Search Results

Author: Pergamit, Michael R.
Resulting in 24 citations.
1. Bradburn, Norman M.
Frankel, Martin R.
Baker, Reginald P.
Pergamit, Michael R.
A Comparison of Computer-Assisted Personal Interviews (CAPI) with Paper-and-Pencil Interviews (PAPI) in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
NLS Discussion Paper No. 92-2, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington DC, May 1991.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl910010.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI); Data Quality/Consistency; Interviewing Method

In discussions of mode effects, the survey methodology literature distinguishes three modes of data collection-face-to-face, telephone and self-administered. There is an extensive literature on possible effects of collecting data by each of these modes because they appear to differ in fundamental ways. What has been less noticed, however, is that there are variations within each of these methods regarding whether or not they are computer-assisted; that is, whether the questionnaire is represented in electronic or paper-and-pencil form. There is a paucity of literature on within-mode effects of using computers to assist in the data collection process. We examined the differences for 139 variables between CAPI and PAPI cases in an experiment where assignments had been made randomly to mode of administration. Except for effects on interviewer errors that were programmed into the CAPI itself, in all of these comparisons we found only 4 differences that looked as if they might even approach statistical significance. This number is within the number that one might expect by chance when making multiple comparisons. There are a few differences, however, that deserve further study before rejecting them.
Bibliography Citation
Bradburn, Norman M., Martin R. Frankel, Reginald P. Baker and Michael R. Pergamit. "A Comparison of Computer-Assisted Personal Interviews (CAPI) with Paper-and-Pencil Interviews (PAPI) in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." NLS Discussion Paper No. 92-2, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington DC, May 1991.
2. Bradburn, Norman M.
Frankel, Martin R.
Hunt, Edwin
Ingels, Julia
Schoua-Glusberg, A.
Wojcik, Mark S.
Pergamit, Michael R.
A Comparison of Computer-Assisted Personal Interviews (CAPI) With Personal Interviews in the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Behavior-Youth Cohort
NLS Discussion Paper No. 92-2, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington DC, May 1991.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl910010.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI); Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Interviewing Method

The purpose of this experiment was to assess the effect of conducting interviews in Round 12 of the NLSY by the Computer-Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) method as compared with the traditional paper-and-pencil personal interview method. The experiment was conducted on one-half of the total sample and excluded respondents who had to be interviewed outside the United States and/or in Spanish. Interviewers were assigned cases in the same geographical region and, where possible, were matched with respondents for ethnicity. Assignment to the proper experimental or control group was done through random assignment of interviewers. Thus the experiment reflects actual field practices. The paper will report on the operational problems in conducting the experiment.
Bibliography Citation
Bradburn, Norman M., Martin R. Frankel, Edwin Hunt, Julia Ingels, A. Schoua-Glusberg, Mark S. Wojcik and Michael R. Pergamit. "A Comparison of Computer-Assisted Personal Interviews (CAPI) With Personal Interviews in the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Behavior-Youth Cohort." NLS Discussion Paper No. 92-2, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington DC, May 1991.
3. Bradburn, Norman M.
Wojcik, Mark S.
Schoua-Glusberg, A.
Pergamit, Michael R.
Frankel, Martin R.
Ingels, Julia
Hunt, Edwin
Baker, Reginald P.
Two Papers on the Use of Computer-Assisted Personal Interviews in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
NLS Discussion Paper No. 92-2, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington DC, May 1991
Cohort(s): NLS General
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Behavior; Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI); Data Quality/Consistency; Interviewing Method

In discussions of mode effects, the survey methodology literature distinguishes three modes of data collection--face-to-face, telephone and self-administered. There is an extensive literature on possible effects of collecting data by each of these modes because they appear to differ in fundamental ways. What has been less noticed, however, is that there are variations within each of these methods regarding whether or not they are computer-assisted; that is, whether the questionnaire is represented in electronic or paper-and-pencil form. There is a paucity of literature on within-mode effects of using computers to assist in the data collection process. [?] In discussing mode effects, we can distinguish among three types of effects--those that change the interviewer's behavior, those that change the respondent's behavior, and those that change in the interaction between the interviewer and the respondent. The most obvious effects of CAPI are those that change the interviewer's behavior because it is the interviewer that is most affected by a change from PAPI to CAPI. Indeed, it is not immediately obvious that there should be any effect on respondents' behavior because, from their point of view, they are getting the same questionnaire as they would if the interviewer were working with a paper-and-pencil representation. The use of a computer for recording answers, however, may change the way respondents view the task and thus have an impact on their behavior. Finally, reading questions off a computer screen and typing in responses may change the quality of the interaction between interviewer and respondent, for example by reduced eye contact or an increased formality in which the computer becomes a third party to the interview.
Bibliography Citation
Bradburn, Norman M., Mark S. Wojcik, A. Schoua-Glusberg, Michael R. Pergamit, Martin R. Frankel, Julia Ingels, Edwin Hunt and Reginald P. Baker. "Two Papers on the Use of Computer-Assisted Personal Interviews in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." NLS Discussion Paper No. 92-2, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington DC, May 1991.
4. Branden, Laura
Gritz, R. Mark
Pergamit, Michael R.
Effect of Interview Length on Attrition in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
NLS Discussion Paper No. 95-28, U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington DC, March 1995.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl950030.htm
Cohort(s): NLS General, NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Attrition; Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Interviewing Method; Nonresponse; Sample Selection

In this paper, we examine the effect of interview length on wave nonresponse in a longitudinal survey, controlling for respondent-specific characteristics known to affect survey response. We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), a sample of over 10,000 individuals who were 14-22 years old when first interviewed in 1979. These individuals have been interviewed annually every year since then, providing 16 years of data. The interviews have been conducted in person in all years except one. Unlike the CPS or SIPP, the NLSY does not allow proxy responses. The NLSY attempts to interview virtually all living respondents each year. Over the years, the length of the interview has varied. It also varies substantially across individuals in the sample within years. A transition probability model is estimated using hazard equations. Holding constant personal, demographic, and environmental factors known to influence survey response as well as several measures of respondent attitude and cooperation, we find that longer interview length is associated with sample retention. Hypothesizing that interview length may proxy for some uncontrolled dimension of respondent cooperation, an alternative measure to interview length, namely the number of questions asked, was constructed. Reestimating the hazards with this variable generates similar findings. We conjecture that survey length, whether measured in minutes or number of questions asked, measures the saliency or applicability of the survey to the respondent. Those respondents who possess the characteristics most important to the content of the survey have the longest interviews but are also the most interested. The policy prescription we propose is to design survey instruments which include sets of questions applicable to all respondents, focusing less on the average length of the interview and more on the range of potential interview lengths.
Bibliography Citation
Branden, Laura, R. Mark Gritz and Michael R. Pergamit. "Effect of Interview Length on Attrition in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." NLS Discussion Paper No. 95-28, U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington DC, March 1995.
5. Branden, Laura
Pergamit, Michael R.
Response Error in Reporting Starting Wages
Presented: Danvers, MA, American Association of Public Opinion Research Annual Conference, May 1994
Cohort(s): NLS General, NLSY79
Publisher: American Association of Public Opinion Research
Keyword(s): Data Quality/Consistency; Human Capital; Job Tenure; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Wage Determination; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Human capital models in labor economics emphasize, among other things, the returns to tenure on a job. While longitudinal data improve these measures compared with cross-sectional data, complete wage profiles for an individual in any household data set do not exist. Generally, the available data consist of a series of contemporaneous wage observations gathered at infrequent intervals, usually once each year. This is the standard in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and in the various National Longitudinal Surveys, the primary longitudinal data sets in labor economics. Since it is unlikely that we observe a person exactly when they begin their job, we must retrospectively ask their starting wage. Retrospective questions tax people's memories in different ways depending on the nature of the information to be retrieved, how it is stored in memory, the length of recall required, the saliency of the event, etc. Starting wages are expected to be perhaps the most easily recalled wages other than the current wage because the starting wage is connected with a specific event, i.e. beginning work for a given employer. Therefore, an investigation of individuals' reports of starting wages are probably the most accurate of any wage reports other than their current wage. In this paper, we use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), taking advantage of a skip pattern error which resulted in re-asking most of the sample about the starting wage for their employer at two consecutive interviews. Because we never know the true starting wage, this paper examines the consistency in response between the two answers given at two different interviews, roughly one year apart.
Bibliography Citation
Branden, Laura and Michael R. Pergamit. "Response Error in Reporting Starting Wages." Presented: Danvers, MA, American Association of Public Opinion Research Annual Conference, May 1994.
6. Ernst, Michelle
Pergamit, Michael R.
Data Quality and the Use of Standardized Child Assessments in Survey Research
Presented: Miami Beach, FL, Annual Meeting of the American Association For Public Opinion Association, May 2005.
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Association of Public Opinion Research
Keyword(s): Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); Testing Conditions; Tests and Testing

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Beginning with the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth/1979 cohort (CNLSY79) in 1986, large-scale surveys began to incorporate standardized assessments. Formerly used only in clinical settings or schools, these assessments are now administered in a household setting by lay field interviewers. The administration of standardized assessments to children by lay field interviewers raises data quality concerns. Standardized child assessments have rigid administration protocols. Deviation from procedure can greatly affect a child's response. Furthermore, administrative complexity varies across assessments. While some assessments consist of a very simple and straight-forward administrative protocol, other assessments rely much more on the skills of the individual conducting the administration. It is hypothesized that an administratively complex assessment with strong published psychometric properties may not maintain those properties when administered by interviewers in large-scale studies. This paper proposes examining the published psychometrics for three assessments (the Woodcock-Johnson, the PPVT, and the PIAT) and comparing the published psychometrics with its reliability and validity within single, longitudinal studies (the NLSY79 and the PSID). By using multiple years of assessment data from the Children of the NLSY79 (PPVT/PIAT) and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics Child Supplement (Woodcock-Johnson), we have access to a large number of assessments conducted by a large number of interviewers. We can compare distributions between interviewers as well as looking at the same interviewer over time. These two data sets provide a rich source of data on assessments that allows us to examine many differences in administration. It will also be possible to examine how the psychometric properties of different assessments stand up in a large-scale survey as a function of the complexity of the assessment. If interviewer variability is greater in administrations of the complex tests, this argues for greater consideration of administrative procedures when choosing assessments for large-scale survey research.
Bibliography Citation
Ernst, Michelle and Michael R. Pergamit. "Data Quality and the Use of Standardized Child Assessments in Survey Research." Presented: Miami Beach, FL, Annual Meeting of the American Association For Public Opinion Association, May 2005.
7. Gleason, Philip M.
Veum, Jonathan R.
Pergamit, Michael R.
Drug and Alcohol Use at Work: A Survey of Young Workers
Monthly Labor Review 114,8 (August 1991): 3-7.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1991/08/art1abs.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Drug Use; Gender Differences; Industrial Sector; Occupations; Racial Differences

This article uses data from the 1984 NLSY to examine the incidence of drug use on the job among young workers in the United States. It is found that drug use is higher among men than women, among whites than minorities, and among workers aged 19 to 23 than those aged 24 to 27. Blue-collar workers have higher rates of drug use than white-collar workers. Also, drug use is most common among young workers in entertainment/recreation and construction industries, and least common among those in professional services and public administration industries.
Bibliography Citation
Gleason, Philip M., Jonathan R. Veum and Michael R. Pergamit. "Drug and Alcohol Use at Work: A Survey of Young Workers." Monthly Labor Review 114,8 (August 1991): 3-7.
8. Huang, Lynn
Pergamit, Michael R.
Shkolnik, Jamie
Youth Initiation into the Labor Market
Monthly Labor Review 124,8 (August 2001): 18-24.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2001/08/art3abs.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Absenteeism; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Drug Use; Employment, In-School; Employment, Youth; Labor Supply; Parents, Single; Part-Time Work; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Risk-Taking; School Performance; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Substance Use; Time Use; Work Hours

This article examines exclusively 12- and 13-year-olds, focusing on who holds jobs and the nature of those jobs. It asks whether early initiation into the labor market is associated with youths from upper income or more educated families, or if it occurs among youths who will not pursue advanced schooling; and does this work supplement household income in lower-income, single-parent families. It uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. The authors summarize that youths from families of higher socioeconomic status, with better school performance (as evidenced by Peabody Individual Achievement Test-Math scores), and who engage in positive time-use activities such as reading and homework are more likely to be employed. At the same time, youths who engage in risky behaviors or who have been suspended from school also have increased likelihood of early employment.
Bibliography Citation
Huang, Lynn, Michael R. Pergamit and Jamie Shkolnik. "Youth Initiation into the Labor Market." Monthly Labor Review 124,8 (August 2001): 18-24.
9. Kuehn, Daniel
Pergamit, Michael R.
Vericker, Tracy
Vulnerability, Risk, and the Transition to Adulthood
Low-Income Working Families Paper 18. Washington DC: The Urban Institute, August 2011.
Also: http://www.urban.org/publications/412395.html
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Disconnected Youth; Family Income; Health, Mental; High School Dropouts; Immigrants; Neighborhood Effects; Parents, Single; Poverty; Risk-Taking; Schooling, Post-secondary; Socioeconomic Background; Transition, Adulthood

Growing up poor strongly predicts poverty and poor adult outcomes. This study explores two primary reasons poverty may persist across generations: risk behavior in adolescence and dropping out of high school. Results suggest that risk behavior and dropping out help perpetuate poor economic outcomes for children from single-parent families but are less important for children who grow up in low-income families. The findings suggest that policies directed at reducing youth risk behavior and dropping out can improve economic outcomes when targeted to youth from single-parent households.
Bibliography Citation
Kuehn, Daniel, Michael R. Pergamit and Tracy Vericker. "Vulnerability, Risk, and the Transition to Adulthood." Low-Income Working Families Paper 18. Washington DC: The Urban Institute, August 2011.
10. Macomber, Jennifer Ehrle
Pergamit, Michael R.
Vericker, Tracy
Kuehn, Daniel
McDaniel, Marla
Zielewski, Erica H.
Kent, Adam
Johnson, Heidi
Vulnerable Youth and the Transition to Adulthood
Urban Institute Series, August 19, 2009. http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/09/vulnerableyouth/index.shtml
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; CESD (Depression Scale); Depression (see also CESD); Disconnected Youth; Ethnic Studies; Family Income; Gender Differences; Health, Mental; Immigrants; Neighborhood Effects; Poverty; Risk-Taking; Schooling, Post-secondary; Socioeconomic Background; Transition, Adulthood; Transition, School to Work

Background

This project examined the role of different aspects of youth vulnerability and risk-taking behaviors on several outcomes for young adults. The data come from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 cohort (NLSY97). The NLSY97, funded by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, follows a sample of adolescents in 1997 into young adulthood with annual interviews that capture their education, employment, family formation, and other behaviors. The analyses in this series use the subset of youth born in 1980-81, who were 15-17 years old when first interviewed in 1997. Outcomes are obtained by using the annual data through 2005 when these young adults were 23-25 years old.

Major findings from this project include:

Connectedness Trajectories of Youth: Trajectory analyses reveal that youth follow one of four patterns in connecting to the labor market and school between the ages of 18 and 24: consistently-connected, later-connected, initially-connected, or never-connected. The study also describes the factors associated with membership in each group, such as participation in adolescent risk behaviors.

Employment and Education Outcomes for Second Generation Latino Youth: Analyses suggest that second generation Latinos make a fairly smooth transition to young adulthood and, after controlling for other factors, make a better transition than white, black, and third generation Latino youth. At the same time, they are less likely to engage in post-secondary schooling than whites in young adulthood, which may contribute to a potential gap in future earnings.

Young Adult Outcomes for Vulnerable Youth: For three groups of potentially vulnerable youth (youth from low-income families, youth from distressed neighborhoods, and youth with poor mental health) findings suggest vulnerable youth have relatively high levels of participation in risky behaviors as adolescents and relatively lower earnings and connectedness to the labor market and school in early adulthood. The study also considers differences in behaviors and outcomes between young men and young women as they transition to adulthood, and findings suggest that differences between young men and young women are related to the fact that some women are caring for children.

Publications

Multiple Pathways Connecting to School and Work, Research Brief

Second-Generation Latinos, Connecting to School and Work, Research Brief

Youth from Low-Income Families, Fact Sheet

Youth from Distressed Neighborhoods, Fact Sheet

Youth with Depression/Anxiety, Fact Sheet

Young Men and Young Women, Fact Sheet

Bibliography Citation
Macomber, Jennifer Ehrle, Michael R. Pergamit, Tracy Vericker, Daniel Kuehn, Marla McDaniel, Erica H. Zielewski, Adam Kent and Heidi Johnson. "Vulnerable Youth and the Transition to Adulthood." Urban Institute Series, August 19, 2009. http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/09/vulnerableyouth/index.shtml.
11. Manser, Marilyn E.
Pergamit, Michael R.
Peterson, Wanda B.
National Longitudinal Surveys: Development and Uses
Monthly Labor Review 113,7 (July 1990): 32-37.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1990/07/contents.htm
Cohort(s): NLS General
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Labor Market Surveys; Longitudinal Data Sets; Longitudinal Surveys; Mobility; NLS Description; Transition, School to Work; Well-Being

This paper summarizes NLS data used by economists, sociologists, and other researchers to examine such policy issues as employment and earnings; educational experience, achievement, and the transition from school to work; training programs; geographic mobility; relationships between the workplace and the well-being of the family; attitudes toward the military; and the retirement behavior of older workers. [ERIC EJ-412643]
Bibliography Citation
Manser, Marilyn E., Michael R. Pergamit and Wanda B. Peterson. "National Longitudinal Surveys: Development and Uses." Monthly Labor Review 113,7 (July 1990): 32-37.
12. Michael, Robert T.
Pergamit, Michael R.
The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort
Journal of Human Resources 36,4 (Autumn 2001): 628-640.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3069636
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): Children; Economics, Demographic; Labor Market Surveys; Longitudinal Data Sets; Longitudinal Surveys; Sample Selection

This essay describes the new National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort (NLSY97) that is the data set used in the articles in this volume. It briefly describes the background for the survey, its sponsorship by the U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics, its fielding, and the nature of the substantive content of the first-year questionnaire. The paper notes major differences between this new survey and the earlier data sets in the National Longitudinal Survey Program.
Bibliography Citation
Michael, Robert T. and Michael R. Pergamit. "The National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort." Journal of Human Resources 36,4 (Autumn 2001): 628-640.
13. Pergamit, Michael R.
Assessing School to Work Transitions in the United States
NLS Discussion Paper No. 96-32, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, June 1995.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl950050.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Data Quality/Consistency; Educational Status; Family Background and Culture; I.Q.; Schooling; Transition, School to Work

The transition from school to work is very smooth for some youth and less smooth for others. Many factors influence the transition such as the level of education, the quality of schooling, intelligence, opportunities, and family background. This paper addresses several measurement issues related to the assessment of the school-to-work transition. To illustrate these issues, several existing findings from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) are discussed. Each finding relates to alternative measures or methods employed to assess the school-to-work transition in the U. S. Conclusions are drawn regarding the data necessary to support the assessment of the school-to-work transition, including a new survey beginning in the United States which attempts to meet these requirements.
Bibliography Citation
Pergamit, Michael R. "Assessing School to Work Transitions in the United States." NLS Discussion Paper No. 96-32, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, June 1995.
14. Pergamit, Michael R.
How the Federal Government Uses Data from the National Longitudinal Surveys
NLS Discussion Paper No. 92-1, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1991.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl910040.htm
Cohort(s): NLS General
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Aptitude; Australia, Australian; Australian Longitudinal Survey (ALS); Cross-national Analysis; Hispanics; Longitudinal Surveys; Military Service; Minimum Wage; NLS Description; Sample Selection; Transition, School to Work

This paper gives some recent examples of uses of how the U.S. Government uses National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS) and is compared to the Australian Longitudinal Survey (ALS). These surveys were begun in the mid 1960's with the drawing of four samples: Young men who were 14-24 years old in 1966, young women who were 14-24 years old in 1968, older men who were 45-59 years old in 1966, and mature women who were 3044 years old in 1967. Each sample originally had about 5,000 individuals with oversamples of blacks. In the early 1980's, the young men and older men surveys were discontinued. The two women's surveys continue and are currently on a biannual interview cycle. In 1979, a new cohort was begun with a sample of over 12,000 young men and women who were 14-21 years old on January 1, 1979. It included oversamples of blacks, Hispanics, economically disadvantaged whites, and youth in the military. This survey, called the NLSY, has been carried out by conducting interviews every year since it began. After twelve waves of interviewing, the retention rate was 89.9 percent of the original sample. The NLSY was started in order to evaluate the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act. Over time the NLS developed into a more general purpose data set for the study of labor market behavior, and was transferred to Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) in October 1986. In the time the BLS has overseen the NLS program, a multi-dimensional approach toward regular use of the data has been developed. To illustrate governmental uses of the NLS data in the United States, this paper focuses primarily on uses of the NLSY because it is more similar to the Australian Longitudinal Survey (ALS), for which it served as a model. Six different areas of research to demonstrate use of the NLSY are discussed along with some of the findings. These areas are recent minimum wage legislation, wage paths of young people, the transition from school to work, work and the family, training, and the effects of military experience on post service success of low-aptitude recruits. Each of these areas is described in a separate section and discusses one or more studies.
Bibliography Citation
Pergamit, Michael R. "How the Federal Government Uses Data from the National Longitudinal Surveys." NLS Discussion Paper No. 92-1, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1991.
15. Pergamit, Michael R.
On the (Lifetime) Prevalence of Running Away from Home
Report, Washington, DC: Urban Institute, April 2010.
Also: http://www.urban.org/uploadedpdf/412087-running-away-from-home.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Delinquency/Gang Activity; Runaways

This paper follows a nationally representative sample of 12-year olds through their 18th birthday to estimate the percentage of youth who ever run away from home, the number of times they ran away, and the age at which they first run away. Gender and race-ethnicity differences are estimated. These estimates, not found elsewhere, have implications for serving the runaway and homeless youth population.

Excerpt
Running away from home puts youth at risk of violence, crime, drugs, prostitution, HIV and other STDs, and other health problems. Youth who have run away from their home demonstrate high rates of delinquent and problem behaviors, including substance abuse (Johnson, Whitbeck, and Hoyt 2005), truancy (De Man 2000), gang involvement (Yoder, Whitbeck, and Hoyt 2003), criminal activity (Hammer, Finkelhor, and Sedlack 2002), and juvenile arrest (Kaufman and Widom 1999). Runaway youth are not only likely to perpetrate crimes and engage in delinquent behaviors, they are also likely to have been victimized at home (Tyler, Cauce, and Whitbeck 2004; Thompson, Zittel-Palamara, and Maccio 2004; Kurtz and Kurtz 1991) and to experience additional victimization once they leave home.

Estimates of the runaway population are difficult to obtain and the exact number of runaway youth is not really known (Greene, et al. 2003). Several studies have attempted to estimate the number or percentage of youth who have run away from home in the previous year, with estimates ranging widely from 1.6 million to 2.8 million.

Another important measure of runaway behavior is lifetime prevalence, that is, the percentage of youth who ever run away from home. Identifying lifetime prevalence is important for understanding the causes and consequences of running away, yet little is known about lifetime runaway prevalence. The most often cited study by Nye and Edelbrock (1980) estimated that one in eight youth runs away before the age of 18, but that study infers est imates from a cross-sectional survey intended to generate a one-year incidence measure using data collected in 1976.

One confounding problem in understanding the size of the runaway population is that runaway experiences among youth tend to be episodic rather than chronic (Robertson 1991). Since most studies focus on a one-year reference period, little is known about to what extent youth have multiple runaway episodes. Multiple episodes may distort the estimates of lifetime prevalence that are based on a single cross-section survey. Furthermore, studies focused on one year do not capture the age at which youth first ran away, an important factor in understanding the phenomenon.

In this paper, we exploit a useful data set, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 cohort (NLSY97), to develop three measures not generally found in the literature. First, we estimate the percentage of youth who run away from home before the age of 18, that is, "lifetime" prevalence. Second, we estimate the distribution of the number of times youth run away before age 18, and finally, we estimate the age at which these youth first run away.

In the next section, we review the various estimates of runaway incidence. After describing the NLSY97 data set, we present estimates of the percentage of youth who have ever run away, the number of times they've run away, and the age at which they first ran away. We then conclude with a discussion of how these estimates help inform about runaway behavior.

Bibliography Citation
Pergamit, Michael R. "On the (Lifetime) Prevalence of Running Away from Home." Report, Washington, DC: Urban Institute, April 2010.
16. Pergamit, Michael R.
Some Recent Governmental Uses of the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS) in the USA
In: Youth in the Eighties: Papers from the Australian Longitudinal Survey Research Project. R.G. Gregory and T. Karmel, eds. Canberra, Australia: Department of Employment, Education and Training & Centre for Economic Policy Research, Australian National University, 1992.
Cohort(s): NLS General
Publisher: Centre for Economic Policy Research, ANU
Keyword(s): Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA); Demography; Hispanics; NLS Description

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The purpose of this paper is to give some recent examples of uses of the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS) by the United States government. The National Longitudinal Surveys were begun in the mid 1960s with the drawing of four samples: Young Men who were 14-24 years old in 1966, Young Women who were 14-24 years old in 1968, Older Men who were 4559 years old in 1966, and Mature Women who were 30-44 years old in 1967. Each sample originally had about 5000 individuals with oversamples of blacks. In the early 1980s, the Young Men and Older Men surveys were discontinued. The two women's surveys continue and are currently on a biannual interview cycle. The interviews and retention rates for each of these original cohorts are found in Table 1. In 1979, a new cohort was begun with a sample of over 12 000 young men and women who were 14-21 years of age on 1 January 1979. It included oversamples of blacks, Hispanics, economically disadvantaged whites, and youth in the military. This survey whi ch we call the Youth Cohort, or NLSY, has been interviewed every year since it began. After eleven waves of interviewing, we had a retention rate of 91.4 per cent of the original sample, probably the highest retention rate of any longitudinal survey after such a long time. We are now completing our twelfth wave of interviewing and as of 24 November 1990, we have completed interviews with 88.1 per cent of the original sample with about two weeks remaining in the field period. Retention rates by year for the NLSY are found in Table 2. The NLS program was originally begun by the Office of Manpower Policy, Evaluation, and Research of the United States Department of Labor. This agency was combined with others to form the Employment and Training Administration where the NLS was administered through 1986. The NLSY, in particular, was begun in order to evaluate the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act. Over time the NLS developed into a more general purpose data set for the study of labor market behavior. It was determined that it fit better into the mission of the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) and was transferred to BLS in October 1986. In the four years BLS has overseen the NLS program, we have been developing a multi-dimensional approach toward regular usage of the data.
Bibliography Citation
Pergamit, Michael R. "Some Recent Governmental Uses of the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS) in the USA" In: Youth in the Eighties: Papers from the Australian Longitudinal Survey Research Project. R.G. Gregory and T. Karmel, eds. Canberra, Australia: Department of Employment, Education and Training & Centre for Economic Policy Research, Australian National University, 1992.
17. Pergamit, Michael R.
The National Longitudinal Surveys
Journal of Economic Perspectives 15,2 (Spring 2001): 239-253.
Also: http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/jep.15.2.239
Cohort(s): NLS General
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Child Care; Demography; Economics, Demographic; Education; Employment, Youth; Family Planning; Family Studies; Fertility; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Methods/Methodology; Sample Selection; Training; Well-Being

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article describes the design features and topical coverage of the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS). The NLS are perhaps the oldest and most widely used panel surveys of individuals in the United States. These surveys were started in the mid-1960s to exam employment issues faced by different cohorts of the U.S. population. Since then, the NLS surveys have expanded to include two new cohorts of youth. Survey topic areas include employment, education, training, family relationships, financial well-being, and health. Information on data access is also provided.
Bibliography Citation
Pergamit, Michael R. "The National Longitudinal Surveys." Journal of Economic Perspectives 15,2 (Spring 2001): 239-253.
18. Pergamit, Michael R.
Who Runs Away from Home?: An Exploratory Analysis
Presented: Washington, DC, Bureau of Labor Statistics Conference Center, NLSY97 Tenth Anniversary Conference, May 29-30, 2008.
Also: http://harrisschool.uchicago.edu/Research/conferences/NLSYConf/pdf/pergamit.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Runaways; Variables, Independent - Covariate

This paper represents exploratory analysis of the correlates of running away, the number of times a youth runs away, and the age at which a youth first runs away. At this point, we deal with running away as a static outcome, occurring any time before age 18. In the future, we plan to expand to a dynamic model where the decision to run away is made each year and independent variables can take on different values over time.
Bibliography Citation
Pergamit, Michael R. "Who Runs Away from Home?: An Exploratory Analysis." Presented: Washington, DC, Bureau of Labor Statistics Conference Center, NLSY97 Tenth Anniversary Conference, May 29-30, 2008.
19. Pergamit, Michael R.
Huang, Lynn
Lane, Julia
The Long Term Impact of Adolescent Risky Behaviors and Family Environment
U.S. Report, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, Department of Health and Human Services, August 2001.
Also: http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/riskybehav01
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Alcohol Use; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Drug Use; Family Influences; Risk-Taking; Sexual Activity

Due to bad data, insufficient attention has been paid to the relationship between early life behaviors, the context in which they occur, and outcomes in later adulthood. This report seeks to establish whether there is a relationship between engaging in risky behaviors as an adolescent and negative consequences later in life. It explores adulthood along several domains: health, economic success, family formation, and incarceration. It also seeks to examine the relationship between family environmental factors and these adult outcomes in the presence of risk taking behavior. Specifically, we examine the roles of family structure, family socioeconomic status (as measured by parents' education), and the presence of an alcoholic parent. Five adolescent risky behaviors are examined: alcohol usage, marijuana usage, cocaine usage, sexual activity, and delinquency. The study uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth--1979 cohort (NLSY79).
Bibliography Citation
Pergamit, Michael R., Lynn Huang and Julia Lane. "The Long Term Impact of Adolescent Risky Behaviors and Family Environment." U.S. Report, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, Department of Health and Human Services, August 2001.
20. Pergamit, Michael R.
Krishnamurty, Parvati
Multiyear Nonfatal Work Injury Rates
Monthly Labor Review 129,5 (May 2006): 35-38.
Also: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2006/05/art5full.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Education; Injuries, Workplace

Longitudinal data (editor: NLSY79) indicate a higher rate of nonfatal workplace injuries than might be expected from annual statistics; less educated workers, whose jobs often involve considerable physical activity, have a substantial risk of on-the-job injury.
Bibliography Citation
Pergamit, Michael R. and Parvati Krishnamurty. "Multiyear Nonfatal Work Injury Rates." Monthly Labor Review 129,5 (May 2006): 35-38.
21. Pergamit, Michael R.
Pierret, Charles R.
Rothstein, Donna S.
Veum, Jonathan R.
Data Watch: The National Longitudinal Surveys
Journal of Economic Perspectives 15,2 (Spring 2001): 239-253.
Also: http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/jep.15.2.239
Cohort(s): NLS General, NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Employment; Longitudinal Data Sets; Longitudinal Surveys; NLS Description

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS) are perhaps the oldest and longest running panel surveys of individuals in the United States. These surveys were originally started at the U.S. Department of Labor in the mid-1960s to examine employment issues faced by different segments of the U.S. population. The four "original cohorts" were Young Men, Young Women, Mature Women (women who had finished their childbearing and were returning to the labor force), and Older Men (men approaching retirement). Since that time, the NLS program has expanded to include two new cohorts of youth. Table 1 provides an overview of the NLS cohorts over time. The NLS surveys have been widely used for over a quarter of a century and across a large number of academic disciplines including economics, sociology, psychology, education, medicine, and public policy. Hundreds of Ph.D. dissertations and thousands of journal articles rely on NLS data. The success of the NLS program is in part attributable to three aspects of the surveys: high retention rates, careful design features, and the broad range of subject areas studied. Over the past decade, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 has been the most widely used and most important of the NLS data sets. Thus, rather than attempting to describe each of the longitudinal surveys in detail, this paper will convey the approach and scope of the NLS program by focusing primarily on NLSY79. The new youth cohort begun in 1997, the NLSY97, will be discussed further below.
Bibliography Citation
Pergamit, Michael R., Charles R. Pierret, Donna S. Rothstein and Jonathan R. Veum. "Data Watch: The National Longitudinal Surveys." Journal of Economic Perspectives 15,2 (Spring 2001): 239-253.
22. Pergamit, Michael R.
Veum, Jonathan R.
What is a Promotion?
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 52,4 (July 1999): 581-601.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2525065
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Hispanics; Job Promotion; Job Satisfaction; Racial Differences; Training, Employee; Wages, Youth; Work Attachment

Using National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data, the authors analyze the determinants and consequences of a promotion among young workers. Most events that workers called "promotions" involved no change in position or duties, but were simply an upgrade of the current position. Typically, only one person was considered for the promotion. Men were more likely to be promoted than women, and whites more likely than blacks or Hispanics. The acquisition of company training and the receipt of a prior promotion were two of the most important predictors of promotion. Consequences of promotion included increased wages, training receipt, supervisory responsibilities, and increased job satisfaction. There is little evidence that promotion had a direct impact on job attachment. Copyright: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations 1999.
Bibliography Citation
Pergamit, Michael R. and Jonathan R. Veum. "What is a Promotion?" Industrial and Labor Relations Review 52,4 (July 1999): 581-601.
23. Ruser, John W.
Pergamit, Michael R.
Krishnamurty, Parvati
Workers' Compensation "Reforms" and Benefit Claiming
Working Paper, U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Washington DC, April 2004.
Also: http://gsbwww.uchicago.edu/labor/Ruser.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Commerce
Keyword(s): Benefits; Heterogeneity; Injuries; Modeling; Unemployment Compensation

In the 1990s, states passed a variety of laws to stem a rapid rise in workers' compensation insurance costs, by raising the cost and reducing the expected benefit to a worker of filing a claim. In this paper, we first develop a model of benefit claiming with heterogeneous injury severity, costly claiming, and uncertain benefit payment. The model predicts that raising the cost or reducing the expected benefit from filing a claim would result in fewer, but on average more severe claims being filed. Using a multivariate difference in differences technique and data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - 1979, we then empirically assess the impact of the laws on injuries, claims, and benefits. We find no evidence that legislative changes to restrict doctor choice, to reduce the compensability of injuries or to detect fraud had a measurable impact on injury or claim incidence, claim duration, or benefit receipt. However, we do find evidence that workers respond to economic costs and benefits in deciding to file claims. Benefit claiming is positively associated with the generosity of benefits, but negatively associated with the worker's wage (measuring a cost of claim filing). Also, consistent with the theory, more generous benefits and lower wages are associated with shorter average claim durations, possibly because claims are filed for less severe injuries.
Bibliography Citation
Ruser, John W., Michael R. Pergamit and Parvati Krishnamurty. "Workers' Compensation "Reforms" and Benefit Claiming." Working Paper, U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Washington DC, April 2004.
24. Schildhaus, Sam
Shaw-Taylor, Yoku
Pedlow, Steven
Pergamit, Michael R.
Predicting Heavy Drug Use: Results of a Longitudinal Study, Youth Characteristics Describing and Predicting Heavy Drug Use by Adults
Executive Office of the President (Publication Number NCJ 208382). Washington, DC: Office of National Drug Control Policy, February 2004.
Also: http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/Abstract.aspx?id=208382
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP)
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Drug Use; Gender Differences; Income; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Data are drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), which focuses on the labor market experiences of adolescents and has followed a representative sample of 12,686 youth ages 14 through 21 years for 23 years, from their adolescence into their early 40's. The NLSY includes a battery of questions about drug use that were administered during 5 years of the survey, in 1984, 1988, 1992, 1994, and 1998. Data were analyzed using logistic regression analysis and odds ratios. Results revealed that most respondents reported no drug use during the 5 years under examination. Marijuana use was reported by 42 percent of respondents, while 19 percent reported cocaine use and 3 percent reported crack cocaine use. Most respondents only reported use during one survey year or used the drug for only one more survey year. However, half of marijuana users who used in one survey year reported marijuana use in the next survey year. Approximately one-quarter of cocaine users reported cocaine use in the next survey year. In terms of predictors of heavy drug use as adults, results indicated that heavy marijuana use in adolescence was predictive of heavy cocaine use in adulthood. Results also showed that young male drug users were nearly twice as likely as young female drug users to become heavy adult drug users. Adolescents reporting significant amounts of illegal income were also twice as likely to become heavy cocaine users. The findings suggest that steering adolescents away from heavy marijuana use and criminal occupations may be an effective means of deterring future heavy drug use. Footnotes, exhibits, appendix.
Bibliography Citation
Schildhaus, Sam, Yoku Shaw-Taylor, Steven Pedlow and Michael R. Pergamit. Predicting Heavy Drug Use: Results of a Longitudinal Study, Youth Characteristics Describing and Predicting Heavy Drug Use by Adults. Executive Office of the President (Publication Number NCJ 208382). Washington, DC: Office of National Drug Control Policy, February 2004..