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Author: Wolfe, Barbara L.
Resulting in 11 citations.
1. Cancian, Maria
Haveman, Robert H.
Kaplan, Thomas
Meyer, Daniel R.
Wolfe, Barbara L.
Work, Earnings and Well-Being After Welfare
In: Economic Conditions and Welfare Reform. S. Danziger, ed. Kalamazoo, MI: W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 1999.
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research
Keyword(s): Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC); Earnings; Labor Market Outcomes; Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF); Welfare; Well-Being

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In Chapter 6, Maria Cancian and her colleagues review evidence from several data sources about the post-welfare work effort and the economic well-being of former recipients. Although most former recipients can find some work, most cannot get and keep full-time, year-round work. In their analysis of pre-TANF data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, in each of the five years after exit, about two-thirds worked. However, in any of these years, only about one-sixth to about one-quarter worked full-time, full-year. The samewas true in the post-TANF Wisconsin administrative data they analyze; during the first year after leaving the rolls, about two-thirds of leavers worked. They also found that most former recipients (at least in the first few years) will earn relatively low wages, between $6.50 and $7.50 per hour. This is not surprising, given that welfare recipients have low skills and that the real wages of less-skilled workers have fallen dramatically over the past quarter century and have not increased much during the current economic boom.

This finding about the wage prospects of less-skilled workers is not new. It was the motivation for the proposal of the first Clinton administration "to make work pay and end welfare as we know it." This suggests that former welfare recipients will continue to need government income supplements if they are to support their family at incomes above the poverty line. The expanded Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) has a very important role here, as does post-welfare access to subsidized child care, health care, and food stamps. As the Cancian et al. chapter cautions, "Even consistent work may not suffice for self-support if wages are low . . . The relatively modest growth in wages for this sample is inconsistent with the suggestion that even if former welfare recipients start in low-paying jobs, they will soon move on to jobs that pay wages that can support a family above the poverty line." The good new s in Wisconsin for the sample of families that had left the welfare rolls is that twice as many of them were above the poverty line relative to those remaining on the rolls. Yet, only 27 percent of those who left cash assistance and did not return escaped poverty, and only about one-third of all leavers obtained the income level they received just before they left welfare.

An additional caveat is in order. The first wave of data from a panel study of welfare recipients being conducted at the University of Michigan 2 shows that women remaining on welfare have characteristics, not evaluated in most studies of recipients, that make their labor market prospects more problematic than those of all single mothers and even those of recipients who have already left the rolls. The study examined 14 potential barriers to employment, including major depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, maternal health, child health, labor market skills, perceived experiences of discrimination, and several standard human capital measures. It found that about 75 percent of single mothers who received cash welfare in February 1997 and had zero or one of these barriers were working in Fall 1997, whereas only about 40 percent of those with four or more barriers were working. As welfare caseloads continue to decline, this suggests that the recipients who remain will be the least employable.

Bibliography Citation
Cancian, Maria, Robert H. Haveman, Thomas Kaplan, Daniel R. Meyer and Barbara L. Wolfe. "Work, Earnings and Well-Being After Welfare" In: Economic Conditions and Welfare Reform. S. Danziger, ed. Kalamazoo, MI: W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 1999.
2. Cancian, Maria
Haveman, Robert H.
Kaplan, Thomas
Meyer, Daniel R.
Wolfe, Barbara L.
Work, Earnings, and Well-Being after Welfare: What Do We Know?
JCPR Working Paper 73, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Northwestern University/University of Chicago, February 1999.
Also: http://ideas.repec.org/p/wop/jopovw/73.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Joint Center for Poverty Research
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Data Quality/Consistency; Economic Well-Being; Parents, Single; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper was prepared for the "Welfare Reform and the Macro-Economy" conference in Washington DC, November 19-20, 1998. The rapid reduction in Aid to Families with Dependent Children caseloads during its last two years, and the continued decline of participation following its replacement by Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, raise the question of how families who no longer receive cash assistance are faring. What are their economic circumstances? Are they better off after leaving the program than they were as recipients? How many of the mothers are working, and how much do they earn? Do they and their families continue to rely on other, in-kind assistance programs? If so, which ones? In this paper, we present evidence on the economic fate of single mothers who have left the welfare rolls. We summarize the results of earlier studies and then present findings from three approaches to this topic, one using national survey data, another using administrative data, and a few recent studies that use geographically targeted surveys. We conclude that reliance on administrative data provides the best option for evaluating the impacts of reform in the near future. We also recognize the limitations of these data and the need for survey data to supplement their findings.
Bibliography Citation
Cancian, Maria, Robert H. Haveman, Thomas Kaplan, Daniel R. Meyer and Barbara L. Wolfe. "Work, Earnings, and Well-Being after Welfare: What Do We Know?" JCPR Working Paper 73, Joint Center for Poverty Research, Northwestern University/University of Chicago, February 1999.
3. Cancian, Maria
Haveman, Robert H.
Kaplan, Thomas
Meyer, Daniel R.
Wolfe, Barbara L.
Work, Earnings, and Well-Being after Welfare: What Do We Know?
Focus 20,2 (Spring 1999): 22-25.
Also: http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/irp/focus.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for Research on Poverty (IRP), University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Employment, History; Family Income; State Welfare; Welfare; Well-Being; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Researchers who wish to examine the economic well-being of those who have left welfare need accurate data on women's circumstances while on welfare and measures of individual and family well-being over an extended period afterward. The most likely sources of this information are state administrative records, national longitudinal survey data, and targeted surveys. None provides a fully satisfactory solution. IRP researchers have conducted two studies of the economic well-being and employment histories of women who have left welfare. In one, they used the NLSY, and in the other, Wisconsin state administrative data. In this article, we briefly report the findings from these studies, illustrate the problems inherent in each approach, and compare their findings with studies of postwelfare experiences in other states.
Bibliography Citation
Cancian, Maria, Robert H. Haveman, Thomas Kaplan, Daniel R. Meyer and Barbara L. Wolfe. "Work, Earnings, and Well-Being after Welfare: What Do We Know?" Focus 20,2 (Spring 1999): 22-25.
4. Fletcher, Jason
Vidal-Fernández, Marian
Wolfe, Barbara L.
Dynamic and Heterogeneous Effects of Sibling Death on Children's Outcomes
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) 115,1 (2 January 2018): 115-120.
Also: http://www.pnas.org/content/115/1/115.abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: National Academy of Sciences (NAS), United States
Keyword(s): Cognitive Development; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Parental Investments; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Siblings; Trauma/Death in family

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper explores the effects of experiencing the death of a sibling on children's developmental outcomes. Recent work has shown that experiencing a sibling death is common and long-term effects are large. We extend understanding of these effects by estimating dynamic effects on surviving siblings' cognitive and socioemotional outcomes, as well as emotional and cognitive support by parents. Using the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (CNLSY79), we find large initial effects on cognitive and noncognitive outcomes that decline over time. We also provide evidence that the effects are larger if the surviving child is older and less prominent if the deceased child was either disabled or an infant, suggesting sensitive periods of exposure. Auxiliary results show that parental investments in the emotional support of surviving children decline following the death of their child.
Bibliography Citation
Fletcher, Jason, Marian Vidal-Fernández and Barbara L. Wolfe. "Dynamic and Heterogeneous Effects of Sibling Death on Children's Outcomes." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) 115,1 (2 January 2018): 115-120.
5. Fletcher, Jason
Vidal-Fernández, Marian
Wolfe, Barbara L.
Dynamic Effects of Sibling Death on Children’s Outcomes
Working Paper, University of New South Wales, Centre for Applied Economic Research, January 2013.
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: University of New South Wales
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Age at First Birth; Alcohol Use; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Mortality; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC); Trauma/Death in family

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper explores the effects of experiencing the death of a sibling on children’s outcomes. Recent work has shown that experiencing a sibling death is common and the long-term effects are large. We extend our understanding by estimating the dynamic effects on cognitive, non- cognitive and home environmental measures as the surviving children age using the Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79). We first examine the family level predictors of experiencing the death of a child. Because families who experience a death may differ from other families, we compare the trajectories of children before and after experiencing a sibling death only among families who experience a death. We find large initial effects on cognitive and non-cognitive outcomes that decline over time and also provide evidence that the effects are larger if the surviving child is older, suggesting sensitive periods of exposure. Auxiliary results suggest that parental inputs decline following the death but also that, for some families, children’s outcomes rebound following the death of a sibling who had significant disabilities.
Bibliography Citation
Fletcher, Jason, Marian Vidal-Fernández and Barbara L. Wolfe. "Dynamic Effects of Sibling Death on Children’s Outcomes." Working Paper, University of New South Wales, Centre for Applied Economic Research, January 2013..
6. Fletcher, Jason
Wolfe, Barbara L.
Child Mental Health and Human Capital Accumulation: The Case of ADHD Revisited
Journal of Health Economics 27,3 (May 2008): 794-800.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167629607000823
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Attention/Attention Deficit; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Mental Health; Educational Attainment; Grade Retention/Repeat Grade; Human Capital; Modeling, Fixed Effects; National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth); School Progress; Siblings; Special Education

In volume 25, issue 6 of this journal, Janet Currie and Mark Stabile (JCMS,) made a significant contribution to our understanding of the influence of ADHD symptoms on a variety of school outcomes including participation in special education, grade repetition and test scores. Their contributions include using a broad sample of children and estimating sibling fixed effects models to control for unobserved family effects. In this comment we look at a sample of older children and confirm and extend many of the JCMS findings in terms of a broader set of measures of human capital and additional specifications.

In this paper, we corroborate the short-term educational consequences of ADHD shown by JCMS and extend the examination to longer term educational outcomes of children with ADHD symptoms. Like the results by JCMS for the children in the NLS-Y, we find evidence that children in the Add Health data set who have ADHD symptoms are more likely to repeat a grade and receive special education services. We then show that standard OLS results imply that children with ADHD face longer term educational disadvantages, including lower grade point averages, increases in suspension and expulsions, and fewer completed years of schooling. However, we find that nearly all of these results are not robust to the inclusion of family fixed effects, suggesting that short-term consequences of educational outcomes do not lead to longer term educational consequences in a straightforward manner.

Bibliography Citation
Fletcher, Jason and Barbara L. Wolfe. "Child Mental Health and Human Capital Accumulation: The Case of ADHD Revisited." Journal of Health Economics 27,3 (May 2008): 794-800.
7. Fletcher, Jason
Wolfe, Barbara L.
Child Mental Health and Human Capital Accumulation: The Case of ADHD Revisited
NBER Working Paper No. 13474, National Bureau of Economic Research, October 2007.
Also: http://www.nber.org/papers/w13474
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Attention/Attention Deficit; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Mental Health; Educational Attainment; Grade Retention/Repeat Grade; Human Capital; Modeling, Fixed Effects; National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth); School Progress; Siblings; Special Education

Recently, Currie and Stabile (2006) made a significant contribution to our understanding of the influence of ADHD symptoms on a variety of school outcomes including participation in special education, grade repetition and test scores. Their contributions include using a broad sample of children and estimating sibling fixed effects models to control for unobserved family effects. In this paper we look at a sample of older children and confirm and extend many of the JCMS findings in terms of a broader set of measures of human capital and additional specifications.
Bibliography Citation
Fletcher, Jason and Barbara L. Wolfe. "Child Mental Health and Human Capital Accumulation: The Case of ADHD Revisited." NBER Working Paper No. 13474, National Bureau of Economic Research, October 2007.
8. Haveman, Robert H.
Wolfe, Barbara L.
The Decline in Male Labor Force Participation: Comment
Journal of Political Economy 92,3 (January 1984): 532-541.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1837232
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Social Security; Transfers, Financial; Transfers, Public; Unemployment; Welfare

This article comments on Donald O. Parsons' "The Decline in Male Labor Force Participation" which concludes that the recent decline in labor force participation can be largely explained by the increased generosity of social welfare transfers, particularly Social Security disability payments. The magnitude of Parsons' estimate and its impact on the public debate over disability transfer policy require careful scrutiny of its basis. The authors describe Parsons' econometric model and construction of variables and test the robustness of Parsons' elasticity estimate by presenting alternative estimates based on corrections and extensions of his basic model. They conclude that Parsons' simulation says little about the causal relationships among these similar time-series patterns. Because of changes in the age composition of the labor force, labor market opportunities for older workers, the incidence of work-related impairments, the level of employment and earnings of spouses, the application of eligibility standards, and the coverage of private pensions, none of which are reflected in Parsons' simulation, his conclusion is unwarranted.
Bibliography Citation
Haveman, Robert H. and Barbara L. Wolfe. "The Decline in Male Labor Force Participation: Comment." Journal of Political Economy 92,3 (January 1984): 532-541.
9. Haveman, Robert H.
Wolfe, Barbara L.
The Determinants of Children's Attainments: A Review of Methods and Findings
Journal of Economic Literature 33,4 (December 1995): 1829-1878.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2729315
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Childbearing, Adolescent; Demography; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Family Influences; Family Studies; Fertility; General Assessment; Marital Status; Neighborhood Effects; Overview, Child Assessment Data; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The empirical research on the links between investments in children and children's attainments is reviewed and critiqued. The studies included emphasized the potential effects on children of family choices and neighborhood characteristics, the latter taken to reflect social choices. While the focus is on economic literature, relevant studies from other social sciences are included. The primary theoretical perspective that have guided research on the determinants of children's attainments are summarized. A more general and comprehensive economic perspective on the issue is also presented. The children's outcomes that are emphasized include: 1. educational attainment, 2. fertility choices (especially non marital births during teenage years), and 3. work- related outcomes such as earnings and welfare recipiency. Copyright ABI Inform.
Bibliography Citation
Haveman, Robert H. and Barbara L. Wolfe. "The Determinants of Children's Attainments: A Review of Methods and Findings." Journal of Economic Literature 33,4 (December 1995): 1829-1878.
10. Wolfe, Barbara L.
Childbearing and/or Labor Force Participation: the Education Connection
Research in Population Economics 2 (1980): 365-386
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: JAI Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Behavior; Childbearing; Education; Family Size; Fertility

The effect of more education for women on their fertility behavior is examined using data from the National Bureau of Economic Research - Thorndike-Hagen sample (NBER-TH) and a comparable group from the NLS. The NBER-TH data are longitudinal 25-year histories of 5,083 white males and their families. The effect of education on family size is analyzed through several distinct factors: contraceptive efficiency, age at marriage, tastes toward children and desired standard of living, opportunity cost, and efficiency in raising children. Investigation shows that a combination of the taste and efficiency factors has a positive, though nonlinear, relation to fertility. Opportunity cost has the expected negative relationship to family size. Since the opportunity cost factor has dominated other results, this raises questions concerning the true impact of increased women's wages on fertility.
Bibliography Citation
Wolfe, Barbara L. "Childbearing and/or Labor Force Participation: the Education Connection." Research in Population Economics 2 (1980): 365-386.
11. Wolfe, Barbara L.
Interrelations of Fertility and Women's Labor Force Participation, with Particular Emphasis on the Effects of Education
Presented: Seattle, WA, Population Association of America Meetings, 1975
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior; Children; College Graduates; Duncan Index; Educational Returns; Fertility; Husbands, Influence; I.Q.; Schooling; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study investigates the effect of more education for women on their fertility behavior. The opportunity cost effect (wage rates) has a negative relationship to family size; however, a positive, though nonlinear, relationship exists between fertility and a combination of taste and efficiency factors; however, the cost factor has a negative relationship to family size.
Bibliography Citation
Wolfe, Barbara L. "Interrelations of Fertility and Women's Labor Force Participation, with Particular Emphasis on the Effects of Education." Presented: Seattle, WA, Population Association of America Meetings, 1975.