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Source: Employment and Training Administration
Resulting in 21 citations.
1. Chiswick, Barry R.
An Analysis of the Economic Progress and Impact of Immigrants
Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1980
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Britain, British; Canada, Canadian; Capital Sector; Census of Population; Cross-national Analysis; Earnings; Immigrants; Israel; Migration; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Skills; Transfers, Financial

The theoretical analysis of earnings and occupational mobility is based on the international transferability of skills and the favorable self-selection of immigrants. Detailed analyses are performed by race/ethnic group and sex (l970 Census for the U.S. and for Britain, Canada, and Israel). Economic migrants initially have lower earnings than the native-born but their earnings rise rapidly with the duration of residence, reach equality after 11 to 25 years and then they have higher earnings. The children of immigrants earn 5 to 10 percent more than those with native-born parents. Additional analyses are performed for adult white men using the two unique features of the NLS. Using longitudinal data on earnings, it is found that earnings rise more rapidly in the U.S. for the foreign-born than for the native-born. Using the data on immigration generation, it is found that among the native-born those with foreign-born parents have six percent higher earnings, while among those with native-born parents earnings are higher by approximately one percentage point for each foreign-born grandparent. These patterns in the NLS are consistent with the theoretical model and other empirical findings. Using aggregate production function analysis, it is shown that an increase in supply of either low-skilled or high-skilled immigrants decreases the wage of that type of labor, and increases the return to both capital and the other type of labor. Immigration tends to increase the aggregate income of the native population, unless the immigrants are substantial net beneficiaries of income transfers. A bibliography is included.
Bibliography Citation
Chiswick, Barry R. "An Analysis of the Economic Progress and Impact of Immigrants." Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1980.
2. Crimmins, Eileen M.
Women's Labor Force Participation and Fertility: A Comparison of Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women and the Consumer Panels
Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1979
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Children; Earnings; Employment; Family Background; Fertility; Life Cycle Research; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

The purpose of the study has been to replicate analyses originally done with the Consumer Panel data using data from the NLS of Young Women. In spite of the differences between the two samples in demographic characteristics and the variability in operational definitions of theoretical concepts, results of these analyses relating women's employment and fertility are often similar. Where differences exist they can in part be attributed to differences between the two samples in their stages in the family life cycle: the social and economic climate at the time of marriage and early childbearing; and the socioeconomic characteristics of the sample. The relationships between employment and fertility are not the same for white and black women in the NLS sample. The findings for white women are more similar to the findings from the Consumer Panel than are those for black women.
Bibliography Citation
Crimmins, Eileen M. "Women's Labor Force Participation and Fertility: A Comparison of Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women and the Consumer Panels." Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1979.
3. Doescher, Tabitha Ann
Fertility and Female Occupational Choice
Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1979
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Children; Family Background; Fertility; Life Cycle Research; Work Attitudes; Work History

This study hypothesizes that a working woman selects her occupation, defined as a vector of characteristics, in accordance with her life cycle fertility and labor force participation. It focuses on two characteristics in particular: the occupational atrophy rate (the depreciation in participation) and the flexibility of hours within an occupation. Through the use of a multiperiod utility maximization model and comparable statics analysis, the project investigates the qualitative effect of an exogenous change in family size on the woman's choice of her occupational characteristics. In general, the empirical analysis, which uses data from the NLS of Mature Women, supports the theoretical hypothesis; as family size increases, women tend to select occupations with lower atrophy rates and more flexible hours.
Bibliography Citation
Doescher, Tabitha Ann. "Fertility and Female Occupational Choice." Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1979.
4. Fleisher, Belton M.
Parsons, Donald O.
Porter, Richard D.
Dynamic Analysis of the Labor Force Behavior of Men and Youth
Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1972
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Schooling; Unemployment Rate; Wages; Work Attitudes

A theoretical and empirical analysis is made of the labor force behavior of males aged 14-24 and 45-59. The economic forces (including wealth, wage rate, and unemployment rate) which influence the work and schooling decisions of males are examined, and the empirical importance of these and other factors is determined using data from the Older Men and Young Men.
Bibliography Citation
Fleisher, Belton M., Donald O. Parsons and Richard D. Porter. "Dynamic Analysis of the Labor Force Behavior of Men and Youth." Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1972.
5. Gottschalk, Peter
Earnings Mobility of Primary Earners
Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1980
Cohort(s): Mature Women, NLSY79, Older Men, Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Earnings; Educational Attainment; Employment; Life Cycle Research; Mobility; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Underemployment; Work History

Data from five cohorts of the NLS were used to determine the degree of earnings mobility in the lower tail of the earnings distribution. The study documents that a substantial proportion of the low earnings population was immobile. Two major policy conclusions result from this study. First, there is a demonstrated need for programs for the chronically underemployed. Earnings poverty is more than a transitory or life-cycle phenomenon. Likewise, it is a problem that affects more people than the stereotypical teenager, ex-offender or welfare mother. Second, programs should be targeted at people with histories of low earnings over more than one year. However, if long work histories are not available it is better to target programs on people with recent low earnings than to use other attributes such as race, region or educational attainment as proxies to identify the long-term earnings poor.
Bibliography Citation
Gottschalk, Peter. "Earnings Mobility of Primary Earners." Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1980.
6. Gregory, Paul R.
Moore, William J.
Earnings, Occupational Choice, and the Early Years of Family Formation, White and Black Women: A Study from the NLS
Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1977
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Assets; Children; Earnings; Family Background; Fertility; Marriage; Occupational Aspirations; Schooling; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Work Attitudes

This project emphasizes the impacts of children and economic variables upon the labor force participation, hours and weeks worked, occupational and educational choices, and market wages of young women (NLS Young Women, l4-24). We find that the presence of young children in the home has a more important impact on the labor supply of young married women than do standard economic variables and that the impact of children and economic variables such as wages and husband's income is greater for young than for the mature women NLS sample. As to market wages, we find that the presence of a child under three reduces market wages and results in a lifetime earnings loss equal to roughly two years earnings. We also find differential child effects on white and black wages. We find that occupational and educational choices of young women are strongly interrelated and are influenced by home environment and family assets. Comparisons of married and singles and whites and blacks reveal significant differences.
Bibliography Citation
Gregory, Paul R. and William J. Moore. "Earnings, Occupational Choice, and the Early Years of Family Formation, White and Black Women: A Study from the NLS." Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1977.
7. Gregory, Paul R.
Thomas, R. William
Moore, William J.
Relationship Between Fertility and Labor Participation of Married Women, White and Black Women
Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1976
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Children; Earnings; Fertility; Modeling, Probit; Socioeconomic Status (SES); Work Attitudes

The report contains results of a study of the impact of fertility (number of children and child spacing) on the labor force participation, labor supply, and hourly earnings of married women 30-44 in l967. Literature surveys are included. The data source is the NLS of Mature Women. Regression models (OLS and Probit) of labor force participation, hours (weeks) worked, lifetime labor supply, and hourly earnings are estimated for white and black samples to determine the impacts of children, attitudinal and socioeconomic variables on labor supply and earnings. The sources of the black earnings differential are analyzed.
Bibliography Citation
Gregory, Paul R., R. William Thomas and William J. Moore. "Relationship Between Fertility and Labor Participation of Married Women, White and Black Women." Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1976.
8. Hills, Stephen M.
Career Thresholds, Volume 8: A Longitudinal Study of Fifteen Years of Labor Market Experience of Young Men
Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1985
Cohort(s): Young Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Earnings, Wives; Industrial Sector; Labor Force Participation; Mobility; Unemployment; Unions; Vietnam War

Fifteen years of data collected from a nationally-representative sample of Young Men who were age 14-24 when first interviewed in 1966 are analyzed in this volume. Chapter One examines involuntary dislocation from jobs and shows that even for young workers age 29-39 in 1981, finding new employment can be difficult. Chapter Two compares displacement patterns in the construction, automobile, and steel industries with that in other industries; it finds several significant patterns including that highly skilled and highly unionized workers were less mobile than others. Chapter Three examines the labor market behavior of young men as it is affected by the presence of other wage earners in the household, and finds that wife's employment cushions the effects of the male's unemployment. Chapter Four focuses on geographic mobility and finds that young men and their families respond directly to economic signals when making decisions about moving. Chapter Five discusses career trajectories, and Chapter Six the experience of men of draft-eligible age during the Vietnam conflict.
Bibliography Citation
Hills, Stephen M. "Career Thresholds, Volume 8: A Longitudinal Study of Fifteen Years of Labor Market Experience of Young Men." Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1985.
9. Larson, Donald
Components of Non-Market Time and Female Labor Supply Patterns
Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1979
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Children; Employment; Leisure; Work History

The study examines the determination of labor supply patterns (in terms of hours per week and weeks per year) for married women. The analysis proceeds by defining two distinct types of non-market time which are uniquely associated with the labor supply patterns. A theory of demand for these "leisure" components is developed and estimated empirically using data from the NLS of Mature Women ages 30-44. The results indicate that women are not indifferent to the pattern of work time and that their choices are related to a number of economic and demographic factors. In particular, annual weeks is found to have a substantially higher, positive elasticity than weekly hours.
Bibliography Citation
Larson, Donald. "Components of Non-Market Time and Female Labor Supply Patterns." Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1979.
10. Leigh, Duane E.
An Analysis of the Interrelation between Unions, Race, and Wage and Nonwage Compensation
Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1978
Cohort(s): Older Men, Young Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Benefits, Fringe; Earnings; Endogeneity; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Quits; Retirement; Unions

Using data from the NLS of Older and Young Men, this report presents estimates of the effect of unions on relative wage rates and on a variety of measures of nonwage compensation. For white workers, results obtained from a two- equation model in which wages and union status are endogenously determined indicate that the usual single-equation estimates of union-nonunion wage differentials overstate the true relative wage impact of unions. This conclusion does not hold, however, for black workers. The relatively large relative wage estimates obtained for blacks confirm previous results showing larger union-nonunion wage differentials for blacks than whites. Among nonwage variables, unions are found to decrease the quit propensities of workers in both racial groups. Similarly, a comparison of the occupational mobility of workers who remain with the same employer indicates that unionized whites do not enjoy systematically greater promotional opportunities relative to unionized blacks within internal labor markets.
Bibliography Citation
Leigh, Duane E. "An Analysis of the Interrelation between Unions, Race, and Wage and Nonwage Compensation." Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1978.
11. Leighton, Linda S.
Structure and Determinants of Youth Unemployment: An Empirical Analysis of Black-White, Male-Female Differences
Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1980
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Mobility; Mobility, Job; Teenagers; Unemployment

This research examines the structure and determinants of unemployment among young men and women. The NLS of Young Women and Men from l968 through l97l are utilized. Respondents included blacks and whites between the ages of 16 and 24. The unemployment rate over a period of time is decomposed into incidence, duration, and non- participation. To gauge which component of the rate is primarily responsible for group differences, percent differentials in the rate and its components are calculated for selected population groups. In general, higher unemployment wages are attributable to higher employment probabilities, but non-participation is also important in creating group differences, especially in male-female comparisons among blacks. With few exceptions, duration works to narrow the sex differential, and does not contribute significantly to the racial difference. Since unemployment incidence is primarily responsible for group differences, the analysis focuses on labor mobility.
Bibliography Citation
Leighton, Linda S. "Structure and Determinants of Youth Unemployment: An Empirical Analysis of Black-White, Male-Female Differences." Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1980.
12. Maret-Havens, Elizabeth G.
Women and the American Occupational Structure
Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1977
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Children; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Employment; Family Resources; Husbands, Influence; Labor Force Participation; Marital Status; Wives; Work Attachment; Work Attitudes

This report explains the labor force participation patterns of American women. The report contains both a literature survey and an empirical analysis of women's labor force participation. Based on data from longitudinal surveys for a statistical sample of mature American women, the general focus of this research is on economic models of female labor force participation. More specifically, the research explores supply and demand conditions related to employment patterns of mature women. The supply conditions pertain to personal attributes of females such as their attitudes, education, ethnicity, and number of children. The demand conditions concern characteristics of the job and labor-environment and include female earnings and general economic conditions of the market place.
Bibliography Citation
Maret-Havens, Elizabeth G. "Women and the American Occupational Structure." Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1977.
13. Miller, Ann R.
Migration, Employment, and Occupational Mobility: A Study of Trends and Interrelations and an Evaluation of Data
Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1981
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Census of Population; Educational Attainment; Migration; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Occupational Status

The report utilizes data for l955-75 (NLS and l970 Census Retrospective data) to present evidence that: (1) recently noted migration from metropolitan areas of the Northern regions toward the South and West is a continuation of a trend observable at least since l955-60; (2) the primary migration flow is intermetropolitan; (3) intermetropolitan migrants in general have high educational attainment and occupational status; (4) the marked tendency for migrants to a given metropolitan area to resemble occupationally those who leave that area has continued; and (5) in general, neither occupational nor geographic mobility function very efficiently as mechanisms for effecting structural change. Each is characterized by extensive flow and counterflow and the resulting net changes are generally a small proportion of the total amount of gross mobility on the part of the individuals.
Bibliography Citation
Miller, Ann R. "Migration, Employment, and Occupational Mobility: A Study of Trends and Interrelations and an Evaluation of Data." Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1981.
14. National Commission for Manpower Policy
Current Issues in the Relationship Between Manpower Research and Policy
Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1976
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Manpower Planning; Research Methodology

The report is based primarily on the contributions of individuals concerned with manpower research and policy. The researchers, analysts, and policy-makers examined the role of research, evaluation, and experimentation and discussed the ways in which knowledge developed in these areas can be used to impact on policy. In addition, the report outlines the policy findings of the NLS and highlights the knowledge gaps in local manpower planning. The report concludes by assessing the current knowledge in human resources areas relative to manpower legislation and sets forth priorities for national policy.
Bibliography Citation
National Commission for Manpower Policy. "Current Issues in the Relationship Between Manpower Research and Policy." Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1976.
15. Parrow, Alan A.
Labor Sectors and the Status Attainment Process: Race and Sex Comparisons
Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1981
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Discrimination, Sex; Earnings; Employment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Market, Secondary; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Occupational Attainment; Simultaneity; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Various hypotheses from the theory of dual labor markets about why race and sex differentials in earnings and occupational attainments continue to exist are tested. Using eight year panel data from the NLS of Young Men and Young Women, simultaneous equation models and dynamic models of mobility are used to compare the early career processes of black and white men and women. In general, the empirical evidence does not support the notion of a strict bimodal division of the economy into primary and secondary labor sectors. Mobility exists between the sectors and the earnings structure shows only minimal evidence of bipolarization.
Bibliography Citation
Parrow, Alan A. "Labor Sectors and the Status Attainment Process: Race and Sex Comparisons." Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1981.
16. Rence, Cynthia
Work, Wages, and Job Changes: Returns to Labor Market Mobility for Women
Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1978
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Employment; Family Influences; Layoffs; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Quits; Wages, Women

The effects of changes in market jobs on earnings and labor supply decisions for women workers who are in their thirties and forties are analyzed using data from the NLS of Mature Women, 1969-1972. In addition to predicting percentage changes in hourly wage rates as a result of employer changes, this research examines flows out of the paid labor force and adjustments in hours of market work. Quits are divided into family-related quits and job- related quits, and both of these groups are distinguished from job losses. Job-related quits are more likely to increase hours of market work when they change jobs than either family- related quits or joblosers. Forty percent of the women job-changers were hurt by turnover in the sense that they earned less after changing employers than they earned at their old market jobs.
Bibliography Citation
Rence, Cynthia. "Work, Wages, and Job Changes: Returns to Labor Market Mobility for Women." Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1978.
17. Sandell, Steven H.
Koenig, Peter J.
Measurement Error and Its Consequences: The Case of Annual Hours of Work
Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1978.
Also: http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009631686
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Husbands; Marital Status; Research Methodology; Wives

The primary purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of different methodologies on labor supply measures plagued with errors. By using a better measure in the NLS, the frequently used estimate for annual hours with an average of 10 to 50 percent, was found to severely bias the coefficients in labor supply equations of young married men and women. In addition, biased estimates were also found when annual earnings divided by imputed wage and weeks worked was used to substitute labor supply measures. In essence, this paper demonstrates the necessity of weighting observations to avoid heteroscedasticity and sample selection bias.
Bibliography Citation
Sandell, Steven H. and Peter J. Koenig. "Measurement Error and Its Consequences: The Case of Annual Hours of Work." Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1978.
18. Santos, Richard
Hispanic Youth in the Labor Market
Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1983.
Also: http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009872111
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Employment; Hispanic Youth; Hispanics; Job Satisfaction; Job Search; Occupations; Racial Differences; Unemployment

Using data from the 1979 and 1980 interviews of the NLSY, this study examines the labor market experiences of Hispanic youth. Subjects selected for analysis include employment and unemployment, job search methods, types of occupation, job satisfaction, government sponsored employment and training, attitudes toward work and military service, reported illegal activities, and employment opportunities. Comparisons are made with blacks and whites who were also included in this sample of young men and women aged 14-21 in 1979.
Bibliography Citation
Santos, Richard. "Hispanic Youth in the Labor Market." Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1983.
19. Shaw, Lois B.
Does Working Part-Time Contribute to Women's Occupational Segregation
Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1983.
Also: http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009872112
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Occupational Segregation; Part-Time Work; Preschool Children

During 1968-1980, there was a new influx of young women into atypical occupations. Among women who were 26-36 years of age in 1980, those without children were nearly twice as likely to work in atypical occupations as were women with pre-school children. Even among women with similar family responsibilities, those who held jobs in atypical occupations were somewhat less likely to work part-time than were those in traditional female jobs. An analysis of the interactions between part-time and atypical employment revealed that women who had a higher propensity to work part-time were less likely to work in atypical occupations, and conversely, that those who were more likely to work in atypical occupations were less likely to work part-time. Good job prospects in atypical occupations may be necessary conditions for further occupational desegregation.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B. "Does Working Part-Time Contribute to Women's Occupational Segregation." Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1983.
20. Shaw, Lois B.
Effects of Education and Occupational Training on the Wages of Mature Women
Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1983.
Also: http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009872113
Cohort(s): Mature Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Employment; Occupations, Female; Schooling; Training, Occupational; Wages, Women

This paper uses data from the NLS of Mature Women to determine which kinds of job training are beneficial for midlife women and which women receive these kinds of training. On-the-job training, college education, and other occupational training undertaken by workers are considered. Both on-the-job training and college attendance were found to pay off in higher wages. For women who had not attended college, professional or managerial training in settings other than on the job or regular college was also beneficial. Clerical training did not produce higher wages for any group. Other kinds of training such as practical nursing increased the wages of noncollege women. These findings indicate that various kinds of education and training programs are beneficial for middle-aged women, but a woman's previous background is important in determining the kind of program to pursue. On-the-job training is valuable for all groups; other kinds of education and training not only increase wages directly, but also increase the probability that women will receive on-the-job training.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B. "Effects of Education and Occupational Training on the Wages of Mature Women." Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1983.
21. Shaw, Lois B.
Shapiro, David
Early Work Plans, Actual Work Behavior, and Wages of Young Women
Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1983.
Also: http://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009872114
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Labor Force Participation; Occupational Aspirations; Wages, Young Women; Work History

Data from the NLS were used to examine how young women's work plans affect their subsequent work experiences and earnings. Results indicate that over 80 percent of women who consistently planned to work in the early interview years were in the labor force in 1980, but about half of the women who had not planned to work were also in the labor force. Women who had not planned to work appear to have changed their plans because of divorce, low earnings of their husbands, or because their own earnings potential was high. Women who had planned to work failed to realize their plans if they had large families or more children than they had expected. After controlling for education and actual work experience, wages of women who consistently planned to work were about 30 percent higher than those of women who never planned to work.
Bibliography Citation
Shaw, Lois B. and David Shapiro. "Early Work Plans, Actual Work Behavior, and Wages of Young Women." Final Report, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 1983.