Search Results

Source: Personality and Individual Differences
Resulting in 14 citations.
1. Basset, Jonathan F.
Dabbs, James M.
Eye Color Predicts Alcohol Use in Two Archival Samples
Personality and Individual Differences 31,4 (September 2001): 535-539.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886900001574
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Addiction; Alcohol Use; Behavior; Behavioral Differences; Physical Characteristics

The present study used data from two archival samples to test the hypothesis, derived from Worthy, M. (1999), Eye colour: a key to human and animal behaviour. Lincoln, Nebraska: to Exel (originally published 1974) that light-eyed individuals would be more likely than dark-eyed individuals to abuse alcohol. Sample 1 consisted of 10,860 Caucasian male prison inmates, and Sample 2 consisted of 1862 Caucasian women respondents in a national survey. In both samples, individuals with light eyes had consumed significantly more alcohol than individuals with dark eyes. These results are consistent with previous findings that dark-eyed people exhibit more physiological arousal and more sensitivity to some medications than light-eyed people. The results may indicate that greater sensitivity to alcohol in dark-eyed individuals prevents them from drinking the large quantities of alcohol needed for development of physical dependence. Alternatively, greater behavioral inhibition may motivate light-eyed individuals to engage in alcohol consumption to achieve harm avoidance.
Bibliography Citation
Basset, Jonathan F. and James M. Dabbs. "Eye Color Predicts Alcohol Use in Two Archival Samples." Personality and Individual Differences 31,4 (September 2001): 535-539.
2. Borghans, Lex
Golsteyn, Bart H.H.
Heckman, James J.
Humphries, John Eric
Identification Problems in Personality Psychology
Personality and Individual Differences 51,3 (August 2011): 315-320:
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886911001504
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Achievement; Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Cross-national Analysis; I.Q.; Intelligence Tests; Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control)

This paper discusses and illustrates identification problems in personality psychology. The measures used by psychologists to infer traits are based on behaviors, broadly defined. These behaviors are produced from multiple traits interacting with incentives in situations. In general, measures are determined by these multiple traits and do not identify any particular trait unless incentives and other traits are controlled for. Using two data sets, we show, that substantial portions of the variance in achievement test scores and grades, which are often used as measures of cognition, are explained by personality variables.
Bibliography Citation
Borghans, Lex, Bart H.H. Golsteyn, James J. Heckman and John Eric Humphries. "Identification Problems in Personality Psychology ." Personality and Individual Differences 51,3 (August 2011): 315-320:.
3. Converse, Patrick D.
Piccone, Katrina A.
Tocci, Michael C.
Childhood Self-Control, Adolescent Behavior, and Career Success
Personality and Individual Differences 59 (March 2014): 65-70.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886913013524
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Delinquency/Gang Activity; Earnings; Job Satisfaction; Occupational Information Network (O*NET); Occupational Prestige; Self-Regulation/Self-Control

Research indicates that dispositional self-control is an important predictor of a wide range of behaviors and outcomes but little research has examined this characteristic in the context of career success. This work adds to the limited findings in this area and extends previous research by developing and examining a model of self-control and career success. Specifically, drawing from the concepts of cumulative and interactional continuity (Caspi, Bem, & Elder, 1989) and the recently proposed distinction between start/initiatory and stop/inhibitory self-control (e.g., de Ridder, de Boer, Lugtig, Bakker, & van Hooft, 2011), we developed and tested a model of the pathways leading from childhood self-control to career outcomes focusing on adolescent behavior that is positive (e.g., studying) versus negative (e.g., stealing), education, and job complexity. Results indicated that childhood self-control predicted positive and negative adolescent behavior; this behavior predicted educational attainment; education predicted the complexity and income associated with one’s job; job complexity predicted income and job satisfaction; and income predicted job satisfaction. These findings add to research on self-control and career success, further demonstrating the relevance of self-control in this context and highlighting key links connecting these variables involving factors related to start and stop control.
Bibliography Citation
Converse, Patrick D., Katrina A. Piccone and Michael C. Tocci. "Childhood Self-Control, Adolescent Behavior, and Career Success." Personality and Individual Differences 59 (March 2014): 65-70.
4. Coyle, Thomas R.
Purcell, Jason M.
Snyder, Anissa
White–Black Differences in g and non-g Effects for the SAT and ACT
Personality and Individual Differences 54,8 (June 2013): 941-945.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S019188691300038X
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); g Factor; Racial Differences; School Performance; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

This research examined g and non-g effects for the SAT and ACT for whites and blacks. SAT scores, ACT scores, and college GPAs were obtained from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. g was estimated using the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery. Results indicated that (a) the g loadings of SAT and ACT composite scores were lower for whites than blacks, (b) group differences in the g loadings were related to the math subtests of the SAT and ACT, and (c) non-g variance accounted for surprisingly large percentages of SAT–GPA and ACT–GPA relations (range = 37–67%). The findings are discussed in terms of Spearman’s Law of Diminishing Returns.
Bibliography Citation
Coyle, Thomas R., Jason M. Purcell and Anissa Snyder. "White–Black Differences in g and non-g Effects for the SAT and ACT." Personality and Individual Differences 54,8 (June 2013): 941-945.
5. Coyle, Thomas R.
Snyder, Anissa
Pillow, David R.
Kochunov, Peter
SAT Predicts GPA Better for High Ability Subjects: Implications for Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns
Personality and Individual Differences 50,4 (April 2011): 470-474.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886910005477
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Cognitive Ability; g Factor; Tests and Testing

This research examined the predictive validity of the SAT (formerly, the Scholastic Aptitude Test) for high and low ability groups. SAT scores and college GPAs were obtained from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Subjects were classified as high or low ability by g factor scores from the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery. SAT correlations with GPA were higher for high than low ability subjects. SAT g loadings (i.e., SAT correlations with g) were equivalent for both groups. This is the first study to show that the predictive validity of the SAT varies for ability groups that differ in g. The results contradict a presumption, based on Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns, that a test's predictive validity should be lower for high ability subjects. Further research is needed to identify factors that contribute to the predictive validity of the SAT for groups that differing. [Copyright © Elsevier]

Copyright of Personality & Individual Differences is the property of Pergamon Press - An Imprint of Elsevier Science and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

Bibliography Citation
Coyle, Thomas R., Anissa Snyder, David R. Pillow and Peter Kochunov. "SAT Predicts GPA Better for High Ability Subjects: Implications for Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns." Personality and Individual Differences 50,4 (April 2011): 470-474.
6. Ganzach, Yoav
Adolescents’ Intelligence Is Related to Family Income
Personality and Individual Differences 59 (March 2014): 112-115.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S019188691301341X
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Educational Attainment; Family Income; Intelligence; Parental Influences

In a recent article Lemos, Almeida & Colom (LAC, 2011) argued that adolescents’ intelligence is related to parents’ educational levels but not to family income. We examine their finding in two large, nationally representative American samples and find that in these samples (log) income had a strong positive relationship with intelligence.
Bibliography Citation
Ganzach, Yoav. "Adolescents’ Intelligence Is Related to Family Income." Personality and Individual Differences 59 (March 2014): 112-115.
7. Ganzach, Yoav
Amar, Moty
Intelligence and the Repayment of High- and Low-consequences Debt
Personality and Individual Differences 110 (1 May 2017): 102-108.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886917300387
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Debt/Borrowing; Intelligence

We study the relationship between intelligence and debt repayment of High Consequences Debt (HCD), such as mortgage debt, and Low Consequences Debt (LCD), such as credit card debt. We find that intelligence has a stronger negative effect on the repayment of HCD than on the repayment of LCD. Our results also indicate that personality has a stronger effect on HCD than LCD, and that the availability of financial resources has a stronger effect on LCD than on HCD. These results are explained by the effect of involvement on decision making processes in general, and financial decision processes in particular.
Bibliography Citation
Ganzach, Yoav and Moty Amar. "Intelligence and the Repayment of High- and Low-consequences Debt." Personality and Individual Differences 110 (1 May 2017): 102-108.
8. Hartmann, Peter
Reuter, Martin
Nyborg, Helmuth
The Relationship Between Date of Birth and Individual Differences in Personality and General Intelligence: A Large-scale Study
Personality and Individual Differences 40,7 (May 2006): 1349-1362.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886905004046
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Birth Outcomes; g Factor; Intelligence; Seasonality

We investigated the relationship between date of birth and individual differences in personality and intelligence in two large samples. The first sample consisted of 4000+ middle-aged male subjects from the Vietnam Experience Study; personality was measured by the MMPI items converted to EPQ (scales) and a large battery of cognitive tests were factored to derive general intelligence, g. The second sample consisted of 11,000+ young adults from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth from 1979. g was extracted from the ten subtests of the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery.

In no cases did date of birth relate to individual differences in personality or general intelligence.

A further goal was to test Eysenck's notion of possible relationships between date of birth and the popular Sun Signs in astrology. No support could be found for such associations.

We conclude that the present large-scale study provides no evidence for the existence of relevant relationships between date of birth and individual differences in personality and general intelligence.

Bibliography Citation
Hartmann, Peter, Martin Reuter and Helmuth Nyborg. "The Relationship Between Date of Birth and Individual Differences in Personality and General Intelligence: A Large-scale Study." Personality and Individual Differences 40,7 (May 2006): 1349-1362.
9. Kavish, Nicholas
Connolly, Eric J.
Boutwell, Brian B.
Genetic and Environmental Contributions to the Association between Violent Victimization and Major Depressive Disorder
Personality and Individual Differences published online (31 May 2018): DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2018.05.034.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886918302885
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Bullying/Victimization; Crime; Depression (see also CESD); Genetics; Siblings

Research suggests victims of violent crime are more likely to suffer from major depressive disorder (MDD) compared to non-victims. Less research has utilized longitudinal data to evaluate the directionality of this relationship or examined the genetic and environmental contributions to this association across the life course. The current study evaluated 473 full-sibling pairs and 209 half-sibling pairs (N = 1364) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (Mage = 20.14, SD = 3.94). Cross-lagged models were used to examine the directionality of effects between violent victimization and MDD over time. Biometric liability models were used to examine genetic and environmental influences on single and chronic violent victimization and MDD. Violent victimization was associated with increases in MDD during late adolescence, but MDD was more associated with increased risk for violent victimization across young adulthood. Biometric analysis indicated that 20% and 30% of the association between MDD and single and chronic victimization, respectively, was accounted for by common genetic influences. Results from the current study suggest individuals who exhibit symptoms of MDD may be at higher risk for chronic victimization rather than developing MDD as a result of victimization.
Bibliography Citation
Kavish, Nicholas, Eric J. Connolly and Brian B. Boutwell. "Genetic and Environmental Contributions to the Association between Violent Victimization and Major Depressive Disorder." Personality and Individual Differences published online (31 May 2018): DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2018.05.034.
10. Levine, Stephen Z.
Elaboration on the Association Between IQ and Parental SES with Subsequent Crime
Personality and Individual Differences 50,8 (June 2011): 1233-1237.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886911000912
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Behavior, Antisocial; Childhood; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; I.Q.; Incarceration/Jail; Modeling, Poisson (IRT–ZIP); Socioeconomic Status (SES)

To examine competing theoretical propositions and research, the hypotheses were tested that low parental socioeconomic status (SES), low IQ and their interaction increase the likelihood of crime. To test these hypotheses, representative US data (n = 11,437) were examined based on SES and IQ in 1981, and subsequent incarcerations from 1982 to 2006. Incarceration outcomes predicted included: incidence with binary logistic modeling, time to incarceration with Cox modeling and incarceration frequency with Poisson modeling. Results showed that low IQ, low SES and their interaction modestly predicted these three incarceration outcomes. These results were replicated among males, underprivileged groups and people with a last interview. Given that low IQ and SES are generally associated with increased risk of subsequent crime their theoretical integration is appropriate.
Bibliography Citation
Levine, Stephen Z. "Elaboration on the Association Between IQ and Parental SES with Subsequent Crime." Personality and Individual Differences 50,8 (June 2011): 1233-1237.
11. Salkever, David S.
Interpreting the NLSY79 Empirical Data on “IQ” and "Achievement": A Comment on Borghans et al.'s "Identification Problems in Personality Psychology"
Personality and Individual Differences 85 (October 2015): 66-68.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886915003050
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); I.Q.; Misclassification, Mismeasurement; Personality/Big Five Factor Model or Traits; Statistical Analysis

In an otherwise interesting and enlightening article, Borghans, Golsteyn, Heckman, and Humphries (2011) analyzed evidence from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) to support their contention that "achievement" tests have greater power than "IQ" tests in predicting "a variety of life outcomes". A key point in their argument is their contention that scores on the Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT) represent "achievement" scores and that the AFQT is qualitatively different from purported true "IQ" score data also available in the NLSY79. This contention is based on both conceptual argument and empirical analysis of NLSY79 data. This comment disputes their contention on both grounds. First, it argues that their conceptual distinction is contradicted in the educational testing literature and is based on erroneous assumptions about the nature of the purported true "IQ" test data in the NLSY79. Second, it presents evidence that their empirical findings flow from problems in true "IQ" score imputation and large gaps in calendar time between the purported true "IQ" tests and AFQT and personality test data in the NLSY79 data set.
Bibliography Citation
Salkever, David S. "Interpreting the NLSY79 Empirical Data on “IQ” and "Achievement": A Comment on Borghans et al.'s "Identification Problems in Personality Psychology"." Personality and Individual Differences 85 (October 2015): 66-68.
12. Walters, Glenn D.
Childhood Temperament: Dimensions or Types?
Personality and Individual Differences 50,8 (June 2011): 1168-1173.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886911000894
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Childhood; Scale Construction; Temperament; Tests and Testing

In the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY-C), mothers rated their 12-23month old toddlers on 11 temperament items. Three sets of items (three items per set) - one clustered around fearfulness, one clustered around positive affect, and one clustered around difficultness - were subjected to taxometric analysis using mean above minus below a cut (MAMBAC), maximum covariance (MAXCOV), and latent-mode factor analysis (L-Mode). The results for all three sets of items showed consistent support for dimensional latent structure. When all nine items were simultaneously analyzed with finite mixture modeling the results were inconsistent with a categorical solution. The results of this study indicate that individual differences in childhood temperament - as measured by maternal ratings of children 12-23months of age - are quantitative (difference in degree) rather than qualitative (difference of kind). The implications of these results for understanding and assessing childhood temperament are discussed. [Copyright © Elsevier]
Bibliography Citation
Walters, Glenn D. "Childhood Temperament: Dimensions or Types?" Personality and Individual Differences 50,8 (June 2011): 1168-1173.
13. Woodley, Michael A.
Meisenberg, Gerhard
A Jensen Effect on Dysgenic Fertility: An Analysis Involving the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Personality and Individual Differences 55,3 (July 2013): 279-282.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886912002607
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Fertility; Gender Differences; Genetics; I.Q.; Intelligence; Statistical Analysis

In this study we attempt to determine whether dysgenic fertility is associated with the Jensen effect. This is investigated with respect to a US population representative sample of 8110 individuals from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth for whom there exists complete data on IQ and fertility. In addition to the general sample, the sample was also broken out by race and sex so as to examine whether or not the Jensen effect manifested amongst different sub-populations. The method of correlated vectors revealed significant Jensen effects in five of the seven samples, and in all cases the effect was in a direction indicating that subtests with higher g-loadings were associated with larger dysgenic fertility gradients. The magnitude of the difference between Spearman’s ρ and Pearson’s r was non-significant in all cases, suggesting that biasing factors were minimally influencing the result. This finding suggests that dysgenesis occurs on the ‘genetic g’ at the heart of the Jensen effect nexus, unlike the Flynn effect, which is ‘hollow’ with respect to g. Finally, the finding is discussed in the context of two converging lines of evidence indicating that genotypic IQ or ‘genetic g’ really has been declining over the last century.
Bibliography Citation
Woodley, Michael A. and Gerhard Meisenberg. "A Jensen Effect on Dysgenic Fertility: An Analysis Involving the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." Personality and Individual Differences 55,3 (July 2013): 279-282.
14. Woodley, Michael A.
Sanger, Justus
Meisenberg, Gerhard
No Relationship between Abortion Numbers and Maternal Cognitive Ability
Personality and Individual Differences 104 (January 2017): 489-492.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886916309631
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Abortion; Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Cognitive Ability; Educational Attainment; National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG)

The relationship between maternal cognitive ability (as indicated by g and highest attained educational level) and self-reported numbers of abortions at near-completed fertility is investigated in two, population representative samples of the US: (i) a sample of 1386 women, sourced from NLSY79 (aged 39-47), and (ii) a sample of 842 women (aged 38-45), sourced from NSFG'11-13. No linear relationships between either of the cognitive ability measures and abortion numbers were found, nor were quadratic effects present in these data. Income had an independent negative effect on abortion numbers in the NSFG'11-13 sample, whereas age was a positive independent predictor in the NLSY79 sample. The essentially zero-magnitude association between maternal cognitive ability and abortion numbers may have resulted from the wide scale destigmatization of elective abortion as a birth-control technique in the US following the 1973 US Supreme Court ruling in Roe v. Wade. Despite this, self-reported abortion numbers data typically underrepresent the true numbers of abortions hence these findings must be considered tentative especially if underreporting is unsystematic with respect to any of the predictors.
Bibliography Citation
Woodley, Michael A., Justus Sanger and Gerhard Meisenberg. "No Relationship between Abortion Numbers and Maternal Cognitive Ability." Personality and Individual Differences 104 (January 2017): 489-492.