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Author: Kavish, Nicholas
Resulting in 3 citations.
1. Connolly, Eric J.
Kavish, Nicholas
The Causal Relationship between Childhood Adversity and Developmental Trajectories of Delinquency: A Consideration of Genetic and Environmental Confounds
Journal of Youth and Adolescence published online (23 November 2018): DOI: 10.1007/s10964-018-0960-0.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10964-018-0960-0
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Childhood Adversity/Trauma; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Genetics; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

An extensive line of research has found that children exposed to multiple forms of early life adversity are more likely to engage in high levels of delinquent behavior during adolescence. Several studies examining this association have used a range of multivariate statistical techniques capable of controlling for observable covariates. Fewer studies have used family-based research designs to additionally control for unobservable confounds, such as genetic and shared environmental influences, that may be associated with exposure to childhood adversity and delinquency. The current study analyzes self-report data on 2534 full-siblings (50% female) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to conduct a sibling-comparison analysis to provide a rigorous test of the causal hypothesis that exposure to childhood adversity causes differences in developmental patterns of delinquent behavior. Results from multivariate latent growth curve models revealed that childhood adversity was associated with higher starting levels of delinquency during adolescence and slower rates of decline from adolescence to emerging adulthood. Results from multivariate sibling-comparison models, however, revealed that siblings exposed to higher levels of childhood adversity reported higher starting levels of delinquent behavior, but not slower declines over time, suggesting that childhood adversity may not be directly associated with long-term patterns of delinquent behavior after genetic and shared environmental factors are taken into account. Implications of these results for future research are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Connolly, Eric J. and Nicholas Kavish. "The Causal Relationship between Childhood Adversity and Developmental Trajectories of Delinquency: A Consideration of Genetic and Environmental Confounds." Journal of Youth and Adolescence published online (23 November 2018): DOI: 10.1007/s10964-018-0960-0.
2. Connolly, Eric J.
Kavish, Nicholas
Cooke, Eric M.
Testing the Causal Hypothesis that Repeated Bullying Victimization Leads to Lower Levels of Educational Attainment: A Sibling-comparison Analysis
Journal of School Violence 18,2 (2019): 272-284.
Also: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15388220.2018.1477603?journalCode=wjsv20
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. => Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Bullying/Victimization; Educational Attainment; Siblings

Existing research suggests that repeated bullying victimization is associated with lower levels of educational attainment. However, it is difficult to ascertain whether a true causal association exists since previously reported associations may be confounded by genetic and shared environmental factors that affect both repeated bullying victimization and overall educational attainment. The present study aimed to address this issue by analyzing a sample of sibling pairs from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to examine between-family associations (where observable confounds are controlled for) and within-family associations (where observable and unobserved genetic and shared environmental confounds are controlled for). The results revealed that bullying victimization significantly reduced the odds of high school and college graduation when estimating between-family effects, but were rendered nonsignificant once within-family effects were controlled for. Implications of these results for future research on bullying victimization and educational attainment are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Connolly, Eric J., Nicholas Kavish and Eric M. Cooke. "Testing the Causal Hypothesis that Repeated Bullying Victimization Leads to Lower Levels of Educational Attainment: A Sibling-comparison Analysis." Journal of School Violence 18,2 (2019): 272-284.
3. Kavish, Nicholas
Connolly, Eric J.
Boutwell, Brian B.
Genetic and Environmental Contributions to the Association between Violent Victimization and Major Depressive Disorder
Personality and Individual Differences published online (31 May 2018): DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2018.05.034.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886918302885
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Bullying/Victimization; Crime; Depression (see also CESD); Genetics; Siblings

Research suggests victims of violent crime are more likely to suffer from major depressive disorder (MDD) compared to non-victims. Less research has utilized longitudinal data to evaluate the directionality of this relationship or examined the genetic and environmental contributions to this association across the life course. The current study evaluated 473 full-sibling pairs and 209 half-sibling pairs (N = 1364) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (Mage = 20.14, SD = 3.94). Cross-lagged models were used to examine the directionality of effects between violent victimization and MDD over time. Biometric liability models were used to examine genetic and environmental influences on single and chronic violent victimization and MDD. Violent victimization was associated with increases in MDD during late adolescence, but MDD was more associated with increased risk for violent victimization across young adulthood. Biometric analysis indicated that 20% and 30% of the association between MDD and single and chronic victimization, respectively, was accounted for by common genetic influences. Results from the current study suggest individuals who exhibit symptoms of MDD may be at higher risk for chronic victimization rather than developing MDD as a result of victimization.
Bibliography Citation
Kavish, Nicholas, Eric J. Connolly and Brian B. Boutwell. "Genetic and Environmental Contributions to the Association between Violent Victimization and Major Depressive Disorder." Personality and Individual Differences published online (31 May 2018): DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2018.05.034.