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Author: Gagen, Mary G.
Resulting in 4 citations.
1. Gagen, Mary G.
Job Displacement of Established Women Workers: Correlates and Employment Consequences
Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1987. DAI-A 48/09, p. 2464, Mar 1988
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Displaced Workers; Educational Attainment; Firms; Industrial Sector; Women

The theories, correlates and consequences of permanent job loss were investigated, for the NLS Mature Women's cohort, using a subset of workers who were established in their jobs over the years 1969 to 1981. This approach focuses on the job loss event itself, in contrast to the prevailing practice of studying displaced workers from cases of plant shutdowns or from a population of unemployed workers. Theories which could explain labor force reductions were surveyed from across disciplines in order to derive a set of variables for use in a displacement model. The theories tend to focus on either characteristics of the firm or on characteristics of individual workers to explain the incidence of displacement across the workforce. It was shown that there was a fairly high degree of convergence among theories in terms of predictor variables. Displacement was found to be related more closely to structural features, associated with firms, than to characteristics of the individuals who lost their jobs. The industry of employment was the single largest predictor of displacement. Specifically, manufacturing, traditional services and wholesale/retail trade displaced workers at approximately equal rates. In contrast, professional and business services confer relative immunity to job loss, at least over the period studied. This finding offers a different profile of displaced workers from that described in the large body of plant shutdown literature, but supports findings from other national samples. Recent layoffs are also strong predictors of displacement. Education tended to prevent displacement. Consequences of displacement were similar to that described in the plant closing literature: unemployment, wage erosion and leaving the labor force were typical, and persistent. Multinomial logit of employment status was used to analyze displacement's effects on unemployment, labor force leaving and employment rates. The model explains more about labor force leaving than it does of unemployment, although displacement significantly affects both. Policy implications were discussed. [UMI ADG87- 26632]
Bibliography Citation
Gagen, Mary G. Job Displacement of Established Women Workers: Correlates and Employment Consequences. Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1987. DAI-A 48/09, p. 2464, Mar 1988.
2. Parnes, Herbert S.
Gagen, Mary G.
King, Randall H.
Job Loss Among Long-Service Workers
In: Work and Retirement: A Longitudinal Study of Men. H.S. Parnes, ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: MIT Press
Keyword(s): Displaced Workers; Job Patterns; Job Turnover; Layoffs; Unemployment; Wages

This article investigates that part of the group of Older Men 45-59 in 1966 who had lost their jobs involuntarily, and using data from the 1976 survey examines the impact of this loss on their later work lives and attitudes. Unmarried men seem more likely to be displaced than married men, and private sector employees seem much more likely to be than those in the public sector. Seniority and average hourly earnings appear to play little part in determining displacement, although establishments with no pension plan seem much more likely to displace workers. Although 40% of displaced workers were apparently immediately able to move into new jobs, and the percentage of workers unemployed in 1976 who had been displaced in 1969 or before was the same as the unemployment percentage of workers never displaced, the average hourly earnings for displaced workers was 22% less the average figure for those never displaced, and, so far, there is no evidence that this or its psychological effects soften with time.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S., Mary G. Gagen and Randall H. King. "Job Loss Among Long-Service Workers" In: Work and Retirement: A Longitudinal Study of Men. H.S. Parnes, ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981
3. Shaw, Lois B.
D'Amico, Ronald
Gagen, Mary G.
Gitter, Robert J.
Haurin, Donald R.
Morgan, William R.
Mott, Frank L.
Peters, Elizabeth
Dual Careers, Volume 6: Fifteen Year Report on the National Longitudinal Surveys Mature Women's Cohort
Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1985
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Education; Employment; Family Constraints; Job Patterns; Marital Disruption; Marriage; Racial Differences

Fifteen years of data from the NLS cohort of Mature Women are analyzed. Chapter one describes the extent of the decreasing family responsibilities and increasing labor market involvement for these women over the fifteen-year period. Chapter two explores the employment patterns of white and black women following the birth of their first child. Chapter three examines the degree of responsibility given to women age 45 to 59 for the pay and promotion decisions of others. Chapter four describes the education the women received between 1967 and 1982, and chapter five examines the extent to which they increased their labor market involvement as a result of family disruptions or husband's employment or disability. Chapter six describes the factors that determine women's early withdrawal from the labor market. Chapter seven illustrates the usefulness of hazard rate models in exploring the transition from divorce to remarriage and finds a striking difference in the mean duration to remarriage between whites and non-whites. Chapter eight focuses on the retirement plans and expected pension of white and black middle aged women.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B., Ronald D'Amico, Mary G. Gagen, Robert J. Gitter, Donald R. Haurin, William R. Morgan, Frank L. Mott and Elizabeth Peters. Dual Careers, Volume 6: Fifteen Year Report on the National Longitudinal Surveys Mature Women's Cohort. Columbus OH: Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1985.
4. Shaw, Lois B.
Gagen, Mary G.
Retirement Decisions of Husbands and Wives
Columbus, OH, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1984
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Early Retirement; Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Pensions; Retirement

Using the NLS Older Men's cohort, this paper found congruent retirement statuses for husbands and wives among couples in which the wives were employed or formerly employed. Among retired couples, the majority had retired within five years of each other. When considering the influences on spouses' retirement separately, we found that women who would become eligible for a full pension at a later time were likely to delay their retirement. Husbands' pension eligibility increased wives' retirement, and wives' pension eligibility also increased the likelihood of retirement for husbands before age 62, but had no effect at older ages. Health affected each spouse's own retirement, but cross-effects were generally not significant. When we used a multinomial logit model to examine the factors influencing whether husbands and wives retired together or separately, we found evidence that spouses have a tendency to work or retire together, but that either spouse may retire alone when their pension eligibility or health problems have opposing effects.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B. and Mary G. Gagen. "Retirement Decisions of Husbands and Wives." Columbus, OH, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1984.