Search Results

Author: Sandell, Steven H.
Resulting in 19 citations.
1. Borus, Michael E.
Parnes, Herbert S.
Sandell, Steven H.
Seidman, Bert
Older Worker
Madison, WI: Industrial Relations Research Association, 1988
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men
Publisher: Industrial Relations Research Association ==> LERA
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Gender Differences; Government Regulation; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Force Participation; Legislation; Pensions; Retirement

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This compendium reviews the current state of knowledge about the status, characteristics, and problems of older workers. Drawing upon research from a variety of data sources including the NLS, articles in this book detail the labor market characteristics of older workers, the particular dilemmas facing older women workers, the impact of age and health on job performance, factors impacting the decision to retire, and the challenges to our nation in maintaining an active, well trained older work force.
Bibliography Citation
Borus, Michael E., Herbert S. Parnes, Steven H. Sandell and Bert Seidman. Older Worker. Madison, WI: Industrial Relations Research Association, 1988.
2. Jusenius, Carol L.
Sandell, Steven H.
Barriers to Entry and Re-Entry into the Labor Force
Presented: Washington, DC, Workshop on Research Needed to Improve the Employment and Employability of Women, U.S. Department of Labor, 1974.
Also: http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED105320.pdf
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Employment; Household Income; Marital Status; Wages; Wives

This paper focuses on barriers that women face when they consider entrance or re-entrance into the labor force. Part I discusses, in general terms, the problem and the existing literature on the subject points out those topics which require additional research. Part II focuses on some of the methodological and empirical problems inherent in such analysis as they bear on future research needs.
Bibliography Citation
Jusenius, Carol L. and Steven H. Sandell. "Barriers to Entry and Re-Entry into the Labor Force." Presented: Washington, DC, Workshop on Research Needed to Improve the Employment and Employability of Women, U.S. Department of Labor, 1974.
3. Mott, Frank L.
Sandell, Steven H.
Shapiro, David
Brito, Patricia K.
Years for Decision, Volume 4: A Longitudinal Study of the Educational, Labor Market and Family Experiences of Young Women, 1968 to 1973
R and D Monograph 24, Volume 4. Washington, DC: US GPO, 1978.
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Children; College Education; Educational Attainment; Job Training; Marital Disruption; Migration; Occupational Aspirations; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Unemployment

Also published as: Published as: Women, Work, and Family. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1978. This monograph describes the changes both in the attitudes of women toward working outside the home and in their actual participation in the work force. It is based on a five-year longitudinal study of more than 5, 000 women aged 14 to 24 when first interviewed. Based on a comprehensive set of data obtained through personal interviews with a national sample of young women over the period 1968 to 1973, these studies focus either on aspects of the labor market experience of the current generation of young women or on facets of their lives that have substantial relationships to their labor market activity. Included are: preparation for the world of work-college attendance; labor force dynamics associated with withdrawal from and reentry into the labor force due to childbirth; the characteristics of young women that are associated with the choice of an "atypical," or "male" occupation; whether investment in on-the-job training is related to an expectation of long-term attachment to the labor force; some of the causes as well as the consequences of migration for the economic welfare of young women and their families; some of the determinants of marital disruption, and also the short- run economic consequences for women and children.
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L., Steven H. Sandell, David Shapiro and Patricia K. Brito. Years for Decision, Volume 4: A Longitudinal Study of the Educational, Labor Market and Family Experiences of Young Women, 1968 to 1973. R and D Monograph 24, Volume 4. Washington, DC: US GPO, 1978..
4. Sandell, Steven H.
Attitudes Toward Market Work and the Effect of Wage Rates on the Lifetime Labor Supply of Married Women
Journal of Human Resources 12,3 (Summer 1977): 379-386.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/145497
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Family Influences; Husbands, Influence; Wage Rates; Wives

This study observes the lifetime labor force participation of married women and analyzes the consequences of excluding taste variables from the conventional economic model. The author focuses on the extent of each participant's work experience during the time span between her first child and 1967. When attitudinal variables are included in the analysis, a decrease in the effect of the wife's potential wage on her postnatal labor supply is observed. Therefore, the frequent omission of these variables probably yield upward biased estimates of own wage elasticities. It is still unclear whether the wage results are more accurate for equations that include or exclude taste variables.
Bibliography Citation
Sandell, Steven H. "Attitudes Toward Market Work and the Effect of Wage Rates on the Lifetime Labor Supply of Married Women." Journal of Human Resources 12,3 (Summer 1977): 379-386.
5. Sandell, Steven H.
Demand for College Quality
Presented: New York, NY, American Educational Research Association Meetings, 1977
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: American Educational Research Association
Keyword(s): College Education; Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Family Resources; Fathers, Influence; I.Q.; Schooling

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The quality of the college education obtained by young men and, to a lesser extent, young women is related to their ability and the socioeconomic position of their parental families. Young men and women from high income families obtain both greater quantity and quality education than those from low income families. Part of the economic return to ability is probably a return to college quality. The study's findings help explain the smaller return to education for married women when compared to married men.
Bibliography Citation
Sandell, Steven H. "Demand for College Quality." Presented: New York, NY, American Educational Research Association Meetings, 1977.
6. Sandell, Steven H.
Demand for College: The Effect of Local Colleges on Attendance
Report, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, June 1976
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Colleges; Parental Influences; Schooling

This study finds that only limited additional college enrollment is associated with the existence of local public colleges. While this result conflicts with widely held assumptions, it is consistent with previous research and probably due to the limited effect of attending a local college on the total cost (including foregone earnings) of investment in higher education. The proximity of a college induces persons who would have enrolled in out-of-town institutions to attend college locally. Local two-year public colleges increase the likelihood that white women and black men will seek higher education. Furthermore, the college attendance decision is often made at the time the student enters high school, i.e., academic curriculum explains a large portion of the variance in college enrollment demand among individuals. Hence, the decision to go to college is at the very least heavily influenced by parents.
Bibliography Citation
Sandell, Steven H. "Demand for College: The Effect of Local Colleges on Attendance." Report, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, June 1976.
7. Sandell, Steven H.
Is the Unemployment Rate of Women Too Low? A Direct Test of the Economic Theory of Job Search
Review of Economics and Statistics 62,4 (November 1980): 634-637.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1924792
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Keyword(s): Behavior; Job Search; Local Labor Market; Unemployment; Wages; Wages, Reservation; Wives

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this analysis, job search behavior of unemployed married women is examined as well as actual observations of reported reservation wages, duration of unemployment and subsequent wage gain. Findings show women with higher reservation wages are subject to longer periods of unemployment but are rewarded with higher paying jobs. Women who lose their jobs experience longer unemployment periods than women who leave their jobs. Economic and local labor market conditions significantly affect the unemployment duration of married women. Based on financial considerations, it is found that married women could profitably spend a longer period of time on job search and thereafter, attain higher wages. Finally, the author examines possible causes for under-investment in job search activities. Note: An earlier version of this paper appeared as a July 1979 report from the Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.
Bibliography Citation
Sandell, Steven H. "Is the Unemployment Rate of Women Too Low? A Direct Test of the Economic Theory of Job Search." Review of Economics and Statistics 62,4 (November 1980): 634-637.
8. Sandell, Steven H.
Job Search by Unemployed Women: Determinants of the Asking Wage
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 33,3 (April 1980): 368-378.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2522573
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Keyword(s): Behavior; Husbands, Income; Job Search; Unemployment; Unemployment Insurance; Wages, Reservation; Wives

This study uses actual observations of women's reservation wages to show that the behavior of unemployed women is consistent with the predictions of the job-search paradigm. Using a two-stage least squares procedure to estimate the model, those variables reflecting wage expectations and unemployment duration are generally statistically significant in the anticipated directions. In particular, one of the most striking findings shows that unemployed women significantly reduce their reservation wages as the unemployment period progresses. In addition, women who receive unemployment insurance benefits request substantially higher wages. Overall, the results show that these women are committed to finding work and thus respond to economic incentives in their job search behavior.
Bibliography Citation
Sandell, Steven H. "Job Search by Unemployed Women: Determinants of the Asking Wage." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 33,3 (April 1980): 368-378.
9. Sandell, Steven H.
Lifetime Participation in the Labor Force and Unemployment Among Mature Women
Report, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1976
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Children; Educational Attainment; Family Resources; First Birth; Husbands; Labor Supply; Marriage; Modeling; Wages; Wives, Income

In this paper the economic model used to explain the labor force participation of married women at a point in time has been adapted to study the determinants of lifetime participation. Different influences were observed for the periods before and after the first child was born. While greater education of the husband is associated with lower labor force participation of women in the post-natal period, women whose husbands have greater-than-average educational attainment worked a greater proportion of the years available before the birth of their first offspring. Although the net positive effect of the wife's potential wage on her labor force participation reported here is consistent with previous research, it was found that the size of the wife's own wage effect was slightly smaller than the husband's wage effect on the wife's labor supply. In addition, inclusion of variables which purport to measure the taste of the women for market work reduces the observed positive effect of the wife's potential wage on her post-natal labor supply.
Bibliography Citation
Sandell, Steven H. "Lifetime Participation in the Labor Force and Unemployment Among Mature Women." Report, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1976.
10. Sandell, Steven H.
Women and the Economics of Family Migration
Review of Economics and Statistics 59,4 (November 1977): 406-414.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1928705
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Keyword(s): Earnings, Husbands; Earnings, Wives; Family Income; Migration; Mobility

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper, an economic model is developed to explain the family decision to migrate and the effect of migration on the labor market earnings of men and women. It is based on the tenet that family utility, defined operationally as the husband's and wife's labor market earnings and leisure, is a significant consideration in a (husband-wife) family's decision to migrate. The empirical results are consistent with the theory. On the one hand, the labor market orientation of the wife seems to be taken into consideration in the decision of a family to migrate. On the other hand, the migration of the family increases the earnings of the husband but does not increase the labor market earnings of the wife. In contrast, the earnings of never married women increased after moving. Since family earnings have been shown to increase as a result of migration, the decision to migrate is rational from the viewpoint of the family. It seems that the contribution of the wife to family income is considered, but the positive effect of migration on husband's earnings often outweighs the (initial) negative effect of migration on the wife's weeks worked and consequently, her earnings. This is not to say that migration is involuntary for wives in the usual sense, but to emphasize that what is beneficial to the welfare of the family (and the wife as a family member and consumer of family income) is nevertheless consistent with lower labor market earnings of the wife. The interruption of women's careers is often an effect of migration and the maximization of the utility of the family unit. If the participation of women in the labor force continues to increase, this may have a limiting effect on the geographic mobility of the male labor force.
Bibliography Citation
Sandell, Steven H. "Women and the Economics of Family Migration." Review of Economics and Statistics 59,4 (November 1977): 406-414.
11. Sandell, Steven H.
Johnson, Rex C.
Young Women and Higher Education
Presented: New York, NY, American Educational Research Association Meetings, 1977
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: American Educational Research Association
Keyword(s): College Enrollment; Family Income; Fathers, Influence; Siblings; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The decisions of young women to enter college, as well as their choice of college, seem to be consistent with the economic investment model. White women's desired, expected, and actual college attendance are related positively to their parents' educational attainment, family income, and their own mental ability, and related negatively to the number of siblings. Similar, but statistically weaker findings are obtained for black women, with the exception of the effect of number of siblings. A significant and positive relationship exists between young women's mental ability, family income and various measures of the quality of the college attended by white women.
Bibliography Citation
Sandell, Steven H. and Rex C. Johnson. "Young Women and Higher Education." Presented: New York, NY, American Educational Research Association Meetings, 1977.
12. Sandell, Steven H.
Koenig, Peter J.
Measurement Error and Its Consequences: The Case of Annual Hours of Work
Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1978.
Also: http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009631686
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Husbands; Marital Status; Research Methodology; Wives

The primary purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of different methodologies on labor supply measures plagued with errors. By using a better measure in the NLS, the frequently used estimate for annual hours with an average of 10 to 50 percent, was found to severely bias the coefficients in labor supply equations of young married men and women. In addition, biased estimates were also found when annual earnings divided by imputed wage and weeks worked was used to substitute labor supply measures. In essence, this paper demonstrates the necessity of weighting observations to avoid heteroscedasticity and sample selection bias.
Bibliography Citation
Sandell, Steven H. and Peter J. Koenig. "Measurement Error and Its Consequences: The Case of Annual Hours of Work." Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1978.
13. Sandell, Steven H.
Shapiro, David
An Exchange: Theory of Human Capital and the Earnings of Women: A Reexamination of the Evidence
Journal of Human Resources 13,1 (Winter 1978): 103-117.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/145304
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Discrimination, Sex; Earnings; Fertility; Human Capital Theory; Life Cycle Research; Simultaneity

This study examines both the empirical specification of human capital models of earnings in the presence of discontinuous work experience over the life cycle and simultaneous-equations models of wage determination and labor supply. Compared to the previous period, no evidence is found of greater investment in general training in the interval of labor force participation after the birth of the first child. The effect of depreciation of human capital on women's earnings appears to be approximately one-half of one percent per year out of the labor force. In addition, the contribution of differences in work experience between men and women in explaining wage differences by sex is about half of that indicated by Mincer and Polachek.
Bibliography Citation
Sandell, Steven H. and David Shapiro. "An Exchange: Theory of Human Capital and the Earnings of Women: A Reexamination of the Evidence." Journal of Human Resources 13,1 (Winter 1978): 103-117.
14. Sandell, Steven H.
Shapiro, David
The Theory of Human Capital and the Earnings of Women: A Re-examination of the Evidence
Report, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1976
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: Center for Human Resource Research
Keyword(s): Data Analysis; Earnings; Gender Differences; Human Capital; Wage Gap; Women

This paper discusses specification and interpretation of human capital models of women's earnings when data on actual work experience are available. It uses the segmented earnings function framework developed by Jacob Mincer and Solomon Polachek and considers the effects of data errors, issues involving data interpretation, consequences of model mis-specification, and the simultaneity problem. The paper also re-examines the male-female wage gap in light of our criticisms.
Bibliography Citation
Sandell, Steven H. and David Shapiro. "The Theory of Human Capital and the Earnings of Women: A Re-examination of the Evidence." Report, Center for Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, 1976.
15. Sandell, Steven H.
Shapiro, David
Women's Incorrect Expectations and Their Labor Market Consequences
Presented: Anaheim, CA, Western Economic Association Meeting, 1977
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Employment; Job Training; Life Cycle Research; Occupational Aspirations; Schooling; Wages; Work History

Analysis of the early labor force years in the lives of young women indicates that the women with stronger expected lifetime attachment to the labor force do indeed invest more heavily in on-the-job training. Data is presented showing that young women seemed to consistently underestimate their future labor market participation, and that this underestimation results in lower investments in on-the-job training and lower wages. However, more recent evidence from the NLS indicates these young women seem to be revising their labor market participation expectations upwards as time passes. In addition, the data show that the more recent labor market entrants have higher expectations of being in the labor force at age thirty-five than their slightly older counterparts.
Bibliography Citation
Sandell, Steven H. and David Shapiro. "Women's Incorrect Expectations and Their Labor Market Consequences." Presented: Anaheim, CA, Western Economic Association Meeting, 1977.
16. Sandell, Steven H.
Shapiro, David
Work Expectations, Human Capital Accumulation and the Wages of Young Women
Journal of Human Resources 15,3 (Summer 1980): 335-353.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/145287
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Human Capital Theory; Job Training; Occupational Aspirations; Public Sector; Schooling, Post-secondary; Training, Post-School; Unions; Wages, Young Women

This study analyzes young women's ex ante preferences for future labor force attachment by estimating their human capital accumulation and pay. The evidence supports the human capital hypothesis that receipt of on-the-job training is positively related to expectations of future labor force participation. The study also presents empirical estimates of the effects on wages of general and specific on-the-job training as well as maturation. Finally, the results show that postschool investments in training are a major determinant of wages and wage growth among young women. Note: An earlier version of this paper was prepared in April 1979 as a report from the Center For Human Resource Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.
Bibliography Citation
Sandell, Steven H. and David Shapiro. "Work Expectations, Human Capital Accumulation and the Wages of Young Women." Journal of Human Resources 15,3 (Summer 1980): 335-353.
17. Shapiro, David
Sandell, Steven H.
Age Discrimination and Labor Market Problems of Displaced Older Male Workers
Presented: Washington, DC, National Commission for Employment Policy Conference on Employment Policy and Older Americans, 1983
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: National Commission for Employment Policy
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Discrimination, Age; Displaced Workers; Layoffs; Mobility, Job; Retirement; Unemployment; Wages

Using data from the first twelve years of the NLS of Older Men (aged 45- 59 in l966), this paper focuses on the postdisplacement wages of older male workers who involuntarily lose their jobs. The wage change associated with displacement and subsequent employment is examined, after adjusting for the possibility of sample selection bias arising from early retirement on the part of some displaced workers. Preliminary findings indicate that: (1) Based on the pattern of earnings of displaced workers prior to job loss, there is no net relationship between age and wage changes among those under age 65. Workers over age 65 suffer wage penalties compared to other re- employed displaced workers. (2) Loss of firm-specific human capital accounts for a major portion of the observed average wage loss of 4 percent. Workers who change occupations and/or shift to part- time work following displacement experience significantly greater wage losses. (3) Workers who lost their jobs during the good economic times of the late l960s were able to maintain their average wage in subsequent employment, while those displaced during the l970s--a period of higher unemployment-- experienced an average wage loss of 6 percent.
Bibliography Citation
Shapiro, David and Steven H. Sandell. "Age Discrimination and Labor Market Problems of Displaced Older Male Workers." Presented: Washington, DC, National Commission for Employment Policy Conference on Employment Policy and Older Americans, 1983.
18. Shapiro, David
Sandell, Steven H.
Age Discrimination in Wages and Displaced Older Men
Southern Economic Journal 52,1 (July 1985): 90-102.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/pss/1058907
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Southern Economic Association
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Discrimination, Age; Displaced Workers; Job Search; Job Training; Wage Differentials; Wages, Men

This paper analyzes the age/wage relationship among male workers 45 years and older who were displaced and subsequently found new jobs between 1966 and 1978. The study is designed to increase our knowledge of age discrimination in the labor market. Our strategy is to examine the relationship between age and wages and possible age discrimination using a sample of older workers who are forced to look for new jobs, since older workers who do not change jobs may be protected from potential age discrimination by factors such as seniority provisions and across-the-board annual wage increases.[2] Using data from the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS) of Mature Men,[3] we control for factors determining wage rates at the pre-displacement jobs, and then use this analysis as a benchmark for purposes of evaluating the age/wage pattern on post-displacement jobs. In addition, we also consider the effects of national economic conditions on the loss in earnings due to displacement.
Bibliography Citation
Shapiro, David and Steven H. Sandell. "Age Discrimination in Wages and Displaced Older Men." Southern Economic Journal 52,1 (July 1985): 90-102.
19. Shapiro, David
Sandell, Steven H.
Effects of Economic Conditions on the Labor Market Status and Experience of Displaced Older Male Workers
Presented: New York, NY, Eastern Economic Association Meetings, 1984
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Eastern Economic Association
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Business Cycles; Displaced Workers; Labor Force Participation; Retirement; Unemployment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study, using data from the Older Men's cohort 1966-1978, provides quantitative evidence bearing on five questions related to the labor market status and experiences of displaced older male workers: (1) How do workers displaced during the relatively good times of the late 1960s differ from those displaced during the relative bad times of the 1970s? (2) What are the determinants of job displacement? (3) How do age and economic conditions influence the propensity of displaced older men to opt for early retirement? (4) How do age and economic conditions influence the duration of employment experienced by displaced older men? (5) How do economic conditions influence the post-displacement wage rates of displaced older men who find new jobs? Comparison of workers displaced during the 1970s with those displaced during the late 1960s reveals that as the economy worsened, the average schooling of those displaced rose, as did the fraction of displaced men who had previously been employed in manufacturing, wholesale trade, and retail trade. Average tenure on the previous job also increased as the economy deteriorated.
Bibliography Citation
Shapiro, David and Steven H. Sandell. "Effects of Economic Conditions on the Labor Market Status and Experience of Displaced Older Male Workers." Presented: New York, NY, Eastern Economic Association Meetings, 1984.