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Author: Meisenberg, Gerhard
Resulting in 6 citations.
1. Meisenberg, Gerhard
Intellectual Growth during Late Adolescence: Effects of Sex and Race
Mankind Quarterly 50,1-2 (Fall-Winter 2009): 138-184.
Also: http://www.mankindquarterly.org/fall_winter2009_meisenberg.html
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Council for Social and Economic Studies
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Gender Differences; I.Q.; Intelligence; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Group differences in intelligence depend on the age at which the cognitive test is administered. Using data from the NLSY79 in the United States, this study analyzes scores on the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB). The rise in scores on ASVAB subtests, IQ and g is essentially linear from age 15 to 23. The rise is greater for males than females, a difference that is statistically significant (p<.01) for g in the white but not the black group. The rate of age-dependent score increases is considerably greater in Whites than Blacks (p<.001). Possible causes of these age trends are investigated.
Bibliography Citation
Meisenberg, Gerhard. "Intellectual Growth during Late Adolescence: Effects of Sex and Race." Mankind Quarterly 50,1-2 (Fall-Winter 2009): 138-184.
2. Meisenberg, Gerhard
The Reproduction of Intelligence
Intelligence 38,2 (March-April 2010): 220-230.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016028961000005X
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Cognitive Ability; Education; Fertility; Gender Attitudes/Roles; I.Q.; Intelligence; Racial Differences; Religion

Although a negative relationship between fertility and education has been described consistently in most countries of the world, less is known about the relationship between intelligence and reproductive outcomes. Also the paths through which intelligence influences reproductive outcomes are uncertain. The present study uses the NLSY79 to analyze the relationship of intelligence measured in 1980 with the number of children reported in 2004, when the respondents were between 39 and 47 years old. Intelligence is negatively related to the number of children, with partial correlations (age controlled) of −.156, −.069, −.235 and −.028 for White females, White males, Black females and Black males, respectively. This effect is related mainly to the g-factor. It is mediated in part by education and income, and to a lesser extent by the more “liberal” gender attitudes of more intelligent people. In the absence of migration and with constant environment, genetic selection would reduce the average IQ of the US population by about .8 points per generation.
Bibliography Citation
Meisenberg, Gerhard. "The Reproduction of Intelligence." Intelligence 38,2 (March-April 2010): 220-230.
3. Meisenberg, Gerhard
Kaul, Anubhav
Effects of Sex, Race, Ethnicity and Marital Status on the Relationship between Intelligence and Fertility
Mankind Quarterly 1,3 (Spring 2010): 151-187.
Also: http://www.mankindquarterly.org/samples/Meisenberg.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Council for Social and Economic Studies
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Fertility; Gender Differences; Intelligence; Marital Status; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A negative relationship between intelligence and fertility in the United States has been described repeatedly, but little is known about the mechanisms that are responsible for this effect. Using data from the NLSY79, we investigate this issue separately for Blacks, non-Hispanic Whites and Hispanics. The major findings are: (1) Differential fertility would reduce the average IQ of the American population by up to 1.2 points per generation in the absence of migration and environmental changes; (2) About 0.4 points of the effect is caused by selection within racial and ethnic groups, and the rest is caused by between-group selection; (3) Differential fertility by intelligence is greatest in Hispanics and smallest in non-Hispanic Whites; (4) The fertility-reducing effect of intelligence is greater in females than males; (5) The IQ-fertility relationship is far stronger for unmarried than married people, especially females; (5) High intelligence does not reduce the desire for children; (6) High intelligence does not reduce the likelihood of marriage; (7) Education is the principal mediator of the IQ effect for married women.
Bibliography Citation
Meisenberg, Gerhard and Anubhav Kaul. "Effects of Sex, Race, Ethnicity and Marital Status on the Relationship between Intelligence and Fertility." Mankind Quarterly 1,3 (Spring 2010): 151-187.
4. Woodley, Michael A.
Meisenberg, Gerhard
A Jensen Effect on Dysgenic Fertility: An Analysis Involving the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Personality and Individual Differences 55,3 (July 2013): 279-282.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886912002607
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Fertility; Gender Differences; Genetics; I.Q.; Intelligence; Statistical Analysis

In this study we attempt to determine whether dysgenic fertility is associated with the Jensen effect. This is investigated with respect to a US population representative sample of 8110 individuals from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth for whom there exists complete data on IQ and fertility. In addition to the general sample, the sample was also broken out by race and sex so as to examine whether or not the Jensen effect manifested amongst different sub-populations. The method of correlated vectors revealed significant Jensen effects in five of the seven samples, and in all cases the effect was in a direction indicating that subtests with higher g-loadings were associated with larger dysgenic fertility gradients. The magnitude of the difference between Spearman’s ρ and Pearson’s r was non-significant in all cases, suggesting that biasing factors were minimally influencing the result. This finding suggests that dysgenesis occurs on the ‘genetic g’ at the heart of the Jensen effect nexus, unlike the Flynn effect, which is ‘hollow’ with respect to g. Finally, the finding is discussed in the context of two converging lines of evidence indicating that genotypic IQ or ‘genetic g’ really has been declining over the last century.
Bibliography Citation
Woodley, Michael A. and Gerhard Meisenberg. "A Jensen Effect on Dysgenic Fertility: An Analysis Involving the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." Personality and Individual Differences 55,3 (July 2013): 279-282.
5. Woodley, Michael A.
Reeve, Charlie L.
Kanazawa, Satoshi
Meisenberg, Gerhard
Fernandes, Heitor B.F.
Cabeza de Baca, Tomas
Contemporary Phenotypic Selection on Intelligence is (mostly) Directional: An Analysis of Three, Population Representative Samples
Intelligence 59 (November-December 2016): 109-114.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289616300915
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Britain, British; Fertility; Gender Differences; I.Q.; Project Talent; Racial Differences

Three large and nationally representative datasets (NCDS, N = 5225, NLSY79, N = 7598 and Project Talent, N = 76,150) are here examined in order to determine if models incorporating negative quadratic effects of IQ on fertility (which would indicate the presence of stabilizing phenotypic selection) improve model fit, relative to ones that only consider linear effects (which indicate directional phenotypic selection). Also considered were possible interactions among these terms and sex and race. For two datasets (NCDS and NLSY79) the best fitting models did not include quadratic terms, however significant sex*IQ and race*IQ interactions were found respectively. Only in Project Talent did the inclusion of a quadratic effect (along with IQ*sex and IQ2* sex interactions) yield the best-fitting model. In this instance a small magnitude, significant negative quadratic term was found in addition to a larger magnitude linear term. Post hoc power analysis revealed that power was lacking in the two smaller samples (NCDS and NLSY′79) to detect the quadratic term, however the best fitting and most parsimonious models selected for these datasets did not include the quadratic term. The quadratic terms were furthermore several times smaller in magnitude than the linear terms in all models incorporating both terms. This indicates that stabilizing phenotypic selection is likely only very weakly present in these datasets. The dominance of linear effects across samples therefore suggests that phenotypic selection on IQ in these datasets is principally directional, although the magnitude of selection is relatively small, with IQ explaining at most 1% of the variance in fertility.
Bibliography Citation
Woodley, Michael A., Charlie L. Reeve, Satoshi Kanazawa, Gerhard Meisenberg, Heitor B.F. Fernandes and Tomas Cabeza de Baca. "Contemporary Phenotypic Selection on Intelligence is (mostly) Directional: An Analysis of Three, Population Representative Samples." Intelligence 59 (November-December 2016): 109-114.
6. Woodley, Michael A.
Sanger, Justus
Meisenberg, Gerhard
No Relationship between Abortion Numbers and Maternal Cognitive Ability
Personality and Individual Differences 104 (January 2017): 489-492.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886916309631
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Abortion; Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Cognitive Ability; Educational Attainment; National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG)

The relationship between maternal cognitive ability (as indicated by g and highest attained educational level) and self-reported numbers of abortions at near-completed fertility is investigated in two, population representative samples of the US: (i) a sample of 1386 women, sourced from NLSY79 (aged 39-47), and (ii) a sample of 842 women (aged 38-45), sourced from NSFG'11-13. No linear relationships between either of the cognitive ability measures and abortion numbers were found, nor were quadratic effects present in these data. Income had an independent negative effect on abortion numbers in the NSFG'11-13 sample, whereas age was a positive independent predictor in the NLSY79 sample. The essentially zero-magnitude association between maternal cognitive ability and abortion numbers may have resulted from the wide scale destigmatization of elective abortion as a birth-control technique in the US following the 1973 US Supreme Court ruling in Roe v. Wade. Despite this, self-reported abortion numbers data typically underrepresent the true numbers of abortions hence these findings must be considered tentative especially if underreporting is unsystematic with respect to any of the predictors.
Bibliography Citation
Woodley, Michael A., Justus Sanger and Gerhard Meisenberg. "No Relationship between Abortion Numbers and Maternal Cognitive Ability." Personality and Individual Differences 104 (January 2017): 489-492.