Search Results

Source: PLOS ONE
Resulting in 7 citations.
1. Apollonio, Dorie E.
Dutra, Lauren M.
Glantz, Stanton A.
Associations between Smoking Trajectories, Smoke-free Laws and Cigarette Taxes in a Longitudinal Sample of Youth and Young Adults
PLOS ONE published online (11 February 2021): DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0246321.
Also: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0246321
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: PLOS
Keyword(s): Geocoded Data; Legislation; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); State-Level Data/Policy; Taxes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Cigarette smoking patterns vary within the population, with some individuals remaining never smokers, some remaining occasional users, and others progressing to daily use or quitting. There is little research on how population-level tobacco control policy interventions affect individuals within different smoking trajectories. We identified associations between tobacco control policy interventions and changes across different smoking trajectories among adolescents and young adults. Using 15 annual waves of data drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), we applied a group-based trajectory model to identify associations between days smoked per month, comprehensive smoke-free laws, cigarette tax rates, and known socio-demographic risk factors for membership in different smoking trajectories. Comprehensive smoke-free laws were associated with reduced risk of initiation and reductions in days smoked per month for all trajectories other than occasional users. Higher tax rates were associated with reduced risk of initiation and days smoked for all trajectories other than established users. Overall, population-based tobacco control policies, particularly comprehensive smoke-free laws, were associated with reduced smoking. Tobacco taxes primarily reduced risk of initiation and use among never smokers, experimenters, and quitters, consistent with previous research suggesting that tobacco manufacturers lower prices after tax increases to reduce the cost of continued smoking for established users. These results provide support for expanding smoke-free laws and establishing a minimum tobacco floor price, which could improve public health by reducing the risk of initiation as well as use among occasional and established smokers.
Bibliography Citation
Apollonio, Dorie E., Lauren M. Dutra and Stanton A. Glantz. "Associations between Smoking Trajectories, Smoke-free Laws and Cigarette Taxes in a Longitudinal Sample of Youth and Young Adults." PLOS ONE published online (11 February 2021): DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0246321.
2. Bernstein, Shayna
Rehkopf, David
Tuljapurkar, Shripad
Horvitz, Carol C.
Poverty Dynamics, Poverty Thresholds and Mortality: An Age-Stage Markovian Model
PLoS ONE published online (16 May 2018): DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0195734.
Also: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0195734
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: PLOS
Keyword(s): Health and Retirement Study (HRS); Mortality; Poverty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recent studies have examined the risk of poverty throughout the life course, but few have considered how transitioning in and out of poverty shape the dynamic heterogeneity and mortality disparities of a cohort at each age. Here we use state-by-age modeling to capture individual heterogeneity in crossing one of three different poverty thresholds...at each age. We examine age-specific state structure, the remaining life expectancy, its variance, and cohort simulations for those above and below each threshold. Survival and transitioning probabilities are statistically estimated by regression analyses of data from the Health and Retirement Survey RAND data-set, and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Using the results of these regression analyses, we parameterize discrete state, discrete age matrix models.
Bibliography Citation
Bernstein, Shayna, David Rehkopf, Shripad Tuljapurkar and Carol C. Horvitz. "Poverty Dynamics, Poverty Thresholds and Mortality: An Age-Stage Markovian Model." PLoS ONE published online (16 May 2018): DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0195734.
3. Devaraj, Srikant
Quigley, Narda R.
Patel, Pankaj C.
The Effects of Skin Tone, Height, and Gender on Earnings
PLOS ONE published online (2 January 2018): DOI: doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0190640.
Also: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0190640
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: PLOS
Keyword(s): Discrimination; Earnings; Gender Differences; Height; Physical Characteristics; Skin Tone

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using a theoretical approach grounded in implicit bias and stereotyping theories, this study examines the relationship between observable physical characteristics (skin tone, height, and gender) and earnings, as measured by income. Combining separate streams of research on the influence of these three characteristics, we draw from a sample of 31,356 individual-year observations across 4,340 individuals from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY) 1997. We find that skin tone, height, and gender interact such that taller males with darker skin tone attain lower earnings; those educated beyond high school, endowed with higher cognitive ability, and at the higher income level (>75th percentile) had even lower levels of earnings relative to individuals with lighter skin tone. The findings have implications for implicit bias theories, stereotyping, and the human capital literature within the fields of management, applied psychology, and economics.
Bibliography Citation
Devaraj, Srikant, Narda R. Quigley and Pankaj C. Patel. "The Effects of Skin Tone, Height, and Gender on Earnings." PLOS ONE published online (2 January 2018): DOI: doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0190640.
4. Dutra, Lauren M.
Glantz, Stanton A.
Lisha, Nadra E.
Song, Anna V.
Beyond Experimentation: Five Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking in a Longitudinal Sample of Youth
PLOS ONE published online (9 February 2017): 10.1371/journal.pone.0171808.
Also: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0171808
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: PLOS
Keyword(s): Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Modeling, Latent Class Analysis/Latent Transition Analysis

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The first goal of this study was to identify the most appropriate measure of cigarette smoking for identifying unique smoking trajectories among adolescents; the second goal was to describe the resulting trajectories and their characteristics. Using 15 annual waves of smoking data in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), we conducted an exploratory latent class growth analysis to determine the best of four outcome variables for yearly smoking (cigarettes per day on days smoked, days smoked per month, mean cigarettes per day, and total cigarettes per month) among individuals aged 12 to 30 (n = 8,791). Days smoked per month was the best outcome variable for identifying unique longitudinal trajectories of smoking and characteristics of these trajectories that could be used to target different types of smokers for prevention and cessation. Objective statistics were used to identify four trajectories in addition to never smokers (34.1%): experimenters (13.6%), quitters (8.1%), early established smokers (39.0%), and late escalators (5.2%). We identified a quitter and late escalator class not identified in the only other comparable latent class growth analysis. Logistic regressions were used to identify the characteristics of individuals in each trajectory. Compared with never smokers, all trajectories except late escalators were less likely to be black; experimenters were more likely to be out of school and unemployed and drink alcohol in adolescence; quitters were more likely to have a mother with a high school degree/GED or higher (versus none) and to use substances in adolescence and less likely to have ever married as a young adult; early established smokers were more likely to have a mother with a high school diploma or GED, be out of school and unemployed, not live with both parents, have used substances, be depressed, and have peers who smoked in adolescence and to have children as young adults and less likely to be Hispanic and to have ever married as young adults; and late escalators were more likely to be Hispanic, drink alcohol, and break rules in adolescence and less likely to have ever married as young adults. Because of the number of waves of data analyzed, this analysis provided a clearer temporal depiction of smoking behavior and more easily distinguishable smoking trajectories than previous analyses. Tobacco control interventions need to move beyond youth-focused approaches to reach all smokers.
Bibliography Citation
Dutra, Lauren M., Stanton A. Glantz, Nadra E. Lisha and Anna V. Song. "Beyond Experimentation: Five Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking in a Longitudinal Sample of Youth." PLOS ONE published online (9 February 2017): 10.1371/journal.pone.0171808.
5. Fernandez, Cristina
Christ, Sharon L.
LeBlanc, William G.
Arheart, Kristopher L.
Dietz, Noella A.
McCollister, Kathryn E.
Fleming, Lora E.
Muntaner, Carles
Muennig, Peter
Lee, David J.
Effect of Childhood Victimization on Occupational Prestige and Income Trajectories
PLOS ONE published online (27 February 2015): DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0115519.
Also: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0115519
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: PLOS
Keyword(s): Bullying/Victimization; Childhood Adversity/Trauma; Income; Occupational Prestige

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Background: Violence toward children (childhood victimization) is a major public health problem, with long-term consequences on economic well-being. The purpose of this study was to determine whether childhood victimization affects occupational prestige and income in young adulthood. We hypothesized that young adults who experienced more childhood victimizations would have less prestigious jobs and lower incomes relative to those with no victimization history. We also explored the pathways in which childhood victimization mediates the relationships between background variables, such as parent's educational impact on the socioeconomic transition into adulthood.

Methods: A nationally representative sample of 8,901 young adults aged 18-28 surveyed between 1999-2009 from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY) were analyzed. Covariate-adjusted multivariate linear regression and path models were used to estimate the effects of victimization and covariates on income and prestige levels and on income and prestige trajectories. After each participant turned 18, their annual 2002 Census job code was assigned a yearly prestige score based on the 1989 General Social Survey, and their annual income was calculated via self-reports. Occupational prestige and annual income are time-varying variables measured from 1999-2009. Victimization effects were tested for moderation by sex, race, and ethnicity in the multivariate models.

Results: Approximately half of our sample reported at least one instance of childhood victimization before the age of 18. Major findings include 1) childhood victimization resulted in slower income and prestige growth over time, and 2) mediation analyses suggested that this slower prestige and earnings arose because victims did not get the same amount of education as non-victims.

Bibliography Citation
Fernandez, Cristina, Sharon L. Christ, William G. LeBlanc, Kristopher L. Arheart, Noella A. Dietz, Kathryn E. McCollister, Lora E. Fleming, Carles Muntaner, Peter Muennig and David J. Lee. "Effect of Childhood Victimization on Occupational Prestige and Income Trajectories." PLOS ONE published online (27 February 2015): DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0115519.
6. Kamp Dush, Claire M.
Arocho, Rachel
Mernitz, Sara E.
Bartholomew, Kyle R.
The Intergenerational Transmission of Partnering
PLoS ONE published online (13 November 2018): DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0205732.
Also: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0205732
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: PLOS
Keyword(s): Cohabitation; Divorce; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Marital Status; Modeling, Poisson (IRT–ZIP); Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

As divorce and cohabitation dissolution in the US have increased, partnering has expanded to the point that sociologists describe a merry-go-round of partners in American families. Could one driver of the increase in the number of partners be an intergenerational transmission of partnering? We discuss three theoretical perspectives on potential mechanisms that would underlie an intergenerational transmission of partnering: the transmission of economic hardship, the transmission of marriageable characteristics and relationship skills, and the transmission of relationship commitment. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Child and Young Adult study (NLSY79 CYA) and their mothers in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79), we examined the intergenerational transmission of partnering, including both marital and cohabitating unions, using prospective measures of family and economic instability as well as exploiting sibling data to try to identify potential mechanisms. Even after controlling for maternal demographic characteristics and socioeconomic factors, the number of maternal partners was positively associated with offspring's number of partners. Hybrid sibling Poisson regression models that examined sibling differential experiences of maternal partners indicated that there were no differences between siblings who witnessed more or fewer maternal partners. Overall, results suggested that the transmission of poor marriageable characteristics and relationship skills from mother to child may warrant additional attention as a potential mechanism through which the number of partners continues across generations.
Bibliography Citation
Kamp Dush, Claire M., Rachel Arocho, Sara E. Mernitz and Kyle R. Bartholomew. "The Intergenerational Transmission of Partnering." PLoS ONE published online (13 November 2018): DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0205732.
7. Kelly, Brian C.
Vuolo, Mike
Cognitive Aptitude, Peers, and Trajectories of Marijuana Use from Adolescence through Young Adulthood
PLoS One 14,10 (25 October 2019): e0223152.
Also: DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0223152
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: PLOS
Keyword(s): Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Cognitive Ability; Drug Use; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Background: Using a nationally representative longitudinal cohort, we examine how cognitive aptitude in early adolescence is associated with heterogeneous pathways of marijuana use from age sixteen through young adulthood. We also examine whether this relationship can be explained by the role of cognitive aptitude in the social organization of peer group deviance.

Methods: Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we identified 5 latent trajectories of frequency of marijuana use between ages 16 and 26: abstainers, dabblers, early heavy quitters, consistent users, and persistent heavy users. Multinomial regression assessed the relationship of cognitive aptitude in early adolescence with these latent trajectories, including the role of peer group substance use in this relationship.

Results: A one decile increase in cognitive aptitude in early adolescence is associated with greater relative risk of the dabbler trajectory (RR = 1.048; p < .001) and consistent user trajectory (RR = 1.126; p < .001), but lower relative risk of the early heavy quitter trajectory (RR = 0.917; p < .05) in comparison with the abstainer trajectory. There was no effect for the persistent heavy user trajectory. The inclusion of peer group substance use-either via illegal drugs or smoking-had no effect on these relationships.

Bibliography Citation
Kelly, Brian C. and Mike Vuolo. "Cognitive Aptitude, Peers, and Trajectories of Marijuana Use from Adolescence through Young Adulthood." PLoS One 14,10 (25 October 2019): e0223152.