Search Results

Source: NLS Discussion Paper
Resulting in 28 citations.
1. Altonji, Joseph G.
Pierret, Charles R.
Employer Learning and Statistical Discrimination
NLS Discussion Paper No. 97-36, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington DC, November 1997.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl970020.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Discrimination, Employer; Education; Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Fathers, Influence; Labor Market Demographics; Racial Differences; Siblings; Wage Equations; Wage Growth; Work Experience

We provide a test for statistical discrimination or "rational" stereotyping in environments in which agents learn over time. Our application is to the labor market. If profit maximizing firms have limited information about the general productivity of new workers, they may choose to use easily observable characteristics such as years of education to "statistically discriminate" among workers. As firms acquire more information about a worker, pay will become more dependent on actual productivity and less dependent on easily observable characteristics or credentials that predict productivity. Consider a wage equation that contains both the interaction between experience and a hard to observe variable that is positively related to productivity and the interaction between experience and a variable that firms can easily observe, such as years of education. We show that the wage coefficient on the unobservable productivity variable should rise with time in the labor market and the wage coefficient on education should fall. We investigate this proposition using panel data on education, the AFQT test, father's education, and wages for young men and their siblings from NLSY. We also examine the empirical implications of statistical discrimination on the basis of race. Our results support the hypothesis of statistical discrimination, although they are inconsistent with the hypothesis that firms fully utilize the information in race. Our analysis has wide implications for the analysis of the determinants of wage growth and productivity and the analysis of statistical discrimination in the labor market and elsewhere.
Bibliography Citation
Altonji, Joseph G. and Charles R. Pierret. "Employer Learning and Statistical Discrimination." NLS Discussion Paper No. 97-36, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington DC, November 1997.
2. Altonji, Joseph G.
Pierret, Charles R.
Employer Learning and the Signaling Value of Education
NLS Discussion Paper No. 97-35, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington DC, November 1997.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl970030.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Job; Education; Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Wage Equations

If profit maximizing firms have limited information about the general productivity of new workers, they may choose to use easily observable characteristics such as years of education to "statistically discriminate" among workers. The pure credential value of education will depend on how quickly firms learn. To obtain information on employer learning, we work with a wage equation that contains both the interaction between experience and a hard to observe variable that is positively related to productivity and the interaction between experience and a variable that firms can easily observe, such as years of education. The time path of the coefficient on the unobservable productivity variable provides information about the rate at which employers learn about worker productivity. Using data from the NLSY we obtain preliminary estimates of the rate at which employers learn about worker quality and use these, along with some strong auxiliary assumptions, to explore the empirical relevance of the educational screening hypothesis. We show that even if employers learn relatively slowly about the productivity of new workers, the portion of the return to education that could reflect signaling of ability is limited.
Bibliography Citation
Altonji, Joseph G. and Charles R. Pierret. "Employer Learning and the Signaling Value of Education." NLS Discussion Paper No. 97-35, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington DC, November 1997.
3. Bradburn, Norman M.
Frankel, Martin R.
Baker, Reginald P.
Pergamit, Michael R.
A Comparison of Computer-Assisted Personal Interviews (CAPI) with Paper-and-Pencil Interviews (PAPI) in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
NLS Discussion Paper No. 92-2, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington DC, May 1991.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl910010.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI); Data Quality/Consistency; Interviewing Method

In discussions of mode effects, the survey methodology literature distinguishes three modes of data collection-face-to-face, telephone and self-administered. There is an extensive literature on possible effects of collecting data by each of these modes because they appear to differ in fundamental ways. What has been less noticed, however, is that there are variations within each of these methods regarding whether or not they are computer-assisted; that is, whether the questionnaire is represented in electronic or paper-and-pencil form. There is a paucity of literature on within-mode effects of using computers to assist in the data collection process. We examined the differences for 139 variables between CAPI and PAPI cases in an experiment where assignments had been made randomly to mode of administration. Except for effects on interviewer errors that were programmed into the CAPI itself, in all of these comparisons we found only 4 differences that looked as if they might even approach statistical significance. This number is within the number that one might expect by chance when making multiple comparisons. There are a few differences, however, that deserve further study before rejecting them.
Bibliography Citation
Bradburn, Norman M., Martin R. Frankel, Reginald P. Baker and Michael R. Pergamit. "A Comparison of Computer-Assisted Personal Interviews (CAPI) with Paper-and-Pencil Interviews (PAPI) in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." NLS Discussion Paper No. 92-2, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington DC, May 1991.
4. Bradburn, Norman M.
Frankel, Martin R.
Hunt, Edwin
Ingels, Julia
Schoua-Glusberg, A.
Wojcik, Mark S.
Pergamit, Michael R.
A Comparison of Computer-Assisted Personal Interviews (CAPI) With Personal Interviews in the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Behavior-Youth Cohort
NLS Discussion Paper No. 92-2, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington DC, May 1991.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl910010.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI); Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Interviewing Method

The purpose of this experiment was to assess the effect of conducting interviews in Round 12 of the NLSY by the Computer-Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) method as compared with the traditional paper-and-pencil personal interview method. The experiment was conducted on one-half of the total sample and excluded respondents who had to be interviewed outside the United States and/or in Spanish. Interviewers were assigned cases in the same geographical region and, where possible, were matched with respondents for ethnicity. Assignment to the proper experimental or control group was done through random assignment of interviewers. Thus the experiment reflects actual field practices. The paper will report on the operational problems in conducting the experiment.
Bibliography Citation
Bradburn, Norman M., Martin R. Frankel, Edwin Hunt, Julia Ingels, A. Schoua-Glusberg, Mark S. Wojcik and Michael R. Pergamit. "A Comparison of Computer-Assisted Personal Interviews (CAPI) With Personal Interviews in the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Behavior-Youth Cohort." NLS Discussion Paper No. 92-2, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington DC, May 1991.
5. Branden, Laura
Gritz, R. Mark
Pergamit, Michael R.
Effect of Interview Length on Attrition in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
NLS Discussion Paper No. 95-28, U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington DC, March 1995.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl950030.htm
Cohort(s): NLS General, NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Attrition; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Interviewing Method; Nonresponse; Sample Selection

In this paper, we examine the effect of interview length on wave nonresponse in a longitudinal survey, controlling for respondent-specific characteristics known to affect survey response. We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), a sample of over 10,000 individuals who were 14-22 years old when first interviewed in 1979. These individuals have been interviewed annually every year since then, providing 16 years of data. The interviews have been conducted in person in all years except one. Unlike the CPS or SIPP, the NLSY does not allow proxy responses. The NLSY attempts to interview virtually all living respondents each year. Over the years, the length of the interview has varied. It also varies substantially across individuals in the sample within years. A transition probability model is estimated using hazard equations. Holding constant personal, demographic, and environmental factors known to influence survey response as well as several measures of respondent attitude and cooperation, we find that longer interview length is associated with sample retention. Hypothesizing that interview length may proxy for some uncontrolled dimension of respondent cooperation, an alternative measure to interview length, namely the number of questions asked, was constructed. Reestimating the hazards with this variable generates similar findings. We conjecture that survey length, whether measured in minutes or number of questions asked, measures the saliency or applicability of the survey to the respondent. Those respondents who possess the characteristics most important to the content of the survey have the longest interviews but are also the most interested. The policy prescription we propose is to design survey instruments which include sets of questions applicable to all respondents, focusing less on the average length of the interview and more on the range of potential interview lengths.
Bibliography Citation
Branden, Laura, R. Mark Gritz and Michael R. Pergamit. "Effect of Interview Length on Attrition in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." NLS Discussion Paper No. 95-28, U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington DC, March 1995.
6. Bronars, Stephen G.
Moore, Carol S.
Incentive Pay, Information, and Earnings: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
NLS Discussion Paper No. 95-23, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, March 1995.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl950020.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Educational Attainment; Job Requirements; Layoffs; Modeling; Quits; Wage Growth

Incentive pay mechanisms, such as piece rates, bonuses, tips, profit sharing and commissions base an employee's pay on her individual productivity and not merely her time input. Incentive pay (IP) is expected to play an important role in mitigating the problems of incomplete and asymmetric information in internal labor markets. The key economic insight of this proposal is that jobs which offer IP have relatively lower costs of monitoring a worker's marginal revenue product or performance. Thus a comparison of IP and time-wage jobs can yield a number of empirical tests of information-based models of the labor market. In this proposal we outline empirical tests of information-based models of discrimination and wage-tenure profiles that rely on comparisons of the earnings and employment histories of workers in IP and time-wage jobs.
Bibliography Citation
Bronars, Stephen G. and Carol S. Moore. "Incentive Pay, Information, and Earnings: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." NLS Discussion Paper No. 95-23, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, March 1995.
7. Cameron, A. Colin
Gritz, R. Mark
MaCurdy, Thomas E.
The Effects of Unemployment Compensation on the Unemployment of Youths
NLS Discussion Paper No. 92-4, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1989.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl890010.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Earnings; Employment, Youth; Gender Differences; Job Patterns; Unemployment; Unemployment Insurance; Unemployment, Youth; Wages; Work History

This report examines the role of unemployment insurance (UI) policies on the amount of unemployment that youth experience between jobs. Specifically, the analysis focuses on determining how the weekly benefit amounts and the weeks of eligibility offered by UI programs influence three aspects of nonemployment activities: (1) total length of time spent in nonemployment; (2) fraction of this time reported as unemployment; and (3) likelihood that an individual collects UI during a nonemployment episode. Two intermediate goals of this research included: (1) the computation of a comprehensive summary of the weekly work and earnings experiences of youth; and (2) an assessment of the extent to which youth are eligible for UI and the degree to which they draw on UI entitlements. The aim was to identify two sets of patterns, those describing differences across demographic characteristics and those capturing changes over the period 1979-1984. Data from the NLSY are utilized in these analyses. The empirical results for men presented in this study indicate that an individual who collects UI typically experiences a longer spell of nonemployment, at least up to the exhaustion of UI benefits, and reports a larger fraction of this spell as unemployment than a nonrecipient. The results show slight increases in recipiency and in the fraction of a nonemployment spell listed as unemployment; however, this rise in weekly benefits has essentially no effect on either the length of nonemployment spells or on the number of weeks of unemployment, irrespective of whether one considers the population at large or only the population of UI recipients. Other findings are summarized for young men and are found to also apply for young women with only two exceptions. First, while female UI recipients experience moreunemployment than nonrecipients at least up to the point of benefit exhaustion, there is some ambiguity as to whether a similar relationship exists for women when comparing le ngths of nonemployment spells. Second, the weekly benefit amount is not a factor at all in influencing women's experiences. In contrast to men, changes in weekly benefits have no effect on the fraction of a nonemployment spell reported as unemployment, nor do they affect the likelihood that a woman collects UI benefits. In general, the findings of this report suggest that features of UI programs that change the size of weekly benefit amounts are not likely to affect unemployment, whereas features that alter the amount of weeks of eligibility are likely to shift unemployment for those individuals who experience the longer durations.
Bibliography Citation
Cameron, A. Colin, R. Mark Gritz and Thomas E. MaCurdy. "The Effects of Unemployment Compensation on the Unemployment of Youths." NLS Discussion Paper No. 92-4, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1989.
8. Dugoni, Bernard
Lee, Lisa
Tourangeau, Roger
Report on the NLSY Round 16 Recall Experiment
NLS Discussion Paper No. 97-34, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington DC, October 1997.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl970010.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Data Quality/Consistency; NLS Description; Sample Selection

This report describes the results of an experiment conducted as part of Round 16 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). The NLSY was originally fielded in 1979; the sample consists of persons who were 14 to 21 years old at that time. Through the first 15 rounds of data collection, interviews were conducted every year and the questions generally covered the period since the last interview. The questions concern a range of topics, including labor force and educational- experiences, health and disability, marital status, income, and program participation. With Round 17, the schedule of data collection changed. From that round on, interviews will be done every other year; this change will double the length of the period covered by many of the questions. The Round 16 experiment tested the effects of this change in the data collection schedule.
Bibliography Citation
Dugoni, Bernard, Lisa Lee and Roger Tourangeau. "Report on the NLSY Round 16 Recall Experiment." NLS Discussion Paper No. 97-34, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington DC, October 1997.
9. Dunn, Thomas Albert
Holtz-Eakin, Douglas
Capital Market Constraints, Parental Wealth and the Transition to Self-Employment Among Men and Women
NLS Discussion Paper No. 96-29, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, August 1995.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl950070.htm
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Human Capital; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Parental Influences; Self-Employed Workers; Wealth

The environment for business creation is central to economic policy as entrepreneurs are believed to be forces of innovation, employment and economic dynamism. We use data from the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS) to investigate the relative impacts of parental wealth and human capital on the probability that an individual will make the transition from a wage and salary job to self-employment, and to examine differences between men and women in the determinants of self-employment. We find that the financial assets of young men exert a statistically significant, but quantitatively modest effect on the probability of self-employment and the transition to self-employment. In contrast, financial assets are not a significant determinant of these activities for young women, casting doubt on the importance of capital market constraints for female entrepreneurs. For both males and females, parents exert a large influence. The channel for this effect runs not through financial means, but rather through intergenerational correlation in self-employment. Moreover, parents are not "created equal"; the influence across generations is stronger along gender lines.
Bibliography Citation
Dunn, Thomas Albert and Douglas Holtz-Eakin. "Capital Market Constraints, Parental Wealth and the Transition to Self-Employment Among Men and Women." NLS Discussion Paper No. 96-29, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, August 1995.
10. Farber, Henry S.
Evaluating Competing Theories of Interfirm Worker Mobility
NLS Discussion Paper No. 92-5, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1992.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl920020.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Heterogeneity; Job Search; Job Turnover; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Work Histories

The plan of this in-progress research which will utilize data from the NLSY is to develop and carry out an extensive set of tests of competing theories of mobility including theories of (1) the accumulation of firm-specific human capital, (2) individual heterogeneity in the propensity to change jobs, (3) job/match heterogeneity, and (4) the maturation of relatively mobile young workers into more stable workers. The tests will be based primarily on (1) the discrete pattern of prior mobility, (2) mobility during the first year on the job, (3) mobility subsequent to involuntary job changes, and (4) the relationship between the method of job finding (general search vs. referral) and mobility, both prior and subsequent.
Bibliography Citation
Farber, Henry S. "Evaluating Competing Theories of Interfirm Worker Mobility." NLS Discussion Paper No. 92-5, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1992.
11. Gritz, R. Mark
MaCurdy, Thomas E.
Participation in Low-Wage Labor Markets by Young Men
NLS Discussion Paper No. 93-16, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1992.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl920030.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Dual Economic Theory; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Labor Force Participation; Labor Supply; Life Cycle Research; Mobility; Work Histories

This in-progress research uses data from the NLSY to analyze the process of earnings mobility during the early stages of the life-cycle, with the main effort devoted to understanding the role that participation in low-wage labor markets plays in this process. This research will develop a comprehensive picture of where low-paying jobs fit into the career paths of individuals, including an assessment of both the short-term and the long-term consequences of involvement in low-wage employment on subsequent mobility. This picture will identify the characteristics of workers who participate in low-wage labor markets, the extent to which these workers remain in or return to such markets, and the routes of escape from low- paying jobs. This research has two major objectives. (1) The first task will be to formulate an integrated data set incorporating information on experiences in employment distinguished by level of pay, on schooling and training activities, and on periods of nonemployment. The NLSY offers an unparalleled source for constructing a data set of this type. Part of this task includes several analyses designed to check the reliability of our earnings and employment quantities. (2) The second task will be to develop an empirical model that will summarize youths' experiences in four distinct activities: high-earnings employment, low-earnings employment, educational pursuits, and nonemployment. The estimation of this model will provide a complete characterization not only of the average amounts of time that individuals spend in these activities during the initial years of their working lifetimes, but also of the likelihood that they will move between activities in a particular sequence and for specific durations. To present the implications of this model in a readily understandable format, this project will implement a simple simulation strategy that directly assesses the relationships linking the various categories of employment and time spent not working for different demographic groups.
Bibliography Citation
Gritz, R. Mark and Thomas E. MaCurdy. "Participation in Low-Wage Labor Markets by Young Men." NLS Discussion Paper No. 93-16, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1992.
12. Grogger, Jeffrey
Ronan, Nick
Intergenerational Effects of Fatherlessness on Educational Attainment and Entry-level Wages
NLS Discussion Paper No. 96-30, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1995.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl950080.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Children, Academic Development; Children, Well-Being; Divorce; Educational Attainment; Educational Costs; Family Characteristics; Family Structure; Fathers, Absence; Heterogeneity; Human Capital; Parents, Single; Siblings

Final Report to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, September 1, 1995. The objective of this study is to estimate the effects of fatherlessness on the children's educational attainment and entry-level wages. We consider an important methodological issue not addressed by previous researchers: unobserved heterogeneity across families. One can imagine that families vary greatly in a number of ways that are unobservable to the analyst. Moreover, many of these unobservable family characteristics are likely to be correlated both with the probability of divorce and with the well-being of the children. Thus a cross-sectional regression of children's educational attainment on a measure of their childhood family structure fails to identify the effects of living in a fatherless family, because the effects of fatherlessness are confounded with the effects of the family-specific unobservables. We would generally expect such unobserved heterogeneity to lead to exaggerated estimates of the true effects of fatherlessness. We adjust for family-specific unobservables by making within-family comparisons. Drawing on previous research, we specify a child's human capital to depend on the number of years she spends in a single-parent family. Because children enter and leave the family at different times, the duration of a spell of fatherlessness generally will vary among siblings. To eliminate the effects of family-specific unobservables, we difference the data within families, relating differences in human capital to differences in the duration of the fatherless spell. The approach we adopt instead is method-of-moments estimation. We implement this approach by using sibling comparisons to estimate the extent of the measurement error in our retrospective data. The data are taken from the NLSY.
Bibliography Citation
Grogger, Jeffrey and Nick Ronan. "Intergenerational Effects of Fatherlessness on Educational Attainment and Entry-level Wages." NLS Discussion Paper No. 96-30, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1995.
13. Gustman, Alan L.
Steinmeier, Thomas L.
Retirement in a Family Context: A Structural Model for Husbands and Wives
NLS Discussion Paper No. 94-17, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, January 1994.
Also: NBER Working Paper No. 4629, National Bureau of Economic Research, January 1994.
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Husbands; Modeling; Retirement; Wives

This paper specifies and estimates a structural model of the retirement decisions of husbands and wives. The feature of the data that is of central interest to us is the tendency of husbands and wives to retire together. An econometric approach is developed for estimating preferences of both spouses jointly and is implemented using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women (NLS), a survey that provides the most recent data available for a joint retirement study. Alternative specifications of joint decision making are tested, and the importance of various sources of interdependence in decision making are investigated. See also: http://nberws.nber.org/papers/W4629
Bibliography Citation
Gustman, Alan L. and Thomas L. Steinmeier. "Retirement in a Family Context: A Structural Model for Husbands and Wives." NLS Discussion Paper No. 94-17, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, January 1994.
14. Heckman, James J.
Cameron, Stephen V.
Schochet, Peter Zygmunt
Determinants and Consequences of Public Sector and Private Sector Training
NLS Discussion Paper No. 92-15, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1992.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl920040.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Earnings; Human Capital; Job Training; Job Turnover; Labor Force Participation; Labor Market Outcomes; Life Cycle Research; Private Sector; Public Sector; Training

This in-progress research will use data from the NLSY to estimate the determinants and consequences of participation in private and public training programs. Data from the NLSY contain unusually rich longitudinal information on training and labor market activities. For both national representative samples and subsamples of disadvantaged youth, this research will seek answers to the following questions: (1) What are the determinants of participation in private and public sector training programs? (2) What are the determinants of the amount of time spent in training? (3) What are the impacts of different types of training programs on earnings, wage rates, employment, unemployment, job turnover, and subsequent training? (4) To what extent are public and private training programs comparable in affecting wages, employment, job attachment, and unemployment? These issues will be addressed using explicit life cycle dynamic models to control for the bias that potentially plagues naive regression analysis. Selection bias may arise if persons are not randomly selected into training. Two strategies for addressing selection bias problems are proposed. The emphasis in this project will be on the estimation of robust empirical relationships. This project will provide new information on the labor market dynamics of youth and the role of training in generating those dynamics. The analysis will also shed light on the importance of training in accounting for life cycle wage growth and the empirical importance of training complementarity that is featured in the human capital literature. By estimating the importance of family background and resources as determinants of participation in training, and the substitutability of governmental and private training, it is hoped that more will be learned about the efficacy of alternative strategies for affecting labor market outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Heckman, James J., Stephen V. Cameron and Peter Zygmunt Schochet. "Determinants and Consequences of Public Sector and Private Sector Training." NLS Discussion Paper No. 92-15, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1992.
15. Klerman, Jacob Alex
Characterizing Leave for Maternity: Modeling the NLSY Data
NLS Discussion Paper No. 95-21, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, December 1993.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl930010.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Employment, Part-Time; Exits; Firm Size; Job Status; Job Tenure; Job Training; Labor Force Participation; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Modeling, Probit; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes; Quits

Major changes in women's labor force behavior over the last two decades imply that while time away from the work force after the birth of a child was once measured in years, it is now measured in weeks or even days. Concentrating on the weeks immediately following childbirth, this paper characterizes the labor force behavior of women immediately before and after the birth of a child. The timing of labor market exits (during pregnancy) and entrances (after childbirth) are estimated to the day, and reported to the week. Quits, exits to unpaid leave, and exist to paid leave are separately identified. The estimates reveal the most women who work before the birth of a child return to work relatively quickly after the birth of a child. The modal time to return occurs only about six weeks after childbirth. Those who work long into pregnancy return to work more quickly after childbirth. The empirical work uses the National Longitudinal Survey-Youth. The estimates are generating using a system of probit and hazard models. The system includes unobserved heterogeneity to capture the correlation between decisions. The econometric model is specified to correct for the focus of the NLSY protocol (in some years) on employment, so that it is not possible to distinguish paid from unpaid leave.
Bibliography Citation
Klerman, Jacob Alex. "Characterizing Leave for Maternity: Modeling the NLSY Data." NLS Discussion Paper No. 95-21, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, December 1993.
16. Klerman, Jacob Alex
Leibowitz, Arleen A.
Employment Continuity Among New Mothers
NLS Discussion Paper 95-22, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, March 1994.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl940020.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Childbearing; Employment, Part-Time; Fertility; Firm Size; Job Status; Job Tenure; Job Training; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Pregnancy and Pregnancy Outcomes

Recently both state and federal governments have enacted maternity leave legislation. The key provision of that legislation is that after a leave (of a limited duration), the recent mother is guaranteed the right to return to her pre-leave employer at the same or equivalent position. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this paper correlates work status after childbirth with work status before pregnancy. Almost all women (nearly 90 percent) who work full-time both before and after childbirth continue to work at the same employer. Thus maternity leave legislation is unlikely to have a major effect on employment continuity. However, compared to all demographically similar women, new mothers do have an excess probability of leaving their jobs. Finally, most maternity leave legislation limits its protections to full-time workers with sufficient job tenure sufficiently large firms. Using the NLSY, the paper estimates that the federal Family Leave Act covers only about a third of all working new mothers. The restriction to full-time workers is relatively unimportant because few part-time workers would satisfy the tenure and firm-size requirements.
Bibliography Citation
Klerman, Jacob Alex and Arleen A. Leibowitz. "Employment Continuity Among New Mothers." NLS Discussion Paper 95-22, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, March 1994.
17. Light, Audrey L.
High School Employment
NLS Discussion Paper No. 95-27, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington DC, June 1995.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl950060.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Employment, In-School; High School; Wages, Youth; Youth Services

This study addresses a question that, despite its apparent simplicity, has yet to be satisfactorily answered by social scientists: Does holding a job while enrolled in high school enhance, detract from, or have no effect on subsequent career outcomes? From a theoretical perspective, high school employment has an ambiguous effect on career outcomes. On one hand, it may give students a "leg up" in their subsequent careers by providing them with marketable skills, good work habits, and knowledge of the world of work. On the other hand, high school employment may indirectly hinder subsequent employment opportunities by preventing students from performing as well in high school as they otherwise would. In light of the widely documented difficulties faced by many youths in transiting from school to a permanent, productive position in the labor force, it is important to know which effect dominates. After all, public policy can readily be directed toward helping high school students gain employment (by providing job placement services, for example) or, as appropriate, toward discouraging such activities. The current study focuses exclusively on the relationship between high school employment and subsequent average hourly wages rather than considering a broad array of career outcomes. However, it contends with the complexity of this single relationship in ways that previous research does not.
Bibliography Citation
Light, Audrey L. "High School Employment." NLS Discussion Paper No. 95-27, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington DC, June 1995.
18. Light, Audrey L.
Transitions from School to Work: A Survey of Research Using the National Longitudinal Surveys
NLS Discussion Paper 94-18, Washington D.C., U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, April 1994.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl940030.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Job Search; Job Training; Mobility, Job; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Transfers, Skill; Transition, School to Work; Work History

The person who completes his or her desired level of schooling and immediately begins a career of continuous employment is not representative of the entire youth population. For many young people, the transition from school to work is far less ordered. This report surveys the literature that uses data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience (NLS) to analyze transitions from school to work. The survey is limited to the youth, young men, and young women cohorts. The following phenomena--work while in school, participation in job training, reenrollment in school, job search, and nonemployment--are given a considerable amount of attention in this literature. However, these phenomena are intrinsically related to such broader issues as skill acquisition (including the costs of and benefits to schooling), the determinants of earnings, and job mobility. As a result, the "school-to-work literature" encompasses all of these areas.
Bibliography Citation
Light, Audrey L. "Transitions from School to Work: A Survey of Research Using the National Longitudinal Surveys." NLS Discussion Paper 94-18, Washington D.C., U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, April 1994.
19. Light, Audrey L.
Ureta, Manuelita
Gender Differences in the Quit Behavior of Young Workers
NLS Discussion Paper No. 92-7, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1990.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl900020.htm
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Heterogeneity; Job Patterns; Job Turnover; Marital Status; Mobility, Job; Quits

Using data from the NLS of Young Men and Young Women, this report estimates discrete time proportional hazard models for various samples of young men and women in order to learn how they differ in their job turnover behavior. Four issues are examined: (1) Which gender undergoes the most turnover during the early career and what observable factors influence this turnover. (2) Do unobservable factors account for a significant amount of turnover. (3) Is the turnover behavior of men and women changing over time and do continuously employed workers exhibit a different pattern of turnover than workers who interrupt their careers. (4) Are voluntary job transitions caused by a different set of factors than other types of job separations. Findings include: (1) Of pre-, first-time-, or early-career starters during the year of the first interview (the "full sample"), women have a higher hazard rate than men. (2) Men and women respond very differently to family characteristics such as married, becoming married, and the birth of a child. (3) Both men and women appear to engage in job shopping and the hazards of both genders fall with increased experience. (4) For women, there are pronounced differences between an early birth cohort and a late birth cohort. (5) There are also important differences among successive labor market entry cohorts. (6) Among continuously employed workers, family characteristics are less important in explaining turnover. (7) Many variables that are important determinants of job separations do not explain voluntary and job-to-job transitions.
Bibliography Citation
Light, Audrey L. and Manuelita Ureta. "Gender Differences in the Quit Behavior of Young Workers." NLS Discussion Paper No. 92-7, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1990.
20. Lillard, Lee A.
Work Experience, Job Tenure, Job Separation, and Wage Growth
NLS Discussion Paper No. 92-12, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington DC, August 1991.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl910050.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Endogeneity; Human Capital; Job Search; Job Turnover; Wage Growth; Wages, Youth; Work Experience

This paper uses the precise dating of job changes and the panel data on wages within jobs in the NLSY to explore their implications for a number of leading theories of job change and wage growth, especially the relationships between general work experience, job tenure, job change and wages. Wages and job change are modeled jointly to incorporate the potential endogeneity of job tenure. The estimates indicate a significant effect of job tenure on wages and the hazard of job separation, as well as evidence of returns to job search, job turnover due to match quality, and job specific human capital investments.
Bibliography Citation
Lillard, Lee A. "Work Experience, Job Tenure, Job Separation, and Wage Growth." NLS Discussion Paper No. 92-12, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington DC, August 1991.
21. Loewenstein, Mark A.
Spletzer, James R.
Informal Training: A Review of Existing Data and Some New Evidence
NLS Discussion Paper 94-20, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, November 1994.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl940050.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Educational Returns; Human Capital; Human Capital Theory; NLS of H.S. Class of 1972; Training; Training, Off-the-Job; Training, On-the-Job; Wage Dynamics; Wage Theory

Although economists have recognized the importance of a worker's on-the-job human capital investments since the seminal papers by Becker (1962) and Mincer (1962), micro-datasets containing explicit measures of on-the-job training have started to become available only relatively recently. The existing data have been analyzed fairly thoroughly in a number of studies, and researchers agree that the human capital model's prediction that a worker's wage is positively related to past investments in his training is supported by the data. The NLSY is the major source of much of our current knowledge about formal training. However, the survey began asking questions about the harder to measure informal training only in 1993. The 1993 survey (along with the surveys to follow in the future) constitutes an important new source of information on informal training. The new NLSY training questions incorporate the detail of the EOPP employer survey (multiple sources of training such as classes or seminars, instruction from supervisors and/or co-workers, or self-study) within a survey of individuals. Used in conjunction with the wealth of information that the NLSY contains on individual demographic characteristics, employment history, schooling, and ability, the new informal training questions have the potential to significantly improve our knowledge about the acquisition and the returns to training
Bibliography Citation
Loewenstein, Mark A. and James R. Spletzer. "Informal Training: A Review of Existing Data and Some New Evidence." NLS Discussion Paper 94-20, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, November 1994.
22. Lynch, Lisa M.
The Impact of Private Sector Training on Race and Gender Wage Differentials and the Career Patterns of Young Workers
NLS Discussion Paper No. 92-8, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1991.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl910030.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Apprenticeships; Career Patterns; Educational Returns; Gender Differences; Job Training; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Project Talent; Racial Differences; Skill Formation; Training; Training, Off-the-Job; Training, On-the-Job

Although there has been increasing attention paid by policy makers and researchers to the topic of U.S. firms' skill formation or training strategies, relatively little is known about the nature of private sector training in the U.S. This in-progress research focuses on two issues that should help develop our understanding of firms' training policies in the U.S. and how such policies affect wages and career patterns of young workers. The two issues to be examined are: (1) race and gender differences in the acquisition of and returns to private sector training; and (2) the impact of private sector training on the job mobility and career paths of young workers. Using data from the NLSY, the analysis will utilize the detailed survey questions on "training from other sources" to examine the training/wage/career patterns of these young workers with special emphasis on race and gender differences. By distinguishing between on-the-job training, training acquired off-the-job, and apprenticeship, this research seeks to identify what proportion of the wage differential for males and females and whites and blacks is explained by differences in the probability of receiving different types of training and what proportion is due to different rates of return to training for these groups.
Bibliography Citation
Lynch, Lisa M. "The Impact of Private Sector Training on Race and Gender Wage Differentials and the Career Patterns of Young Workers." NLS Discussion Paper No. 92-8, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1991.
23. Parsons, Donald O.
The Evolving Structure of Female Work Activities: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, 1967-1989
NLS Discussion Paper No. 95-24, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, December 1994.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl940060.htm
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Labor Force Participation; Life Cycle Research; Part-Time Work; Training

The market work behavior of adult women in the United States has changed radically in the last several decades as a greater and greater share spend substantial time in the labor market. Despite this large time reallocation, comparatively little study has been devoted to the structure of the resulting work activities or to changes in that structure. In this study, data from the Mature Women's Cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey is used to characterize the life cycle evolution of work structure from an annual perspective. Work is partitioned into four categories based on two work dichotomies: full- or part-time weeks and full- or part-time hours per week. Three "part-time" work possibilities exist in this framework: i) part-time weeks and full-time hours per week, ii) full-time weeks and part-time hours per week, and iii) part-time weeks and hours per week. The analysis adopts a supply and demand framework. Employers have preferences for an employee's weeks per year and hours per week. Employer demands for weeks per year are likely to be influenced by seasonal and cyclical factors, while hours per week are likely to be affected by production and customer technologies. High training costs are likely to induce both greater weeks and greater hours per week. Similarly the worker is likely to have preferences over the total time she supplies to the firm and how these are divided into weeks and hours per week. For women with small children, the structure of the school year and of the school day are both likely to be important.
Bibliography Citation
Parsons, Donald O. "The Evolving Structure of Female Work Activities: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, 1967-1989." NLS Discussion Paper No. 95-24, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, December 1994.
24. Pergamit, Michael R.
Assessing School to Work Transitions in the United States
NLS Discussion Paper No. 96-32, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, June 1995.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl950050.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Data Quality/Consistency; Educational Status; Family Background; I.Q.; Schooling; Transition, School to Work

The transition from school to work is very smooth for some youth and less smooth for others. Many factors influence the transition such as the level of education, the quality of schooling, intelligence, opportunities, and family background. This paper addresses several measurement issues related to the assessment of the school-to-work transition. To illustrate these issues, several existing findings from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) are discussed. Each finding relates to alternative measures or methods employed to assess the school-to-work transition in the U. S. Conclusions are drawn regarding the data necessary to support the assessment of the school-to-work transition, including a new survey beginning in the United States which attempts to meet these requirements.
Bibliography Citation
Pergamit, Michael R. "Assessing School to Work Transitions in the United States." NLS Discussion Paper No. 96-32, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, June 1995.
25. Pergamit, Michael R.
How the Federal Government Uses Data from the National Longitudinal Surveys
NLS Discussion Paper No. 92-1, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1991.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl910040.htm
Cohort(s): NLS General
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Aptitude; Australia, Australian; Australian Longitudinal Survey (ALS); Cross-national Analysis; Hispanics; Longitudinal Surveys; Military Service; Minimum Wage; NLS Description; Sample Selection; Transition, School to Work

This paper gives some recent examples of uses of how the U.S. Government uses National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS) and is compared to the Australian Longitudinal Survey (ALS). These surveys were begun in the mid 1960's with the drawing of four samples: Young men who were 14-24 years old in 1966, young women who were 14-24 years old in 1968, older men who were 45-59 years old in 1966, and mature women who were 3044 years old in 1967. Each sample originally had about 5,000 individuals with oversamples of blacks. In the early 1980's, the young men and older men surveys were discontinued. The two women's surveys continue and are currently on a biannual interview cycle. In 1979, a new cohort was begun with a sample of over 12,000 young men and women who were 14-21 years old on January 1, 1979. It included oversamples of blacks, Hispanics, economically disadvantaged whites, and youth in the military. This survey, called the NLSY, has been carried out by conducting interviews every year since it began. After twelve waves of interviewing, the retention rate was 89.9 percent of the original sample. The NLSY was started in order to evaluate the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act. Over time the NLS developed into a more general purpose data set for the study of labor market behavior, and was transferred to Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) in October 1986. In the time the BLS has overseen the NLS program, a multi-dimensional approach toward regular use of the data has been developed. To illustrate governmental uses of the NLS data in the United States, this paper focuses primarily on uses of the NLSY because it is more similar to the Australian Longitudinal Survey (ALS), for which it served as a model. Six different areas of research to demonstrate use of the NLSY are discussed along with some of the findings. These areas are recent minimum wage legislation, wage paths of young people, the transition from school to work, work and the family, training, and the effects of military experience on post service success of low-aptitude recruits. Each of these areas is described in a separate section and discusses one or more studies.
Bibliography Citation
Pergamit, Michael R. "How the Federal Government Uses Data from the National Longitudinal Surveys." NLS Discussion Paper No. 92-1, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1991.
26. Ruhm, Christopher J.
High School Employment: Consumption or Investment
NLS Discussion Paper No. 94-19, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics,Washington DC, November 1994.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl940040.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Employment, In-School; Employment, Youth; High School; Racial Differences; Wage Gap; Work Experience

Early work experience could also speed the process by which youths obtain positions where there is a good match between job requirements and worker qualifications. It is important to better understand the effects of high school work experience. Rates of employment by in-school youths are at historically high levels. If this job-holding has the negative effects sometimes attributed to it and, in particular, if it reduces educational attainment and academic performance, the increased work propensities could explain a portion of the wage stagnation observed over the last two decades, especially among young workers without college educations. Conversely, if early labor market experience has favorable impacts on future economic outcomes, the relatively low employment rates of nonwhite youths could contribute to racial earnings gaps observed later in life.
Bibliography Citation
Ruhm, Christopher J. "High School Employment: Consumption or Investment." NLS Discussion Paper No. 94-19, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics,Washington DC, November 1994.
27. Slade, Eric Phillip
An Analysis of the Consequences of Employer Linked Health Insurance Coverage in the U. S.
NLS Discussion Paper No. 96-33, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, December 1995.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl950100.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Benefits, Insurance; Employment; Health Care; Mobility, Job; Modeling

This paper analyzes the arguments and evidence presented in existing job-lock studies, and offers new evidence regarding the effect of health insurance coverage on job mobility. It begins with a lengthy critique of existing studies. The second part of the paper presents a new model of job changes and health insurance coverage. The final section reports the results of an empirical analysis based on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY).
Bibliography Citation
Slade, Eric Phillip. "An Analysis of the Consequences of Employer Linked Health Insurance Coverage in the U. S." NLS Discussion Paper No. 96-33, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, December 1995.
28. Veum, Jonathan R.
Training, Wages, and the Human Capital Model
NLS Discussion Paper No. 96-31, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1995.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl950090.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Human Capital; Job Training; Training, Occupational; Training, On-the-Job; Wage Growth

While there are a number of theories as to why wages increase over an individual's work life, a commonly accepted interpretation is that upward sloping wage profiles reflect investments in human capital, particularly investments in job training. The traditional human capital model predicts that training lowers the starting wage and increases wage growth. This study uses recent data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to examine the predictions of the human capital model concerning the relationship between training and wages. In sum, the results, particularly the findings regarding training and the starting wage, do not support the conventional version of the human capital model and suggest that alternatives to the traditional model should be considered. The results from estimating starting wage regressions indicate that there is not a negative relationship between starting wages and current company training. If anything, starting wages and company training appear to be positively related. Also, the data indicate that off-site company paid training is portable across employers, or is general. Taken together, these results suggest that firms, rather than workers, pay for general training, which is inconsistent with the standard human capital model. The estimates from the wage growth regressions are more consistent with the human capital model. Training that is company financed has a positive impact on wage growth independent of tenure at the current job. Company training that takes place outside the work place is particularly effective in enhancing wages. This result is interesting given that this form of training appears to be the most general. Hence, while companies appear to finance training that provides skills which are useful both within and across firms, this training may differ from what is commonly considered as "on-the job" training.
Bibliography Citation
Veum, Jonathan R. "Training, Wages, and the Human Capital Model." NLS Discussion Paper No. 96-31, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1995.