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Author: Coyle, Thomas R.
Resulting in 13 citations.
1. Coyle, Thomas R.
Ability Tilt for Whites and Blacks: Support for Differentiation and Investment Theories
Intelligence 56 (May-June 2016): 28-34.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289616300447
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Aptitude; Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); College Major/Field of Study/Courses; Racial Differences; STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics); Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

This research is the first to examine race differences in ability tilt for whites and blacks, two groups that show an average difference in g (favoring whites) of about one standard deviation. Tilt was defined as within-subject differences in math and verbal scores on three aptitude tests (SAT, ACT, PSAT). These differences yielded math tilt (math > verbal) and verbal tilt (verbal > math), which were correlated with specific abilities (verbal and math) and college majors in STEM (science, technology, engineering, math) and the humanities. Math tilt was higher for whites than blacks, whereas verbal tilt was similar for both groups. In addition, tilt correlated positively with similar majors and abilities (e.g., math tilt and math ability), and negatively with competing majors and abilities (e.g., math tilt and verbal ability). Tilt effects were generally stronger for whites, and were unrelated to g. The results support differentiation theories, which predict higher levels of tilt for higher ability subjects, and investment theories, which predict negative tilt effects for competing abilities (e.g., math tilt and verbal ability).
Bibliography Citation
Coyle, Thomas R. "Ability Tilt for Whites and Blacks: Support for Differentiation and Investment Theories." Intelligence 56 (May-June 2016): 28-34.
2. Coyle, Thomas R.
Non-g Residuals of Group Factors Predict Ability Tilt, College Majors, and Jobs: A Non-g Nexus
Intelligence 67 (March-April 2018): 19-25.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289617302349
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Cognitive Ability; College Major/Field of Study/Courses; Occupations; STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics); Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

This study examined the predictive power of non-g residuals of group factors (based on multiple tests) for diverse criteria (e.g., aptitude tests, college majors, occupations). Test scores were drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 1950). Four group factors (math, verbal, speed, shop/technical) were estimated using the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery, a diverse battery of 12 cognitive tests. The residuals of the group factors were estimated after removing g (variance common to all tests) and were correlated with aptitude test scores (SAT, ACT, PSAT), ability tilt (i.e., difference between math and verbal scores on the aptitude tests), and college majors and jobs in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) and the humanities. The math residuals correlated positively with math/STEM criteria and negatively with verbal/humanities criteria. In contrast, the verbal residuals showed the opposite pattern. The residuals of the two non-academic factors (speed and shop) generally correlated negligibly with all criteria. The results are the first to demonstrate the predictive power of group factor residuals for diverse criteria. The findings extend prior research on non-g factors for individual tests (SAT and ACT) and provide evidence of a non-g nexus involving group factors. The pattern of results supports investment theories, which predict that investment in one area (math) correlates positively with complementary criteria (math/STEM) but negatively with competing criteria (verbal/humanities).
Bibliography Citation
Coyle, Thomas R. "Non-g Residuals of Group Factors Predict Ability Tilt, College Majors, and Jobs: A Non-g Nexus." Intelligence 67 (March-April 2018): 19-25.
3. Coyle, Thomas R.
Relations among General Intelligence (g), Aptitude Tests, and GPA: Linear Effects Dominate
Intelligence 53 (November-December 2015): 16-22.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289615001051
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Grade Point Average (GPA)/Grades; Intelligence; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

This research examined linear and nonlinear (quadratic) relations among general intelligence (g), aptitude tests (SAT, ACT, PSAT), and college GPAs. Test scores and GPAs were obtained from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 1950) and the College Board Validity Study (N = 160670). Regressions estimated linear and quadratic relations among g, based on the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery, composite and subtest scores of aptitude tests, and college GPAs. Linear effects explained almost all the variance in relations among variables. In contrast, quadratic effects explained trivial additional variance among variables (less than 1%, on average). The results do not support theories of intelligence (threshold theories or Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns), which predict that test scores lose predictive power with increases in ability level or at a certain threshold.
Bibliography Citation
Coyle, Thomas R. "Relations among General Intelligence (g), Aptitude Tests, and GPA: Linear Effects Dominate." Intelligence 53 (November-December 2015): 16-22.
4. Coyle, Thomas R.
Sex Differences in Tech Tilt: Support for Investment Theories
Intelligence 80 (May-June 2020): 101437.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289620300155
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Cognitive Ability; Gender Differences; Intelligence; STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics); Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

This study examined sex differences in tech tilt, based on within-subject differences in technical abilities (e.g., mechanical and electrical) and academic abilities (math or verbal) on the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB). The within-subject differences produced two types of tilt: tech tilt (tech > academic), indicating stronger technical abilities, and academic tilt (academic > tech), indicating stronger academic abilities. Tech tilt was correlated with math and verbal abilities on college aptitude tests (SAT, ACT, PSAT) and with jobs and college majors in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) and humanities. Males showed a tech tilt bias, and females showed an academic tilt bias. The tilt biases persisted after controlling for general intelligence (g). Tech tilt correlated negatively with academic abilities on the college aptitude tests (SAT, ACT, PSAT), with larger effects for females. In addition, relations of tech tilt with STEM jobs and majors were generally larger (and more often significant) for males, but only for tech tilt based on technical and verbal abilities. The negative relations of tech tilt with academic abilities on the college aptitude tests are consistent with investment theories, which predict that investment in one ability (technical) comes at the expense of competing abilities (academic). The sex differences in tech tilt and STEM support trait complexes involving abilities, interests, and vocational preferences (e.g., people versus things). Future research should examine whether spatial abilities and vocational interests mediate relations of tech tilt with sex and STEM criteria.
Bibliography Citation
Coyle, Thomas R. "Sex Differences in Tech Tilt: Support for Investment Theories." Intelligence 80 (May-June 2020): 101437.
5. Coyle, Thomas R.
Tech Tilt Predicts Jobs, College Majors, and Specific Abilities: Support for Investment Theories
Intelligence 75 (July-August 2019): 33-40.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289618302587
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Cognitive Ability; College Major/Field of Study/Courses; STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics); Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Specific cognitive abilities include ability tilt, based on within-subject differences in math and verbal scores on standardized tests (e.g., SAT, ACT). Ability tilt yields math tilt (math > verbal), which predicts STEM (science, technology, engineering, math) criteria, and verbal tilt (verbal > math), which predicts humanities criteria. The current study examined a new type of tilt: tech tilt, based on within-subject differences in technical scores and academic scores (math or verbal) on the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery. (Technical scores tapped vocational skills for electronics, mechanics, cars, and tools.)
Bibliography Citation
Coyle, Thomas R. "Tech Tilt Predicts Jobs, College Majors, and Specific Abilities: Support for Investment Theories." Intelligence 75 (July-August 2019): 33-40.
6. Coyle, Thomas R.
White-Black Differences in Tech Tilt: Support for Spearman's Law and Investment Theories
Intelligence published online (5 January 2021): DOI: 10.1016/j.intell.2020.101504.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289620300829
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Cognitive Ability; Racial Differences; STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics); Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Tilt refers to an ability bias and is based on within subject differences between two abilities, indicating strength in one ability (e.g., math) and weakness in another ability (e.g., verbal). The current study examined tech tilt for Whites and Blacks, two groups with an average ability difference (favoring Whites) of about one standard deviation on tests of general intelligence (g). Tech tilt was based on differences in technical (mechanical, electronic) and academic (math or verbal) abilities on the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery. These differences produced tech tilt (tech > academic) and academic tilt (academic > tech). Tech tilt correlated negatively with math and verbal abilities on college tests (SAT, ACT, PSAT), with weaker effects for Whites. White-Black differences in relations of tech tilt with the college tests were neutralized after removing g. In addition, tech tilt predicted jobs and college majors in STEM (science, technology, engineering, math). Relations of tech tilt with STEM criteria were generally larger (and more often significant) for Whites, but only for tech tilt based on technical and verbal abilities. The results are consistent with Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns (SLODR). SLODR assumes that relations among tests should be weaker for higher ability groups (Whites compared to Blacks) and that non-g variance (related to non-ability factors such as vocational choice) should be more pronounced for higher ability groups. The negative relations of tech tilt with college tests support investment theories, which assume that investment in one ability (technical) comes at the expense of competing abilities (academic).
Bibliography Citation
Coyle, Thomas R. "White-Black Differences in Tech Tilt: Support for Spearman's Law and Investment Theories." Intelligence published online (5 January 2021): DOI: 10.1016/j.intell.2020.101504.
7. Coyle, Thomas R.
Pillow, David R.
SAT and ACT Predict College GPA After Removing g
Intelligence 36,6 (November-December 2008): 719-729.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289608000603
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); g Factor; I.Q.; Intelligence; Modeling, Structural Equation; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Tests and Testing

This research examined whether the SAT and ACT would predict college grade point average (GPA) after removing g from the tests. SAT and ACT scores and freshman GPAs were obtained from a university sample (N = 161) and the 1997 National Longitudinal Study of Youth (N = 8984). Structural equation modeling was used to examine relationships among g, GPA, and the SAT and ACT. The g factor was estimated from commercial cognitive tests (e.g., Wonderlic and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) and the computer-adaptive Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery. The unique variances of the SAT and ACT, obtained after removing g, were used to predict GPA. Results from both samples converged: While the SAT and ACT were highly g loaded, both tests generally predicted GPA after removing g. These results suggest that the SAT and ACT are strongly related to g, which is related to IQ and intelligence tests. They also suggest that the SAT and ACT predict GPA from non-g factors. Further research is needed to identify the non-g factors that contribute to the predictive validity of the SAT and ACT.
Bibliography Citation
Coyle, Thomas R. and David R. Pillow. "SAT and ACT Predict College GPA After Removing g." Intelligence 36,6 (November-December 2008): 719-729.
8. Coyle, Thomas R.
Pillow, David R.
Snyder, Anissa
Kochunov, Peter
Processing Speed Mediates the Development of General Intelligence (g) in Adolescence
Psychological Science 22,10 (October 2011): 1265-1269.
Also: http://pss.sagepub.com/content/22/10/1265.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Cognitive Ability; g Factor; I.Q.; Intelligence; Modeling, Structural Equation; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Tests and Testing

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In the research reported here, we examined whether processing speed mediates the development of general intelligence (g) in adolescence. Using the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery, a battery of 12 diverse cognitive tests, we assessed processing speed and g in a large sample of 13- to 17-year-olds obtained from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 6,969). The direct effect of age on g was small compared with the total effect of age on g, which was almost fully mediated through speed. The results suggest that increases in g in adolescence can be attributed to increases in mental speed.
Bibliography Citation
Coyle, Thomas R., David R. Pillow, Anissa Snyder and Peter Kochunov. "Processing Speed Mediates the Development of General Intelligence (g) in Adolescence ." Psychological Science 22,10 (October 2011): 1265-1269.
9. Coyle, Thomas R.
Purcell, Jason M.
Snyder, Anissa
White–Black Differences in g and non-g Effects for the SAT and ACT
Personality and Individual Differences 54,8 (June 2013): 941-945.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S019188691300038X
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); g Factor; Racial Differences; School Performance; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

This research examined g and non-g effects for the SAT and ACT for whites and blacks. SAT scores, ACT scores, and college GPAs were obtained from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. g was estimated using the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery. Results indicated that (a) the g loadings of SAT and ACT composite scores were lower for whites than blacks, (b) group differences in the g loadings were related to the math subtests of the SAT and ACT, and (c) non-g variance accounted for surprisingly large percentages of SAT–GPA and ACT–GPA relations (range = 37–67%). The findings are discussed in terms of Spearman’s Law of Diminishing Returns.
Bibliography Citation
Coyle, Thomas R., Jason M. Purcell and Anissa Snyder. "White–Black Differences in g and non-g Effects for the SAT and ACT." Personality and Individual Differences 54,8 (June 2013): 941-945.
10. Coyle, Thomas R.
Purcell, Jason M.
Snyder, Anissa
Kochunov, Peter
Non-g Residuals of the SAT and ACT Predict Specific Abilities
Intelligence 41,2 (March-April 2013): 114-120.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289612001444#sec2.1
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Cognitive Ability; g Factor; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Tests and Testing

This research examined whether non-g residuals of the SAT and ACT subtests, obtained after removing g, predicted specific abilities. Non-g residuals of the verbal and math subtests of the SAT and ACT were correlated with academic (verbal and math) and non-academic abilities (speed and shop), both based on the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery. Non-g residuals of the SAT and ACT math subtests were positively related to math ability and negatively to verbal ability, whereas the opposite pattern was found for the verbal subtests. Non-g residuals of both sets of subtests were weakly related to non-academic abilities. The results support an investment theory of skills and abilities: Investing in skills in one area (e.g., math) improves abilities in that area but lowers abilities in competing areas (e.g., verbal).
Bibliography Citation
Coyle, Thomas R., Jason M. Purcell, Anissa Snyder and Peter Kochunov. "Non-g Residuals of the SAT and ACT Predict Specific Abilities." Intelligence 41,2 (March-April 2013): 114-120.
11. Coyle, Thomas R.
Purcell, Jason M.
Snyder, Anissa
Richmond, Miranda C.
Ability Tilt on the SAT and ACT Predicts Specific Abilities and College Majors
Intelligence 46 (September-October 2014): 18-24.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016028961400049X
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Cognitive Ability; College Major/Field of Study/Courses; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

This research examined the validity of ability tilt, measured as within-subject differences in math and verbal scores on the SAT and ACT. Tilt scores were correlated with academic abilities (math and verbal) and college majors (STEM and humanities), both drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Math tilt (math > verbal) correlated positively with math ability and negatively with verbal ability, whereas verbal tilt (verbal > math) showed the opposite pattern. In addition, math tilt was associated with STEM majors (e.g., science and math), whereas verbal tilt was associated with humanities majors (e.g., English and history). Both math and verbal tilt were unrelated to non-academic abilities (speed and shop) and g. The results support niche-picking and investment theories, in which investment in one area (math) means less investment in competing areas (verbal).
Bibliography Citation
Coyle, Thomas R., Jason M. Purcell, Anissa Snyder and Miranda C. Richmond. "Ability Tilt on the SAT and ACT Predicts Specific Abilities and College Majors." Intelligence 46 (September-October 2014): 18-24.
12. Coyle, Thomas R.
Snyder, Anissa
Pillow, David R.
Kochunov, Peter
SAT Predicts GPA Better for High Ability Subjects: Implications for Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns
Personality and Individual Differences 50,4 (April 2011): 470-474.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886910005477
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Cognitive Ability; g Factor; Tests and Testing

This research examined the predictive validity of the SAT (formerly, the Scholastic Aptitude Test) for high and low ability groups. SAT scores and college GPAs were obtained from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Subjects were classified as high or low ability by g factor scores from the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery. SAT correlations with GPA were higher for high than low ability subjects. SAT g loadings (i.e., SAT correlations with g) were equivalent for both groups. This is the first study to show that the predictive validity of the SAT varies for ability groups that differ in g. The results contradict a presumption, based on Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns, that a test's predictive validity should be lower for high ability subjects. Further research is needed to identify factors that contribute to the predictive validity of the SAT for groups that differing. [Copyright © Elsevier]

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Bibliography Citation
Coyle, Thomas R., Anissa Snyder, David R. Pillow and Peter Kochunov. "SAT Predicts GPA Better for High Ability Subjects: Implications for Spearman's Law of Diminishing Returns." Personality and Individual Differences 50,4 (April 2011): 470-474.
13. Coyle, Thomas R.
Snyder, Anissa
Richmond, Miranda C.
Sex Differences in Ability Tilt: Support for Investment Theory
Intelligence 50 (May-June 2015): 209-220.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160289615000598
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Cognitive Ability; College Major/Field of Study/Courses; Gender Differences; Intelligence; STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics); Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

This research examined sex differences in ability tilt, defined as within-subject differences in math and verbal scores on three tests (SAT, ACT, PSAT). These differences produced math tilt (math>verbal) and verbal tilt (verbal>math). Both types of tilt were correlated with specific abilities (e.g., verbal and math), based on the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery. Tilt was also correlated with college majors in STEM (e.g., science and math) and the humanities (e.g., English and history), and with jobs in STEM and other occupations. Males showed math tilt and STEM preferences, whereas females showed verbal tilt and humanities preferences. For males and females, math tilt predicted math ability and STEM criteria (majors and jobs), and verbal tilt predicted verbal ability and verbal criteria. Tilt scores correlated negatively with competing abilities (e.g., math tilt and verbal ability). The results supported investment theories, which assume that investment in a specific ability boosts similar abilities but retards competing abilities. In addition, the results bolster the validity of tilt, which was unrelated to g but still predicted specific abilities, college majors, and jobs.
Bibliography Citation
Coyle, Thomas R., Anissa Snyder and Miranda C. Richmond. "Sex Differences in Ability Tilt: Support for Investment Theory." Intelligence 50 (May-June 2015): 209-220.