Search Results

Author: Veum, Jonathan R.
Resulting in 23 citations.
1. Gleason, Philip M.
Veum, Jonathan R.
Pergamit, Michael R.
Drug and Alcohol Use at Work: A Survey of Young Workers
Monthly Labor Review 114,8 (August 1991): 3-7.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1991/08/art1abs.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Drug Use; Gender Differences; Industrial Sector; Occupations; Racial Differences

This article uses data from the 1984 NLSY to examine the incidence of drug use on the job among young workers in the United States. It is found that drug use is higher among men than women, among whites than minorities, and among workers aged 19 to 23 than those aged 24 to 27. Blue-collar workers have higher rates of drug use than white-collar workers. Also, drug use is most common among young workers in entertainment/recreation and construction industries, and least common among those in professional services and public administration industries.
Bibliography Citation
Gleason, Philip M., Jonathan R. Veum and Michael R. Pergamit. "Drug and Alcohol Use at Work: A Survey of Young Workers." Monthly Labor Review 114,8 (August 1991): 3-7.
2. Goldsmith, Arthur H.
Veum, Jonathan R.
Wages and the Composition of Experience
Southern Economic Journal 69,2 (October 2002): 429-445.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1061681
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Southern Economic Association
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Human Capital Theory; Job Skills; Job Tenure; Job Turnover; Wage Models; Wage Theory; Work Experience

This paper provides evidence on the relation between alternative forms of experience and wages using data drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Prior labor market experience is segmented into mutually exclusive categories based on industry and occupation to examine how subsequent employers value skills acquired on previous jobs. We find that most forms of experience, including tenure at the current job, provide a comparable return. However, the wage return to prior experience in a different occupation and industry is significantly lower. Such "career changes" constitute over half of all prior work experience among workers in their mid-30s. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Goldsmith, Arthur H. and Jonathan R. Veum. "Wages and the Composition of Experience." Southern Economic Journal 69,2 (October 2002): 429-445.
3. Goldsmith, Arthur H.
Veum, Jonathan R.
Darity, William A. Jr.
Are Being Unemployed and Being Out of the Labor Force Distinct States? A Psychological Approach
Journal of Economic Psychology 16,2 (July 1995): 275-295.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/016748709500009D
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Data Quality/Consistency; Heterogeneity; Labor Force Participation; Psychological Effects; Self-Esteem; Unemployment

Examined whether a difference in psychological well-being exists between unemployed people and labor force drop-outs (i.e., unemployed people who become so discouraged that they cease searching for employment). Data were from 12,686 persons (aged 14-22 years) in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, who have been interviewed annually since 1979. Joblessness fostered feelings of externality. Also, as duration of joblessness advanced so did feelings of helplessness, thus favoring the stages of psychological impairment theory. Data on the psychological status of the jobless are consistent with the view of K. B. Clark and L. H. Summers (1979) that the 2 forms of joblessness are effectively indistinguishable. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1996 American Psychological Association, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Goldsmith, Arthur H., Jonathan R. Veum and William A. Jr. Darity. "Are Being Unemployed and Being Out of the Labor Force Distinct States? A Psychological Approach." Journal of Economic Psychology 16,2 (July 1995): 275-295.
4. Goldsmith, Arthur H.
Veum, Jonathan R.
Darity, William A. Jr.
The Impact of Labor Force History on Self-Esteem and Its Component Parts, Anxiety, Alienation and Depression
Journal of Economic Psychology 17,2 (April 1996): 183-220.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0167487096000037
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Data Quality/Consistency; Employment; Heterogeneity; Labor Force Participation; Quits; Self-Esteem; Unemployment

Estimated the correlation between unemployment and self-esteem. A methodology that controls for 3 potential sources of bias (omitted variables, unobserved heterogeneity, and data selection) was used. Data were drawn from the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, which provided detailed information on the personal characteristics of 1,198 14-21 yr olds, including their self-esteem and labor force experiences. Evidence of the damage of joblessness on an individual's perception of self-worth was found. Exposure to bouts of both forms of joblessness (unemployment or time out of the labor force) was also found to harm self-esteem. Decompositional analysis suggested that joblessness damages self-esteem by generating feelings of depression. The authors suggest that policies designed to lessen joblessness will also yield a psychologically healthier labor force. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1997 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Goldsmith, Arthur H., Jonathan R. Veum and William A. Jr. Darity. "The Impact of Labor Force History on Self-Esteem and Its Component Parts, Anxiety, Alienation and Depression." Journal of Economic Psychology 17,2 (April 1996): 183-220.
5. Goldsmith, Arthur H.
Veum, Jonathan R.
Darity, William A. Jr.
The Impact of Psychological and Human Capital on Wages
Economic Inquiry 35,4. (October 1997): 815-829.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1465-7295.1997.tb01966.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Human Capital; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Manpower Programs; Occupational Choice; Psychological Effects; Self-Esteem; Training, Occupational; Training, On-the-Job; Wages

Historically, economists have taken the position that psychological capital is either unobservable or unmeasurable; thus, heretofore, little evidence has been available on the contribution of psychological capital to wages. Using data drawn from two different waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the authors offer evidence that psychological capital has both a direct effect--via self-esteem--and an indirect effect--through locus of control--on an individual's real wage. They find a person's wage is more sensitive to changes in self-esteem than to comparable alterations in human capital. Both relative wages and human capital contribute to self-esteem.
Bibliography Citation
Goldsmith, Arthur H., Jonathan R. Veum and William A. Jr. Darity. "The Impact of Psychological and Human Capital on Wages." Economic Inquiry 35,4. (October 1997): 815-829.
6. Goldsmith, Arthur H.
Veum, Jonathan R.
Darity, William A. Jr.
The Psychological Impact of Unemployment and Joblessness
Journal of Socio-Economics 25,3 (Fall 1996): 333-358.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053535796900098
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Job Search; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Quits; Retirement; Unemployment

Economists have identified two principal adverse effects of unemployment. One is the output foregone that could have been produced if unemployed workers had been productively employed. The second is the psychological damage suffered by unemployed workers and their families. Psychologists have offered theories to explain how experiences such as Joblessness may lead to a deterioration in mental health. They also have designed and validated survey instruments capable of measuring various aspects of emotional health. Unfortunately, their efforts to document the psychological impact of unemployment have been plagued by data limitations, while economists largely have ignored this task. The purpose of this study is three-fold. First, we discuss why unemployment and Joblessness are likely to influence an individual's perception of personal efficacy, locus of control, and hence psychological well-being. Second, we discuss and critique existing efforts to examine the relationship between labor force experiences and locus of control. Third, we investigate the relationship between Joblessness and its component parts—unemployment and dropping out of the labor force—on personal locus of control, using observations from the NLSY and an alternative methodological framework. The NLSY is a longitudinal data set that contains detailed information on the personal characteristics of individuals in the sample, their labor force experiences and a specific personal locus of control. In discussing the results we also attempt to shed some new light on the debate between Clark and Summers (1979) and Flinn and Heckman (1982, 1983) over the question of whether being out of the labor force and being unemployed should be thought of as distinct states. We add further insight into this issue by examining whether there are psychological differences, as measured by locus of control, between otherwise comparable members of these two groups. Finally, we reconsider the Ellwood and Ruhm exchange over whether joblessness and unemployment lead to “psychological” scarring. We find that labor force experiences fail to influence personal locus of control for male youths. There is evidence, however, that perception of personal efficacy is altered by joblessness among young women. As the duration of a current unemployment spell lengthens, the likelihood of holding beliefs of personal efficacy decline for young women. There is also some evidence of scarring among women. For females who in the past have spent time both unemployed and out of the labor force, the greater the duration of their joblessness the more likely is a reduction in feelings of personal efficacy and more aggravated one's self-perception of helplessness. We also offer psychological evidence on the relative emotional well-being of the unemployed and labor force drop outs that largely supports the position of Clark and Summers that these conditions are largely indistinguishable.
Bibliography Citation
Goldsmith, Arthur H., Jonathan R. Veum and William A. Jr. Darity. "The Psychological Impact of Unemployment and Joblessness." Journal of Socio-Economics 25,3 (Fall 1996): 333-358.
7. Goldsmith, Arthur H.
Veum, Jonathan R.
Darity, William A. Jr.
Unemployment, Joblessness, Psychological Well-being and Self-esteem: Theory and Evidence
Journal of Socio-Economics 26,2 (January 1997): 133-158.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053535799800067
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Labor Force Participation; Self-Esteem; Unemployment; Unemployment Duration; Unemployment, Youth; Well-Being

Social psychologists Erikson (1959), Jahoda (1979, 1981, 1982) and Seligman (1975) believe that exposure to events such as joblessness are capable of impairing an individual's psychological well-being. Psychological well-being is a multidimensional concept. Therefore, the impact of unemployment on mental health is likely to be manifest in many forms, including denigration of self-worth or self-esteem.

The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between joblessness and its component parts, unemployment and dropping out of the labor force, on self-esteem using data drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). The NLSY is well suited for such an investigation since it contains detailed information on the personal characteristics of individuals in the sample, as well as their labor force experiences and measures of self-esteem.

Two additional issues will be addressed. First, we examine the psychological counterpart of Ellwood's (1982) hypothesis that joblessness may scar an individual. Second, we shed new light on the debate between Clark and Summers (1979) and Flinn and Heckman (1982, 1983) over whether being out of the labor force (OLF) and being unemployed should be thought of as distinct states.

We find that joblessness damages self-esteem for female youths; however, the damage is akin to a blemish. Surprisingly, prior labor force experiences generally fail to influence perceptions of self-worth on the part of young men. However, we do find that for both young men and women who in the past spent time out of the labor force, the greater the duration of their exposure to this form of joblessness, the lower their level of self-esteem. We also offer psychological evidence on the relative emotional wellbeing of the unemployed and labor force drop outs that largely supports the position of Clark and Summers that these conditions are essentially indistinguishable.

Bibliography Citation
Goldsmith, Arthur H., Jonathan R. Veum and William A. Jr. Darity. "Unemployment, Joblessness, Psychological Well-being and Self-esteem: Theory and Evidence ." Journal of Socio-Economics 26,2 (January 1997): 133-158.
8. Goldsmith, Arthur H.
Veum, Jonathan R.
Darity, William A. Jr.
Working Hard for the Money? Efficiency Wages and Worker Effort
Journal of Economic Psychology 21,4 (August 2000): 351-385.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167487000000088
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Benefits; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Simultaneity; Wage Levels; Wages

This paper offers a test of the relative wage version of the efficiency wage hypothesis - that firms are able to improve worker productivity by paying workers a wage premium. Psychologists believe work effort reflects motivation that is governed by a feature of personality referred to as locus of control. Measures of locus of control are available in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Using data drawn from the NLSY in 1992, structural real wage and effort equation are simultaneously estimated. It is found that receiving an efficiency wage enhances a person's effort and that person's providing greater effort earn higher wages.
Bibliography Citation
Goldsmith, Arthur H., Jonathan R. Veum and William A. Jr. Darity. "Working Hard for the Money? Efficiency Wages and Worker Effort." Journal of Economic Psychology 21,4 (August 2000): 351-385.
9. Nardone, Thomas
Veum, Jonathan R.
Yates, Julie A.
Measuring Job Security
Monthly Labor Review 120,6 (June 1997): 26-33.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1997/06/art3abs.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Event History; Job Search; Job Tenure; Job Turnover; Self-Employed Workers

The Bureau of Labor Statistics has collected some information that can be used to analyze job security in the United States. In periodic supplements to the Current Population Survey, individuals are asked about job tenure. In February 1995, the Bureau conducted the first supplement designed to obtain more information on contingent jobs and alternative employment arrangements. In this article, data from recent CPS supplements are used to examine the quality and the nature of variables that are utilized to measure job security.
Bibliography Citation
Nardone, Thomas, Jonathan R. Veum and Julie A. Yates. "Measuring Job Security." Monthly Labor Review 120,6 (June 1997): 26-33.
10. Pergamit, Michael R.
Pierret, Charles R.
Rothstein, Donna S.
Veum, Jonathan R.
Data Watch: The National Longitudinal Surveys
Journal of Economic Perspectives 15,2 (Spring 2001): 239-253.
Also: http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/jep.15.2.239
Cohort(s): NLS General, NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: American Economic Association
Keyword(s): Employment; Longitudinal Data Sets; Longitudinal Surveys; NLS Description

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS) are perhaps the oldest and longest running panel surveys of individuals in the United States. These surveys were originally started at the U.S. Department of Labor in the mid-1960s to examine employment issues faced by different segments of the U.S. population. The four "original cohorts" were Young Men, Young Women, Mature Women (women who had finished their childbearing and were returning to the labor force), and Older Men (men approaching retirement). Since that time, the NLS program has expanded to include two new cohorts of youth. Table 1 provides an overview of the NLS cohorts over time. The NLS surveys have been widely used for over a quarter of a century and across a large number of academic disciplines including economics, sociology, psychology, education, medicine, and public policy. Hundreds of Ph.D. dissertations and thousands of journal articles rely on NLS data. The success of the NLS program is in part attributable to three aspects of the surveys: high retention rates, careful design features, and the broad range of subject areas studied. Over the past decade, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 has been the most widely used and most important of the NLS data sets. Thus, rather than attempting to describe each of the longitudinal surveys in detail, this paper will convey the approach and scope of the NLS program by focusing primarily on NLSY79. The new youth cohort begun in 1997, the NLSY97, will be discussed further below.
Bibliography Citation
Pergamit, Michael R., Charles R. Pierret, Donna S. Rothstein and Jonathan R. Veum. "Data Watch: The National Longitudinal Surveys." Journal of Economic Perspectives 15,2 (Spring 2001): 239-253.
11. Pergamit, Michael R.
Veum, Jonathan R.
What is a Promotion?
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 52,4 (July 1999): 581-601.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2525065
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Hispanics; Job Promotion; Job Satisfaction; Racial Differences; Training, Employee; Wages, Youth; Work Attachment

Using National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data, the authors analyze the determinants and consequences of a promotion among young workers. Most events that workers called "promotions" involved no change in position or duties, but were simply an upgrade of the current position. Typically, only one person was considered for the promotion. Men were more likely to be promoted than women, and whites more likely than blacks or Hispanics. The acquisition of company training and the receipt of a prior promotion were two of the most important predictors of promotion. Consequences of promotion included increased wages, training receipt, supervisory responsibilities, and increased job satisfaction. There is little evidence that promotion had a direct impact on job attachment. Copyright: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations 1999.
Bibliography Citation
Pergamit, Michael R. and Jonathan R. Veum. "What is a Promotion?" Industrial and Labor Relations Review 52,4 (July 1999): 581-601.
12. Veum, Jonathan R.
Gender and Race Differences in Company Training
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 35,1 (January 1996): 32-44.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-232X.1996.tb00393.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Discrimination, Sex; Gender Differences; Racial Differences; Training; Training, On-the-Job

Using recent data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, it is found that, among young workers from 1986 to 1991, there were no gender or race differentials in the likelihood of receiving training, in participation in multiple training events, or in hours of training received. White women, however, were more likely to receive more training per hour worked than white men. This gender differential appears to occur because white women are more likely to work fewer hours and to be employed in entry-level positions that are associated with greater training intensity. Full text online. Photocopy available from ABI/INFORM 10384.00
Bibliography Citation
Veum, Jonathan R. "Gender and Race Differences in Company Training." Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 35,1 (January 1996): 32-44.
13. Veum, Jonathan R.
Interrelation of Child Support, Visitation, and Hours of Work
Monthly Labor Review 115,6 (June 1992): 40-47.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1992/06/art4abs.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Child Care; Child Support; Fathers, Absence; Hispanics; Maternal Employment

This article focuses on employment and other characteristics of mothers with custody of children, and of absent fathers, by father's child support payment and visitation practices, 1988. Data are from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. It includes 5 tables that show mothers and absent fathers aged 23-31, by marital status, educational attainment, race, Hispanic origin, distance father lives from child and frequency of visits, whether employed in previous year, and annual earnings and hours worked; and mothers, by child care expenditures in last four weeks, and average expenditures; all by whether father pays child support and visits children, 1988.
Bibliography Citation
Veum, Jonathan R. "Interrelation of Child Support, Visitation, and Hours of Work." Monthly Labor Review 115,6 (June 1992): 40-47.
14. Veum, Jonathan R.
Sources of Training and Their Impact on Wages
Industrial and Labor Relations Review 48,4 (July 1995): 812-826.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2524358
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Apprenticeships; Educational Status; Occupational Aspirations; Schooling, Post-secondary; Training; Training, Occupational; Vocational Training; Wage Effects; Wage Levels; Wages

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth from 1986 to 1990, the author investigates the wage impact of various sources of training--among them, company training programs, apprenticeships, business schools, vocational and technical institutes, correspondence courses, and seminars outside the workplace. Time spent in training (of whatever kind) apparently did not affect 1990 wage levels. The incidence of two kinds of training, however--company training and seminars outside work--was positively related to wage levels as well as to wage change between 1986 and 1990; that is, workers who undertook such training enjoyed higher wages than those who did not. Time spent in vocational schools was also positively associated with wage change, though not with 1990 wage levels. The other forms of training had no apparent impact on either wage levels or wage change.
Bibliography Citation
Veum, Jonathan R. "Sources of Training and Their Impact on Wages." Industrial and Labor Relations Review 48,4 (July 1995): 812-826.
15. Veum, Jonathan R.
The Relationship Between Child Support and Visitation: Evidence from Longitudinal Data
Social Science Research 22,3 (September 1993): 229-244.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0049089X83710112
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Academic Press, Inc.
Keyword(s): Child Support; Fathers, Absence; Heterogeneity; Male Sample; Parental Influences; Simultaneity; Support Networks

It has been argued that child-support payments and visits by an absent father are positively related. As a result, improvements in visitation laws and the child support system are thought to have complementary effects on each other. However, previous empirical estimates ignore the causal relationship and simultaneity between child support and visitation, as well as possible heterogeneity in unobserved characteristics of parents. This paper uses data for a sample of custodial mothers and absent fathers from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine the relationship between child support and visitation. A set of simultaneous equations which eliminate unobserved differences between individuals are estimated. The findings indicate that changes in child support have no impact on changes in visitation and changes in visitation have no effect on changes in child support. The results suggest that the observed positive correlation between the two activities is due to unmeasured characteristic's of the parents.
Bibliography Citation
Veum, Jonathan R. "The Relationship Between Child Support and Visitation: Evidence from Longitudinal Data." Social Science Research 22,3 (September 1993): 229-244.
16. Veum, Jonathan R.
Training Among Young Adults: Who, What Kind, and for How Long?
Monthly Labor Review 116,8 (August 1993): 27-32.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1993/08/art3abs.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Apprenticeships; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Employment, Youth; Hispanics; Minorities; Training; Training, Off-the-Job; Vocational Training

Investments in education and training are widely expected to improve the U.S. position in the global market by improving worker productivity. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth found that 38% of young adults received training between 1986 and 1991. The types of training included company training programs, seminars, apprenticeships, business school, vocational and technical institutes, and correspondence courses. Whites and men were more likely to receive company training, while Blacks, Hispanics, and women were more likely to attend off-the-job training programs. The likelihood of receiving training increased with education and score on the Armed Forces Qualifying Test.
Bibliography Citation
Veum, Jonathan R. "Training Among Young Adults: Who, What Kind, and for How Long?" Monthly Labor Review 116,8 (August 1993): 27-32.
17. Veum, Jonathan R.
Training and Job Mobility Among Young Workers in the United States
Journal of Population Economics 10,2 (June 1997): 219-233.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/vg9kyhvwvqkv75vp/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Human Capital; Job Training; Job Turnover; Mobility, Occupational; Quits; Retirement; Training

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth from 1987 to 1992, the determinants of training and the impact of training on job turnover are examined for young private sector workers in the United States. It is found that the receipt of company training is positively correlated with education, ability, and prior tenure at the job. The results provide only limited evidence that company training reduces turnover. There is substantial evidence, however, that training which is not financed by employers increases job mobility. The results imply that training plays an important role in the job search and job matching process among young workers.
Bibliography Citation
Veum, Jonathan R. "Training and Job Mobility Among Young Workers in the United States." Journal of Population Economics 10,2 (June 1997): 219-233.
18. Veum, Jonathan R.
Training, Wages, and the Human Capital Model
Presented: San Francisco, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, 1995
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Human Capital Theory; Modeling; Training; Training, Employee; Training, Occupational; Training, On-the-Job; Wage Growth; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this paper, recent data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth are used to examine the predictions of the human capital model concerning the relationship between training and wages. As implied by the model, training received from the current employer is associated with increased wage growth. However, there is no indication that company training is negatively related to the starting wage. Also, there is evidence that training is general, or is portable across employers. Hence, contrary to the implications of the traditional human capital model, employers appear to pay for general training.
Bibliography Citation
Veum, Jonathan R. "Training, Wages, and the Human Capital Model." Presented: San Francisco, CA, Population Association of America Meetings, 1995.
19. Veum, Jonathan R.
Training, Wages, and the Human Capital Model
NLS Discussion Paper No. 96-31, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1995.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/ore/abstract/nl/nl950090.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Human Capital; Job Training; Training, Occupational; Training, On-the-Job; Wage Growth

While there are a number of theories as to why wages increase over an individual's work life, a commonly accepted interpretation is that upward sloping wage profiles reflect investments in human capital, particularly investments in job training. The traditional human capital model predicts that training lowers the starting wage and increases wage growth. This study uses recent data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to examine the predictions of the human capital model concerning the relationship between training and wages. In sum, the results, particularly the findings regarding training and the starting wage, do not support the conventional version of the human capital model and suggest that alternatives to the traditional model should be considered. The results from estimating starting wage regressions indicate that there is not a negative relationship between starting wages and current company training. If anything, starting wages and company training appear to be positively related. Also, the data indicate that off-site company paid training is portable across employers, or is general. Taken together, these results suggest that firms, rather than workers, pay for general training, which is inconsistent with the standard human capital model. The estimates from the wage growth regressions are more consistent with the human capital model. Training that is company financed has a positive impact on wage growth independent of tenure at the current job. Company training that takes place outside the work place is particularly effective in enhancing wages. This result is interesting given that this form of training appears to be the most general. Hence, while companies appear to finance training that provides skills which are useful both within and across firms, this training may differ from what is commonly considered as "on-the job" training.
Bibliography Citation
Veum, Jonathan R. "Training, Wages, and the Human Capital Model." NLS Discussion Paper No. 96-31, Washington DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1995.
20. Veum, Jonathan R.
Training, Wages, and the Human Capital Model
Southern Economic Journal 65,3 (January 1999): 526-538.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1060813
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press
Keyword(s): Earnings; Human Capital; Job Training; Training; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using recent data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this study examines the predictions of the human capital model concerning the relationship between training, starting wages, and wage growth. As implied by the model, training, particularly employer-financed training, is positively related to wage growth. Company-financed training also appears to be portable across jobs or to have a general component. In addition, there is some evidence that workers pay for initial Graining through a reduced starting wage. The results provide partial support for the human capital model.
Bibliography Citation
Veum, Jonathan R. "Training, Wages, and the Human Capital Model." Southern Economic Journal 65,3 (January 1999): 526-538.
21. Veum, Jonathan R.
Wage Mobility and Wage Inequality Among Young Workers
Contemporary Policy Issues 11,4 (October 1993): 31-41.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1465-7287.1993.tb00399.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Men
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): High School Completion/Graduates; Mobility; Psychological Effects; Wage Dynamics; Wages, Youth

Data from the National Longitudinal Surveys are used to examine wage inequality and wage mobility within the wage distribution for young high school graduates during their early years in the labor market. The analysis constructs a new index that facilitates measuring mobility changes over time. The data indicate that no strong relationship exists between wage mobility and wage inequality for young workers. Controlling for time invariant differences between individuals also indicates that between the 1970s and the 1980s factors that impact mobility underwent very few changes. Using longitudinal data can possibly add another dimension to wage distribution discussions. The techniques used in the analysis illustrate the limitations of simply examining a time series of cross- sections. Incorporating longitudinal data into mobility analyses might yield important insight into wage distribution dynamics. (Copyright Western Economic Association 1993)
Bibliography Citation
Veum, Jonathan R. "Wage Mobility and Wage Inequality Among Young Workers." Contemporary Policy Issues 11,4 (October 1993): 31-41.
22. Veum, Jonathan R.
Gleason, Philip M.
Child Care: Arrangements and Costs
Monthly Labor Review 114,10 (October 1991): 10-17.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1991/10/art2abs.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Child Care; Dual-Career Families; Educational Attainment; Family Income; Marital Status; Maternal Employment; Racial Differences; Unemployment; Work Hours

The 1988 NLSY and the 1983 NLS of Young Women are used to examine several child care issues in the United States. Younger and older women frequently use relatives to provide child care, but older women use persons other than relatives more frequently. These data indicate that the use of child care centers by mothers is directly related to family income. The results also indicate that upper-income families can more easily afford private centers, while poorer families are more likely to use public centers. Average weekly expenditures on child care are about $60 for younger women and $45 for older women. Younger women utilize child care services an average of 39.4 hours a week, compared with 24.7 hours for older women. These data suggest that child care expenditures and hourly usage are also related to family income. Findings also suggest that women in low-income families are more likely to have gaps in employment because adequate child care arrangements are more difficult to find.
Bibliography Citation
Veum, Jonathan R. and Philip M. Gleason. "Child Care: Arrangements and Costs." Monthly Labor Review 114,10 (October 1991): 10-17.
23. Veum, Jonathan R.
Weiss, Andrea B.
Education and the Work Histories of Young Adults
Monthly Labor Review 116,4 (April 1993): 11-20.
Also: http://stats.bls.gov/opub/mlr/1993/04/art2abs.htm
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Dropouts; Educational Attainment; Work Experience; Work Histories

Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth show significant differences by sex and race in youth labor market experience; however, many of these differences become smaller or disappear completely with increases in educational attainment. These data allow for fairly precise determination of measures of labor market activity not available from any other data source. These data indicate that work experience between the ages of 18 and 27 varies substantially by sex, race, and educational level, and reveal patterns of work behavior that are somewhat surprising. For example, by age 27, individuals with 1 to 3 years of college education have, on average, worked more weeks than have high school graduates. Also, college graduates average more total weeks worked than do high school dropouts at all ages, even between the ages of 18 and 22, when many college graduates are attending school full time. This finding reflects the fact that young female high school dropouts acquire very little work experience. This article analyzes the work histories of young workers, focusing on differences in work experience by educational level. The results permit comparison by educational level of work patterns by years of age for persons aged 18 to 27 over the 1978-90 period. (Copyright Superintendent of Documents 1993)
Bibliography Citation
Veum, Jonathan R. and Andrea B. Weiss. "Education and the Work Histories of Young Adults." Monthly Labor Review 116,4 (April 1993): 11-20.