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Source: Joint Center for Poverty Research
Resulting in 24 citations.
1. Anderson, Patricia M.
Butcher, Kristin F.
Levine, Phillip B.
Maternal Employment and Overweight Children
Working Paper 281, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Evanston IL, January 2002.
Also: http://www.northwestern.edu/ipr/jcpr/workingpapers/wpfiles/anderson_butcher_levine.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Joint Center for Poverty Research
Keyword(s): Breastfeeding; Child Care; Child Health; Height; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Probit; Obesity; Siblings; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper investigates whether children are more or less likely to be overweight if their mothers work. The prevalence of both overweight children and working mothers has risen dramatically over the past few decades, although these parallel trends may be coincidental. The goal of this paper is to help determine whether a causal relationship exists between maternal employment and childhood overweight. To accomplish this, we mainly utilize matched mother-child data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and employ three main econometric techniques, probit models, sibling difference models, and instrumental variables models in this analysis. Our results indicate that a child is more likely to be overweight if his/her mother worked more intensively (in the form of greater hours per week) over the child's life. This effect is particularly evident for children of white mothers, of mothers with more education, and of mothers with a high income level. Applying our estimates to the trend towards greater maternal employment indicates that the increased hours worked per week among mothers between 1975 and 1999 led to about a 0.4 to 0.7 percentage point increase in overweight children, which represents a relatively small share of the overall increase.
Bibliography Citation
Anderson, Patricia M., Kristin F. Butcher and Phillip B. Levine. "Maternal Employment and Overweight Children." Working Paper 281, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Evanston IL, January 2002.
2. Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Smith, Judith R.
Berlin, Lisa
Lee, Kyunghee
Implementations of Welfare Changes for Parents of Young Children [Revised June 1998]
Presented: Evanston, IL, Family Process and Child Development in Low Income Families, Joint Center for Poverty Research, May 1998
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Joint Center for Poverty Research
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Care; Children, Preschool; Children, Well-Being; Employment; Family Studies; Maternal Employment; Mothers, Adolescent; Mothers, Health; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Preschool Children; Teenagers; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This is a revised edition dated June 15, 1998. Four questions related to welfare and work in the context of the family are addressed: (i) The Newark Young Family Study data set from the TPD is used to ask, "Does participation in a mandatory welfare to work demonstration program that includes mandatory work, sanctioning of the welfare stipend for non-participation, and intensive case management affect teenage mothers and their preschool children?"; (ii) The second issue involves whether or not transitions off of welfare in the first few years of life have any impact upon parenting behavior, maternal emotional health, and child cognitive test scores. The IHDP data set is used, with the focus being on natural transitions (i.e., not those attached with a specific welfare to work program); (iii) The IHPD and the NLSY-CS data sets provide clues as to the benefits (or costs) of combining welfare and work strategies to make ends meet during the early childhood years, which is the third issue discussed; (iv) The final question has to do with the efficacy of family-focused early intervention programs, with a child care component, in influencing the work behavior of mothers. We also ask treatment effects upon children's wellbeing are being mediated by employment of the mother, using the IHDP data set.
Bibliography Citation
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Judith R. Smith, Lisa Berlin and Kyunghee Lee. "Implementations of Welfare Changes for Parents of Young Children [Revised June 1998]." Presented: Evanston, IL, Family Process and Child Development in Low Income Families, Joint Center for Poverty Research, May 1998.
3. Cancian, Maria
Haveman, Robert H.
Kaplan, Thomas
Meyer, Daniel R.
Wolfe, Barbara L.
Work, Earnings, and Well-Being after Welfare: What Do We Know?
JCPR Working Paper 73, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Northwestern University/University of Chicago, February 1999.
Also: http://ideas.repec.org/p/wop/jopovw/73.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Joint Center for Poverty Research
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Data Quality/Consistency; Economic Well-Being; Parents, Single; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper was prepared for the "Welfare Reform and the Macro-Economy" conference in Washington DC, November 19-20, 1998. The rapid reduction in Aid to Families with Dependent Children caseloads during its last two years, and the continued decline of participation following its replacement by Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, raise the question of how families who no longer receive cash assistance are faring. What are their economic circumstances? Are they better off after leaving the program than they were as recipients? How many of the mothers are working, and how much do they earn? Do they and their families continue to rely on other, in-kind assistance programs? If so, which ones? In this paper, we present evidence on the economic fate of single mothers who have left the welfare rolls. We summarize the results of earlier studies and then present findings from three approaches to this topic, one using national survey data, another using administrative data, and a few recent studies that use geographically targeted surveys. We conclude that reliance on administrative data provides the best option for evaluating the impacts of reform in the near future. We also recognize the limitations of these data and the need for survey data to supplement their findings.
Bibliography Citation
Cancian, Maria, Robert H. Haveman, Thomas Kaplan, Daniel R. Meyer and Barbara L. Wolfe. "Work, Earnings, and Well-Being after Welfare: What Do We Know?" JCPR Working Paper 73, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Northwestern University/University of Chicago, February 1999.
4. Fairlie, Robert W.
Drug Dealing and Legitimate Self-Employment
JCPR Working Paper 88, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Northwestern University/University of Chicago, April 1999.
Also: http://www.jcpr.org/wpfiles/fairlie_selfemployment.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Joint Center for Poverty Research
Keyword(s): Crime; Drug Use; Illegal Activities; Self-Employed Workers; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Theoretical models of self-employment posit that attitudes toward risk, entrepreneurial ability, and preferences for autonomy are central to the individual's decision between self-employment and wage/salary work. None of the studies in the rapidly growing empirical literature on self-employment, however, have been able to test whether these factors are important determinants of self-employment. I explore this hypothesis by examining the relationship between drug dealing and legitimate self-employment. A review of ethnographic studies in the criminology literature indicates that drug dealing represents a good proxy for low risk aversion, entrepreneurial ability, and a preference for autonomy. The 1980 wave of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) contained a special section on participation in illegal activities, including questions on selling marijuana and other "hard" drugs. I use the answers to these questions and data from subsequent years of the NLSY to examine the relationship between drug dealing as a youth and legitimate self-employment in later years. Using various definitions of drug dealing and specifications of the econometric model, I find that drug dealers are 11 to 21 percent more likely to choose self-employment than non drug dealers, all else equal. I also find that drug dealers who sold more frequently, used drugs less frequently, or reported receiving income from drug dealing are more likely to choose self-employment than other drug dealers. I interpret these results as providing evidence that low risk aversion, entrepreneurial ability, and a preference for autonomy are important determinants of self-employment. I also provide evidence against a few alternative explanations of the positive relationship between drug dealing and self-employment.
Bibliography Citation
Fairlie, Robert W. "Drug Dealing and Legitimate Self-Employment." JCPR Working Paper 88, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Northwestern University/University of Chicago, April 1999.
5. Fairlie, Robert W.
Earnings Growth among Young Less-Educated Business Owners
JCPR Working Paper 207, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Northwestern University/University of Chicago, October 2000.
Also: http://www.jcpr.org/wpfiles/fairlie10_2000.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Joint Center for Poverty Research
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Job; Earnings; Economics of Discrimination; Education; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Self-Employed Workers; Wage Growth; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Academicians and policymakers have argued that self-employment provides a route out of poverty and an alternative to unemployment or discrimination in the labor market. Existing research, however, provides little evidence from longitudinal data on the relationship between business ownership and economic advancement for disadvantaged groups. I use data from the National Longitudinal Survey (NLSY) to examine the earnings patterns of young less-educated business owners and make comparisons to young less-educated wage/salary workers. Using fixed-effects earnings regressions, I find that the self-employed experience faster earnings growth on average than wage/salary workers after a few initial years of slower growth. Simulations based on these estimates indicate that earnings grow by $771 and $1157 more per year for self-employed men and women, respectively, than for their wage/salary counterparts. I also find that a relatively high percentage of less-educated business owners, especially men, experience either rapid earnings growth or large annual losses. For example, 19 percent of self-employed men experience earnings growth of more than $3,000 per year and 16 percent experience losses of $3,000 or more per year. In contrast, only 14 percent of male wage/salary workers experience levels of earnings growth that fall in this range.
Bibliography Citation
Fairlie, Robert W. "Earnings Growth among Young Less-Educated Business Owners." JCPR Working Paper 207, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Northwestern University/University of Chicago, October 2000.
6. Gibson, Diane M.
Poverty, Food Stamp Program Participation, and Health: Estimates from the NLSY97
JCPR Working Paper No. 163, Joint Center for Poverty Research, March 2000.
Also: http://www.jcpr.org/wp/WPprofile.cfm?ID=170
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Joint Center for Poverty Research
Keyword(s): Endogeneity; Food Stamps (see Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program); Health Factors; Obesity; Poverty; Program Participation/Evaluation; Weight

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the relationship between family income, Food Stamp Program participation, and the health of youths ages 12 to 18 using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97). This chapter tests two hypotheses. The first hypothesis is that poverty is negatively related to youth health. The second hypothesis is that participation in the Food Stamp Program is associated with better health for poor youths. The measures of youth health used in this chapter are indicators of whether the youth is underweight or obese, the youth's self-reported health status, and parent-reported incidence of chronic illness in the youth. The health of the youths in the NLSY97 is analyzed using cross-sectional logistic regression models that control for current family income, the poverty history of the youth?s family, and Food Stamp Program participation, as well as other youth and family characteristics. The empirical analyses do not account for the potential endogeneity of youth health, family income, or Food Stamp receipt.
Bibliography Citation
Gibson, Diane M. "Poverty, Food Stamp Program Participation, and Health: Estimates from the NLSY97." JCPR Working Paper No. 163, Joint Center for Poverty Research, March 2000.
7. Gladden, Tricia Lynn
Taber, Christopher Robert
The Relationship Between Wage Growth and Wage Levels
JCPR Working Paper 173, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Northwestern University/University of Chicago, October 2000.
Also: http://www.northwestern.edu/ipr/jcpr/workingpapers/wpfiles/TaberGladdenSG2000.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Joint Center for Poverty Research
Keyword(s): Endogeneity; Heterogeneity; Job Training; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Skill Formation; Skilled Workers; Wage Growth; Wage Levels; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In the last thirty years we have witnessed large increases in the "returns to skill." These changes in the wage structure have renewed interest in increasing the skill levels of low skill workers. Attempts to do this through job training programs have been largely unsuccessful as the wage gains from these programs tend to be quite modest. In rethinking questions about subsidizing skill formation it is useful to step back and explore the issue of wage growth among low skilled workers. Despite the large amount of work in labor economics devoted towards the wage process we know surprisingly little about the mechanics of wage growth, particularly among low skilled workers. This work furthers this knowledge by exploring the link between wage growth and wage levels building on our previous work. While many different policies to raise the wages of low wage workers have been proposed, the simplest and most common is increasing labor force attachment. One of the most robust findings in labor economics is that wages increase with work experience, however very little of this work has estimated the extent of this growth among low wage workers. In part, this hole in the literature may have arisen because there are serious econometric issues behind the wage growth process involving parameter heterogeneity, endogeneity, and selection issues. We are attempting this hole and address these issues. This work extends the literature on the covariance structure of wages by focusing on low skill workers using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Our previous work indicates that in examining wage growth among the poor, it is extremely important to include measures of actual experience. This is problematic in that labor market experience is likely to be endogenous and related to wage levels and wage growth. We have developed a framework that allows for these relationships. It incorporates individual "fixed effects" in both wage levels and wag e growth. We are estimating this model using Generalized Methods of Moments. Our results to date find little relationship between wage levels and log wage growth. After completing this, we will simulate the impact of labor force participation on future wages of low wage workers. Identification requires strong assumptions about the error structure. While we cannot completely avoid these type of assumptions, we will test the robustness of the results using a wide range of alternatives.
Bibliography Citation
Gladden, Tricia Lynn and Christopher Robert Taber. "The Relationship Between Wage Growth and Wage Levels." JCPR Working Paper 173, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Northwestern University/University of Chicago, October 2000.
8. Hao, Lingxin
Cherlin, Andrew J.
Astone, Nan Marie
Adolescents' School Enrollment and Employment: Effect of State Welfare Policies
Working Paper, Labor Market and Employment, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Northwestern University, June 2001.
Also: http://www.northwestern.edu/ipr/jcpr/workingpapers/wpfiles/Hao_Astone_Cherlin.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Joint Center for Poverty Research
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Drug Use; Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Family Income; GED/General Educational Diploma/General Equivalency Degree/General Educational Development; Geocoded Data; High School Dropouts; Human Capital; Labor Market Demographics; Life Course; Neighborhood Effects; Program Participation/Evaluation; Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF); Transition, Welfare to Work; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study hypothesizes that stringent state welfare policies may promote enrollment and reduce employment through four mechanisms taking place in the larger society, the local labor market and the family, particularly for adolescents from low-income families. We conduct a rigorous and robust analysis using a dynamic model and separating out the welfare policies from nonwelfare state policies, youth-specific state labor market conditions, and unobserved state characteristics and period effects. Using longitudinal data from the NLSY97, we have tested the welfare policy effects over a period across welfare waivers and welfare reform (1994-1999) for adolescents aged 14-18. We find that welfare reform may change the behavior of teenage students by encouraging full engagement in schooling and reducing employment while in school. If focusing entirely on schooling is the best way for low-income youth to build human capital, these possible effects of welfare reform could be beneficial. However, if low-income youth obtain "soft skills" from a formal job and if "soft skills" turn out to be decisive for low-income youth's economic future, these welfare policy effects could be harmful. In addition, stringent state welfare policies appear to have a detrimental effect on teenage dropouts from low-income families.
Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin, Andrew J. Cherlin and Nan Marie Astone. "Adolescents' School Enrollment and Employment: Effect of State Welfare Policies." Working Paper, Labor Market and Employment, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Northwestern University, June 2001.
9. Hao, Lingxin
Hotz, V. Joseph
Jin, Ginger Zhe
Games Daughters and Parents Play: Teenage Childbearing, Parental Reputation, and Strategic Transfers
JCPR Working Paper 167, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Northwestern University/University of Chicago, April 2000.
Also: http://www.northwestern.edu/ipr/jcpr/workingpapers/wpfiles/Family_Games_3-28-00_Draft.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Joint Center for Poverty Research
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing, Adolescent; Family Models; Family Studies; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Siblings; Transfers, Family; Transfers, Financial; Transfers, Parental

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper, we examine the empirical implications of reputation formation using a game-theoretic model of intra-familial interactions. We consider parental reputation in repeated two-stage games in which daughters' decision to have a child as a teenager and the willingness of parents to continue to house and support their daughters given their decisions. Drawing on the work of Milgrom and Roberts (1982) and Kreps and Wilson (1982) on reputation in repeated games, we show that parents have, under certain conditions, the incentive to penalize teenage (and typically out-of-wedlock) childbearing of older daughters, in order to get the younger daughters to avoid teenage childbearing. The two key empirical implications of this model is that the likelihood of teenage childbearing and parental transfers to a daughter who had a teen birth will decrease with the number of the daughter's sisters at risk. We test these two implications, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 Cohort (NLSY79), exploiting the availability of repeated observations on young women (daughters) and of observations on multiple daughters (sisters) available in this data. Controlling for daughter- and family-specific fixed effects, we find evidence of differential parental financial transfer responses to teenage childbearing by the number of the daughter's sisters and brothers at risk.
Bibliography Citation
Hao, Lingxin, V. Joseph Hotz and Ginger Zhe Jin. "Games Daughters and Parents Play: Teenage Childbearing, Parental Reputation, and Strategic Transfers." JCPR Working Paper 167, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Northwestern University/University of Chicago, April 2000.
10. Hoffman, Saul D.
Foster, E. Michael
AFDC Benefits and Nonmarital Births to Young Women
JCPR Working Paper 3, Joint Center for Poverty Research, June 1997.
Also: http://ideas.repec.org/p/wop/jopovw/3.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Joint Center for Poverty Research
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Behavior; Childbearing, Adolescent; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Building on recent work by Rosenzweig (1999), this paper re-examines the effect of AFDC benefits on early nonmarital childbearing. Unlike most previous work in this area, Rosenzweig finds a statistically significant and quantitatively large positive effect of AFDC benefits. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we replicate Rosenzweig's analysis and explore the reasons his findings differ from earlier research findings. We are able to reproduce his main finding that AFDC generosity influences non-marital childbearing when state and cohort fixed-effects are included. However, we find that model specification matters a great deal. An alternative specification of state fixed-effects yields no evidence of an AFDC effect, and when we focus on fertility only through age 19 (as in prior work), we also find no AFDC effect. This latter finding implies that the behavior of women in their early 20s may be far more sensitive to welfare generosity than is that of teenagers.
Bibliography Citation
Hoffman, Saul D. and E. Michael Foster. "AFDC Benefits and Nonmarital Births to Young Women." JCPR Working Paper 3, Joint Center for Poverty Research, June 1997.
11. Holzer, Harry J.
LaLonde, Robert J.
Job Change and Job Stability Among Less-Skilled Young Workers
JCPR Working Paper 80, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Northwestern University/University of Chicago, March 1999
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Joint Center for Poverty Research
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Cognitive Ability; Education; Educational Attainment; Employment; Employment, Part-Time; Fertility; Gender Differences; High School Dropouts; Job Skills; Job Training; Job Turnover; Marital Status; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Welfare; Work History

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper we review evidence from previous studies of job and employment instability among less-educated young workers, and we provide some new evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Our results indicate that early employment instability contributes somewhat to the low levels of employment observed among high school dropouts, especially females. Important determinants of job stability include the cognitive skills of the workers themselves (as measured by math test scores); current or previous experience and job tenure; and a variety of job characteristics, including starting wages, occupation and industry. Job instability among female dropouts seems to be strongly related to fertility history and marital status. Some implications for policy, especially welfare reform, are discussed as well.
Bibliography Citation
Holzer, Harry J. and Robert J. LaLonde. "Job Change and Job Stability Among Less-Skilled Young Workers." JCPR Working Paper 80, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Northwestern University/University of Chicago, March 1999.
12. Hotz, V. Joseph
McElroy, Susan Williams
Sanders, Seth G.
Teenage Childbearing and Its Life Cycle Consequences: Exploiting a Natural Experiment
JCPR Working Paper 157, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Northwestern University/University of Chicago, August 1999.
Also: http://www.northwestern.edu/ipr/jcpr/workingpapers/wpfiles/HOTZ_WPoriginal2-7-2000.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Joint Center for Poverty Research
Keyword(s): Abortion; Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing, Adolescent; Educational Attainment; Family Structure; Fertility; Labor Market Outcomes; Labor Supply; Life Cycle Research; Mothers, Adolescent; Parents, Single; Poverty; Variables, Instrumental

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper, we exploit a "natural experiment" associated with human reproduction to identify the effect of teen childbearing on subsequent educational attainment, family structure, labor market outcomes, and financial self-sufficiency. In particular, we exploit the fact that a substantial fraction of women who become pregnant experience a miscarriage (spontaneous abortion) and thus do not have a birth. If miscarriages were purely random and if miscarriages were the only way, other than by live births, that a pregnancy ended, then women who had a miscarriage as a teen would constitute an ideal control group with which to contrast teenage mothers. Exploiting this natural experiment, we devise an Instrumental Variables (IV) estimators for the consequences of teen mothers not delaying their childbearing, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 (NLSY79). Our major finding is that many of the negative consequences of not delaying childbearing until adulthood are much smaller than has been estimated in previous studies. While we do find adverse consequences of teenage childbearing immediately following a teen mother's first birth, these negative consequences appear short-lived. By the time a teen mother reaches her late twenties, she appears to have only slightly more children, is only slightly more likely to be a single mother, and has no lower levels of educational attainment than if she had delayed her childbearing to adulthood. In fact, by this age teen mothers appear to be better off in some aspects of their lives. Teenage childbearing appears to raise levels of labor supply, accumulated work experience, and labor market earnings, and appears to reduce the chances of living in poverty and participating in the associated social welfare programs. These estimated effects imply that the cost of teenage childbearing to U.S. taxpayers is negligible. In particular, our estimates imply that the widely held view that teenage childbearing imposes a substantial cost on government is an artifact of the failure to appropriately account for preexisting socioeconomic differences between teen mothers and other women when estimating the causal effects of early childbearing. While teen mothers are very likely to live in poverty and experience other forms of adversity, our results imply that little of this would be changed just by getting teen mothers to delay their childbearing into adulthood.
Bibliography Citation
Hotz, V. Joseph, Susan Williams McElroy and Seth G. Sanders. "Teenage Childbearing and Its Life Cycle Consequences: Exploiting a Natural Experiment." JCPR Working Paper 157, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Northwestern University/University of Chicago, August 1999.
13. Hotz, V. Joseph
Xu, Lixin Colin
Tienda, Marta
Ahituv, Avner
Are There Returns to the Wages of Young Men from Working While in School?
JCPR Working Paper 101, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Northwestern University/University of Chicago, July 1999.
Also: http://www.jcpr.org/wp/WPprofile.cfm?ID=101
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Joint Center for Poverty Research
Keyword(s): Heterogeneity; High School; Schooling; Selectivity Bias/Selection Bias; Wage Growth; Wages, Young Men; Work Experience

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines the impacts of work experience acquired while youth were in high school (and college) on young men's wage rates during the 1980s and 1990s. Previous studies have found evidence of sizeable and persistent rates of return to working while enrolled in school, especially high school, on subsequent wage growth. Such findings may represent causal effects of having acquired work experience while still enrolled in school, but they may also be the result of failure to fully account for individual differences in young adults' capacities to acquire such skills and be productive in the work force later in life. We reexamine the robustness of previous attempts to control for unobserved heterogeneity and selectivity. We explore more general methods for dealing with dynamic forms of selection by explicitly modeling the educational and work choices of young men from age 13 through their late twenties. Using data on young men from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, (NLSY79), we find that the estimated returns to working while in high school or college are dramatically diminished in magnitude and statistical significance when one uses these dynamic selection methods. As such, our results indicate a decided lack of robustness to the inference about the effects of working while in school that has been drawn from previous work.
Bibliography Citation
Hotz, V. Joseph, Lixin Colin Xu, Marta Tienda and Avner Ahituv. "Are There Returns to the Wages of Young Men from Working While in School?" JCPR Working Paper 101, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Northwestern University/University of Chicago, July 1999.
14. Kletzer, Lori G.
Fairlie, Robert W.
Long-Term Costs of Job Displacement Among Young Workers
JCPR Working Paper 87, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Northwestern University/University of Chicago, June 1999.
Also: http://www.northwestern.edu/ipr/jcpr/workingpapers/wpfiles/fairlie_jobdisplace.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Joint Center for Poverty Research
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); College Education; Earnings; High School Completion/Graduates; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Wage Growth; Work Histories

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

One limitation of the recent research on the long-term costs of job displacement is its focus on individuals with established work histories. Using longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), the authors estimate the long-term costs of job displacement for young workers. Similar to a number of recent studies, the authors use a comparison group of nondisplaced workers and regressions that include individual-level fixed-effects to estimate post-displacement earnings losses for this group. The rate of job displacement among this cohort was high during the 1980s and early 1990s. The authors find that the earnings costs of job loss for young workers are substantial and persistent, as others have shown for older and more established workers. In the fifth year following job loss, displaced men lose 8.4 percent and displaced women 13.0 percent in annual earnings, relative to expected levels. To improve the understanding of the causes of these long-term costs, the authors also examine the relative contributions of actual earnings losses and losses due to foregone earnings to total earnings losses for young displaced workers. They find a clear contrast between young and older workers in the causes of these losses. Unlike more established workers, young displaced workers do not experience a large decline in earnings following displacement. At the same time, their nondisplaced counterparts experience rapid earnings growth.
Bibliography Citation
Kletzer, Lori G. and Robert W. Fairlie. "Long-Term Costs of Job Displacement Among Young Workers." JCPR Working Paper 87, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Northwestern University/University of Chicago, June 1999.
15. Kowaleski-Jones, Lori
Duncan, Greg J.
The Effects of WIC on Children's Health and Development
Poverty Research News, 5,2, (March-April 2001): 6-7
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Joint Center for Poverty Research
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Child Health; Motor and Social Development (MSD); Siblings; Temperament; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Kowaleski-Jones and Duncan address some of the limitations of prior research by using a national sample of children and siblings born to relatively older mothers. Specifically, they compare siblings whose mothers used WIC with one sibling but not the other. In addition to birth weight, they also examine two measures of infant development: temperament and motor and social skills. Their research supports the positive findings on infant birth weight, and finds a small, positive effect on temperament, but no established link to improved motor or social skills.
Bibliography Citation
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori and Greg J. Duncan. "The Effects of WIC on Children's Health and Development." Poverty Research News, 5,2, (March-April 2001): 6-7.
16. Levine, Judith A.
Pollack, Harold
The Well-Being of Children Born to Teen Mothers: Multiple Approaches to Assessing the Causal Links
Working Paper 288, Joint Center for Poverty Research, April 2002.
Also: http://www.northwestern.edu/ipr/jcpr/workingpapers/wpfiles/levine_pollack.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Joint Center for Poverty Research
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Behavioral Problems; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Sexual Activity; Substance Use; Truancy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Children born to early-childbearers display high prevalence of problem behaviors and poor academic performance. Previous research indicates that many adverse outcomes stem from poverty or other risk-factors, not from early childbearing per se. This paper uses linked maternal-child data from the 1979-98 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to explore these questions in greater depth.

Using the large sample size made possible through an expanded adolescent sample, we use two econometric techniques to explore the causal impact of early-childbearing on subsequent child and adolescent outcomes. First, we use a fixed-effect, cousin-comparison analysis to control for unobserved family characteristics that may influence child outcomes. Second, we examine outcomes among children born to women who had miscarriages during their teen years. Because teenagers who have miscarriages are in some ways similar to teens who carry infants to live birth, miscarriage data allows us to further scrutinize whether delayed childbearing is associated with improved outcomes.

In both analyses, we find that teen childbearing plays only a small, if any, causal role in children?s performance on standardized tests, reported use of marijuana, or fighting. Pre-birth characteristics of teen mothers, birth order, and family size are more important factors in determining this set of outcomes. For other outcomes, namely grade repetition, early sexual initiation, and truancy, the fixed effects and miscarriage analyses produce differing results. Teen childbearing has no sizeable or statistically significant results for any of our outcomes in the miscarriage analysis. However, the fixed effects results suggest teen childbearing is associated with grade retention in school, school truancy, and possibly with early initiation of sexual activity. We interpret these differing results to suggest that teen mothers share more in common with other young women who conceive, but due to miscarriage, do not carry their pregnancies to term than they do with their own siblings who delay childbearing. It is these commonalities that appear to drive the zero-order association between early fertility and several negative behavioral consequences for off-spring. In the paper, we discuss the implications of these findings and possible social policy responses to adolescent parenthood.

Bibliography Citation
Levine, Judith A. and Harold Pollack. "The Well-Being of Children Born to Teen Mothers: Multiple Approaches to Assessing the Causal Links." Working Paper 288, Joint Center for Poverty Research, April 2002.
17. Levine, Judith A.
Pollack, Harold
Comfort, Maureen E.
Academic and Behavioral Outcomes Among the Children of Young Mothers
JCPR Working Paper 193, Joint Center for Poverty Research, June 2000.
Also: http://www.northwestern.edu/ipr/jcpr/workingpapers/wpfiles/levine_pollack_comfort.PDF
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Joint Center for Poverty Research
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Birth Order; Childbearing; Children, Well-Being; Family Background; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Truancy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper was originally presented as the Population Association of America Meetings, March 2000, in Los Angeles, CA.

In this paper, we use newly available data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate the effects of early motherhood on academic and behavioral outcomes for children born to early childbearers. We find that early motherhood's strong negative correlation with children's test scores and positive correlation with children's grade repetition is almost entirely explained by pre-birth individual and family background factors of teen mothers themselves. However, early childbearing is associated indirectly with reduced children's test scores through its linkage to family size (and thus to child birth order). We find a different pattern in predicting fighting, truancy, early sexual activity, and other problem behaviors among adolescent and young adult off-spring. For these behaviors, maternal age-at-first-birth remains an important risk-factor even after controlling for a wide range of background factors and maternal characteristics. These results highlight the diverse pathways through which teen parenting might influence subsequent child well-being and social performance.

Bibliography Citation
Levine, Judith A., Harold Pollack and Maureen E. Comfort. "Academic and Behavioral Outcomes Among the Children of Young Mothers." JCPR Working Paper 193, Joint Center for Poverty Research, June 2000.
18. Mach, Traci Lynn
A Cross-Cohort Examination of Nonmarital Teenage Childbearing
JCPR Working Paper 322, Department of Economics, State University of New York - Albany, 13 January, 2003.
Also: http://www.jcpr.org/wpfiles/mach.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Joint Center for Poverty Research
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Childbearing, Adolescent; Childbearing, Premarital/Nonmarital; Fathers, Presence; Marriage; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Parental Marital Status

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The current paper looks at the nonmarital teenage childbearing behavior of two cohorts of NLSY women. It constructs a monthly panel of information for the teens from the time they are twelve years old until they have a nonmarital birth, reach the end of their third survey without giving birth, get married, or reach age 18. The research attempts to identify the factors that have contributed to the differences in teenage childbearing behavior that we observe across the cohorts of women by estimating a Cox proportional hazard model, stratified on race, age of mother at the birth of her first child, and the rate of marriage in the state. The model identifies education, living situations, religion, and welfare policy as factors. Specifically, for the youths of the 1990s, the introduction of restrictions on living conditions, the so-called minor parent provisions, act as a retardant to nonmarital childbearing. The model also shows that higher education for the youth and her mother delay childbearing for both cohorts of women. Finally, living with one's biological father at age 14 is linked with delayed childbearing, with hazard rates nearly 60 and 40 percent lower for teens of the two cohorts. [Copyright JCPR, 2003.]
Bibliography Citation
Mach, Traci Lynn. "A Cross-Cohort Examination of Nonmarital Teenage Childbearing." JCPR Working Paper 322, Department of Economics, State University of New York - Albany, 13 January, 2003.
19. Mayer, Susan E.
Duncan, Greg J.
Kalil, Ariel
Tepper, Robin L.
Like Mother Like Daughter: Does SES Account for the Similarity between Mothers and Daughters?
Presented: Chicago, IL, Joint Center for Poverty Research, "Family Investments in Children's Potential", Research Conference, September 2002.
Also: http://www.jcpr.org/conferences/SRI_2002/mayer.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Joint Center for Poverty Research
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; CESD (Depression Scale); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Depression (see also CESD); Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Pearlin Mastery Scale; Self-Esteem; Shyness; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

[This paper assesses the importance of maternal income and education to daughters' adolescent characteristics that are associated with her own future economic success. The analysis looks beyond socio-economic status to account for the strong correlations between parents' and children's educational achievement, psychological and personality characteristics, attitudes, interests, and highrisk behaviors, such as smoking, early pregnancy, or antisocial behavior. Although their findings are preliminary, they suggest a lesser role for socioeconomic status than previously thought.

Specifically, the authors find that mothers' own characteristics, measured when she herself was an adolescent, can predict her future income and education, and the latter, in turn, predict her daughter's adolescent characteristics, which presumably predict the daughter's future income and education. These findings are important for research and policy on several levels. In short, the authors argue that the importance of socioeconomic status will be overstated if researchers omit a mother's own adolescent characteristics in their measurement models.

Bibliography Citation
Mayer, Susan E., Greg J. Duncan, Ariel Kalil and Robin L. Tepper. "Like Mother Like Daughter: Does SES Account for the Similarity between Mothers and Daughters?" Presented: Chicago, IL, Joint Center for Poverty Research, "Family Investments in Children's Potential", Research Conference, September 2002.
20. Mayer, Susan E.
Knutson, David
Does Age at Enrollment in First Grade Affect Children's Cognitive Test Scores?
JCPR Working Paper 23, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Northwestern University/University of Chicago, December 1997.
Also: http://www.jcpr.org/wpfiles/newchild.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Joint Center for Poverty Research
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Family Background; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; School Entry/Readiness

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Mother-Child Files to estimate the effect of age at enrollment in first grade on eight to eleven year old children's cognitive test scores and behavior problems. We find that children who enroll in first grade at a young age score higher on cognitive tests and have fewer behavior problems than children of the same age who enroll at an older age. This is mainly because children who enroll earlier have had more schooling than their same-aged peers who enrolled later. We also find that among children with the same amount of schooling, those who enrolled at a younger age have higher verbal scores than those who enrolled at an older age. This is because they were exposed to schooling at a younger age. We assess the extent to which early gains in test scores attributable to enrolling at a younger age decline as children progress through school and the extent to which the benefit of early enrollment is due to family background characteristics.
Bibliography Citation
Mayer, Susan E. and David Knutson. "Does Age at Enrollment in First Grade Affect Children's Cognitive Test Scores?" JCPR Working Paper 23, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Northwestern University/University of Chicago, December 1997.
21. Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Jekielek, Susan Marie
Mott, Frank L.
Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Work and Family Circumstances and Child Trajectories: When (and for What) Does AFDC Receipt Matter?
Presented: Chicago, IL, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Pre-Conference on Family Process and Child Development in Low Income Families, May 7-8, 1998.
Also: http://www.jcpr.org/wp/WPprofile.cfm?ID=39.0
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Joint Center for Poverty Research
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Family Circumstances, Changes in; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Mothers, Education; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Simultaneity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper focuses on children's progress through middle childhood over a four year period, beginning with a synthetic cohort of children aged 6-7 and following them to ages 10-11. We have been particularly concerned with changes over time, seeking to link changing parental work and family circumstances with changes in the quality of parent-child interaction and with children's increases or decreases in behavior problems. In this preliminary set of analyses, we can take advantage of the longitudinal NLSY child data, and control for the initial level of child outcomes at the beginning of the study period. Thus, our main focus is on how temporal patterns of AFDC receipt are linked to changes in the quality of children's home environments, their reading skills, and their behavior. We ask three major questions. First, for the large sample of children aged 10 to 11 whom we have been following from ages 6-7, what are the patterns of AFDC receipt from year 1 through year 5? We describe those patterns, and correlate variations in AFDC receipt with the measures of maternal resources, work and family patterns over the same period. Second, are these patterns linked to three indicators of child outcomes: the quality of home environments, the child's reading ability, and the child's propensity to oppositional action (a subset of behavior problems), under varying controls? Third, following Greg Duncan's lead, we develop typologies that simultaneously consider AFDC receipt, family composition, mother's education, and mother's employment history. What are the frequencies of those types, and what are the linkages between these groups and the three child outcomes under varying sets of controls?
Bibliography Citation
Menaghan, Elizabeth G., Susan Marie Jekielek, Frank L. Mott and Elizabeth C. Cooksey. "Work and Family Circumstances and Child Trajectories: When (and for What) Does AFDC Receipt Matter?" Presented: Chicago, IL, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Pre-Conference on Family Process and Child Development in Low Income Families, May 7-8, 1998.
22. Mizell, C. André
Rising Above Poverty: The Consequences of Poverty Status and Individual Characteristics on Earnings
JCPR Working Paper 106, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Northwestern University/University of Chicago, July 2000.
Also: http://econpapers.repec.org/paper/wopjopovw/106.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Joint Center for Poverty Research
Keyword(s): Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Educational Attainment; Gender Differences; Job Tenure; Occupational Attainment; Occupational Status; Poverty; Racial Differences; Self-Esteem

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This research investigates the effects of poverty in early adulthood on future earnings. While social scientists are beginning to amass a considerable literature on the effects of poverty on outcomes for children, few have investigated the damage that impoverishment may do in early adulthood when individuals are in the midst of completing education and planning careers. The findings in this study indicate that poverty does dampen earnings' potential. However, individual characteristics (e.g., aspirations, esteem and ability) and structural location (e.g., educational attainment, occupational status and job tenure) may assuage the otherwise negative effects of poverty. Other findings reveal that the process shaping earnings is very similar for white males compared to racial minorities and women. One exception is the impact of weekly hours worked on earnings. White males receive a benefit to earnings from weekly hours worked above and beyond that of White women, African American men, African American women and Mexican American women. Additionally, white men's earnings remain higher than African Americans, Mexican Americans and white women because of higher occupational attainment and longer job tenure.
Bibliography Citation
Mizell, C. André. "Rising Above Poverty: The Consequences of Poverty Status and Individual Characteristics on Earnings." JCPR Working Paper 106, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Northwestern University/University of Chicago, July 2000.
23. Shanahan, Michael J.
Davey, Adam
Brooks, Jennifer
Dynamic Models of Poverty and Psychosocial Adjustment through Childhood
JCPR Working Paper 49, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Northwestern University/University of Chicago, October 1998.
Also: http://www.northwestern.edu/ipr/jcpr/workingpapers/wpfiles/shanahan.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Joint Center for Poverty Research
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Poverty; Children, Well-Being; Depression (see also CESD); Economic Well-Being; Family Influences; Growth Curves; Hispanics; Life Course; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Poverty; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper was also presented in 1997 at the Meeting of the American Sociological Association, Toronto.

Children exhibit significant variability in their poverty experiences and well-being through time, longitudinal realities that complicate the study of economic deprivation and adjustment in the early life course. Drawing on thirteen years of data from the Children of National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data set, we examine how children's poverty histories predict latent growth curves of their psychosocial adjustment using multiply imputed data sets. The duration of poverty between birth and 1986 predicts the level of antisocial behavior and anxiety-depression in 1986, while the proportion of time spent in poverty between 1986 and 1992 predicts the rate increase in antisocial behavior between 1986 and 1992. Controlling the duration of poverty, we find that transitions into poverty between birth and 1986 predict the rate of increase in anxiety- depression between 1986 and 1992 among boys. Hispanic boys seem especially vulnerable to early poverty experiences: transitions into poverty between birth and 1986 raise their 1986 level of antisocial behavior, while the duration of poverty between birth and 1986 sharpens their rate of increase in anxiety-depression between 1986 and 1992. These findings underscore the value of a life-history approach to children's family experiences and well-being.

Bibliography Citation
Shanahan, Michael J., Adam Davey and Jennifer Brooks. "Dynamic Models of Poverty and Psychosocial Adjustment through Childhood." JCPR Working Paper 49, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Northwestern University/University of Chicago, October 1998.
24. Waldfogel, Jane
Mayer, Susan E.
Male-Female Differences in the Low-Wage Labor Market
JCPR Working Paper 70, Joint Center for Poverty Research, February 1999.
Also: http://ideas.repec.org/p/har/wpaper/9904.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Joint Center for Poverty Research
Keyword(s): Economic Well-Being; Education; Fertility; Gender Differences; Wage Gap; Wages, Men; Wages, Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper was also presented in Washington DC: JCPR Conference, Labor Market and Less-Skilled Workers, November 1998. In recent years, women have made considerable gains relative to men in the labor market. Most notably, the gender gap in hourly wages has narrowed substantially. In this paper we divide workers into three skill groups on the basis of education, and analyze how the hourly earnings of women in each group have progressed relative to those of comparably educated men, the reasons for those gains, and their implications for women's economic well-being.
Bibliography Citation
Waldfogel, Jane and Susan E. Mayer. "Male-Female Differences in the Low-Wage Labor Market." JCPR Working Paper 70, Joint Center for Poverty Research, February 1999.