, David C.
Averett, Susan L.
Childhood Overweight in the United States: A Quantile Regression Approach
Economics and Human Biology 7,3 (December 2009): 387–397.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570677X09000446
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Birth Order; Birthweight; Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Gender Differences; Nutritional Status/Nutrition/Consumption Behaviors; Obesity; Weight

The prevalence of overweight children in the United States has increased dramatically over the past two decades, and is creating well-known public health problems. Moreover, there is also evidence that children who are not overweight are becoming heavier. We use quantile regression models along with standard ordinary least squares (OLS) models to explore the correlates of childhood weight status and overweight as measured by the Body Mass Index (BMI). This approach allows the effects of covariates to vary depending on where in the BMI distribution a child is located. Our results indicate that OLS masks some of the important correlates of child BMI at the upper and lower tails of the weight distribution. For example, mother's education has no effect on black children, but is associated with improvements in BMI for overweight white boys and underweight white girls. Conversely, mother's cognitive aptitude has no effect on white boys, but is associated with BMI improvements for underweight black children and overweight white girls. Further, we find that underweight white children and black girls experience similar improvements in BMI as they get older, but that for black boys there is little if any association between age and BMI anywhere in the BMI distribution.
Bibliography Citation
Stifel, David C. and Susan L. Averett. "Childhood Overweight in the United States: A Quantile Regression Approach." Economics and Human Biology 7,3 (December 2009): 387–397. A.