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Source: MIT Press
Resulting in 12 citations.
1. Carneiro, Pedro M.
Heckman, James J.
Human Capital Policy
In: Inequality in America: What Role for Human Capital Policies? J. Heckman and A. Krueger, eds., Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003: 77-240
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: MIT Press
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); College Education; College Enrollment; Family Background; Family Income; Human Capital; Job Training; Life Cycle Research; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Racial Equality/Inequality; School Quality; Skill Formation; Tuition

This paper considers alternative policies for promoting skill formation that are targetted to different stages of the life cycle. We demonstrate the importance of both cognitive and noncognitive skills that are formed early in the life cycle in accounting for racial, ethnic and family background gaps in schooling and other dimensions of socioeconomic success. Most of the gaps in college attendance and delay are determined by early family factors. Children from better families and with high ability earn higher returns to schooling. We find only a limited role for tuition policy or family income supplements in eliminating schooling and college attendance gaps. At most 8% of American youth are credit constrained in the traditional usage of that term. The evidence points to a high return to early interventions and a low return to remedial or compensatory interventions later in the life cycle. Skill and ability beget future skill and ability. At current levels of funding, traditional policies like tuition subsidies, improvements in school quality, job training and tax rebates are unlikely to be effective in closing gaps.

Introduction / Benjamin M. Friedman -- Inequality, too much of a good thing / Alan B. Krueger -- Human capital policy / Pedro Carneiro and James J. Heckman -- Comments / George Borjas, Eric Hanushek, Lawrence Katz, Lisa Lynch, Lawrence H. Summers -- Responses / Alan B. Krueger, Pedro Carneiro and James J. Heckman -- Rejoinders / Alan B. Krueger, Pedro Carneiro and James J. Heckman.

Bibliography Citation
Carneiro, Pedro M. and James J. Heckman. "Human Capital Policy" In: Inequality in America: What Role for Human Capital Policies? J. Heckman and A. Krueger, eds., Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003: 77-240
2. Chirikos, Thomas N.
Nestel, Gilbert
Impairment and Labor Market Outcomes: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analysis
In: Work and Retirement: A Longitudinal Study of Men. H.S. Parnes, ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: MIT Press
Keyword(s): Disabled Workers; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Labor Market Outcomes; Mobility; Mobility, Job; Work Hours

The effect of health on selected labor market outcomes of middle- aged and older men provides the central theme for this paper. Particular emphasis is directed at the effect of health on hours of work and wages using cross sectional and longitudinal data. An index of impairment level (functional limitation) is developed to measure health status. The statistical implications of this measure rather than the more conventional work-limiting response is also explored. Both the 1971 and 1976 survey of Older Men are used in the analysis. The various relationships are estimated by multivariate techniques (OLS). As expected, poor health reduces participation and the extent of work activity and thereby earnings. There is also considerable evidence that the impairment levels are unstable, suggesting improvement in health as well as the incidence of additional problems with increasing age. There is limited evidence that occupational mobility is used as a mechanism for adjusting to changes in impairment status.
Bibliography Citation
Chirikos, Thomas N. and Gilbert Nestel. "Impairment and Labor Market Outcomes: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analysis" In: Work and Retirement: A Longitudinal Study of Men. H.S. Parnes, ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981
3. Daymont, Thomas N.
Changes in Black-White Labor Market Opportunities, 1966-1976
In: Work and Retirement, A Longitudinal Study of Men. H.S. Parnes, ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: MIT Press
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Racial Differences; Wages

Data from the 1976 and earlier surveys of Older Men, 45-59 in 1966, are used to assess the efforts made over the previous decade by the federal government and many private groups to improve the labor market opportunities of older black men. Using two measures of success-hourly rate of pay and amount of unemployment experienced by an individual--and two regression models for each measure, it is concluded that the opportunities for older black men improved from 1966 to 1976, although racial equity has still not been attained.
Bibliography Citation
Daymont, Thomas N. "Changes in Black-White Labor Market Opportunities, 1966-1976" In: Work and Retirement, A Longitudinal Study of Men. H.S. Parnes, ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981
4. Fairlie, Robert W.
Does Business Ownership Provide a Source of Upward Mobility for Blacks and Hispanics?
In: Public Policy and the Economics of Entrepreneurship. D. Holtz-Eakin and H.S. Rosen, eds. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2004: pp. 153-179.
Also: http://people.ucsc.edu/~rfairlie/papers/published/mit%202004%20-%20minority%20self-employment%20growth.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: MIT Press
Keyword(s): Earnings; Hispanics; Minority Groups; Mobility; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Racial Differences; Self-Employed Workers; Unemployment

This chapter examines the earnings patterns of young black and hispanic business owners. Date from the NLSY79 are used to examine the long-term earning patterns (1979-1998) of young self-employed blacks and hispanics. Earnings patterns of young black and hispanic wage/salary workers are placed in context with young white self-employed and wage/salary workers. The key question is whether black and hispanic youths who are self-employed early in their careers experience faster earnings growth that their counterparts employed in the wage/salary sector. [Paraphrased from Introduction to the .pdf file]
Bibliography Citation
Fairlie, Robert W. "Does Business Ownership Provide a Source of Upward Mobility for Blacks and Hispanics?" In: Public Policy and the Economics of Entrepreneurship. D. Holtz-Eakin and H.S. Rosen, eds. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2004: pp. 153-179.
5. Grogger, Jeffrey
The Effect of Arrests on the Employment and Earnings of Young Men
Quarterly Journal of Economics 110, 1 (February 1995): 51-71.
Also: http://qje.oxfordjournals.org/content/110/1/51.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: MIT Press
Keyword(s): Arrests; Crime; Incarceration/Jail

Many young men commit crime, and many are arrested. I estimate the effect of arrests on the employment and earnings of arrestees, using a large longitudinal data set constructed by merging police records with UI earnings data. I find that the effects of arrests are moderate in magnitude and rather short-lived.
Bibliography Citation
Grogger, Jeffrey. "The Effect of Arrests on the Employment and Earnings of Young Men." Quarterly Journal of Economics 110, 1 (February 1995): 51-71.
6. Holtz-Eakin, Douglas
Rosen, Harvey S.
Public Policy and the Economics of Entrepreneurship
Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, February 2004
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: MIT Press
Keyword(s): Earnings; Hispanics; Minority Groups; Mobility; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Self-Employed Workers; Unemployment

Table of Contents
Introduction
1--When Bureaucrats Meet Entrepreneurs: The Design of Effective "Public Venture Capital" Programs -- Josh Lerner
2--The Self-Employed Are Less Likely to Have Health Insurance Than Wage Earners. So What? -- Craig William Perry and Harvey S. Rosen
3--Business Formation and the Deregulation of the Banking Industry -- Sandra E. Black and Philip E. Strahan
4--Public Policy and Innovation in the U.S. Pharmaceutical Industry -- Frank R. Lichtenberg
5--Dimensions of Nonprofit Entrepreneurship: An Exploratory Essay -- Joseph J. Cordes, C. Eugene Steuerle and Eric Twombly
6--Does Business Ownership Provide a Source of Upward Mobility for Blacks and Hispanics? -- Robert W. Fairlie
7--Entrepreneurial Activity and Wealth Inequality: A Historical Perspective -- Carolyn M. Moehling and Richard H. Steckel
Index
Bibliography Citation
Holtz-Eakin, Douglas and Harvey S. Rosen. Public Policy and the Economics of Entrepreneurship. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, February 2004.
7. Mott, Frank L.
The Employment Revolution: Young American Women In the 1970's
Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1982
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: MIT Press
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Educational Attainment; Fertility; Husbands, Influence; Life Cycle Research; Marital Dissolution; Sex Roles; Siblings; Work History

Changing female work behavior has been intimately intertwined with changes in how both men and women view the roles of women in society. The authors provide insights into why women choose to work outside the home. Most prior empirical research has been rather narrowly focused on economic considerations, but motivations for women's work are much more complex. Chapter 1 considers the extent to which the changing employment profile of the young adult female population has been paralleled by a dramatic demographic transition. In chapter 2, records of brothers and sisters were matched to show how family background can work for or against educational and early career success. Chapter 3 more directly tests the link between a woman's family and work intentions and behaviors and how this link reflects her earlier experience. The need for including both economic and noneconomic orientations in evaluating women's work motivations is clarified more directly in chapter 4, which combines data from mother-daughter pairs. Chapter 5 continues earlier research that documented how relatively large proportions of women now retain close labor force ties at those life-cycle points when traditionally women left employment. Chapter 6 documents the effect changing attitudes have had on recent escalation in female work activity. Chapter 7 focuses on several different issues but emphasizes the invariance of many women's work activity in the face of other events, in this instance divorce and remarriage.
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L. The Employment Revolution: Young American Women In the 1970's. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1982.
8. Mott, Frank L.
Haurin, R. Jean
The Impact of Health Problems and Mortality on Family Well-Being
In: Work and Retirement: A Longitudinal Study of Men. H.S. Parnes, ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981.
Also: http://www.chipublib.org/search/details/cn/676493
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Older Men
Publisher: MIT Press
Keyword(s): Behavior; Employment; Family Income; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Husbands; Mortality; Racial Differences; Retirement; Widows; Wives

About one-fifth of the more than 20 million males in the U.S. civilian population who were between 45 and 64 years of age in 1976 will not survive to age 65 and the majority of these men will leave widows when they die. These statistics are reflected in the Older Men's sample of the NLS. Of the approximately 5,000 individuals in the original sample, 737 men had died by the time of the 1976 survey before reaching 65. The longitudinal records permit a comparison of the predeath work experience and income of this group with the experience of comparable men who remained alive in 1976. It is possible in this way to explore the extent to which deteriorating health or disability prior to death affect family income and the labor market activity of other family members. To assess the impact of the death of the breadwinner on survivors, an additional analysis can be made of data from the NLS of Mature Women. The longitudinal records of a somewhat younger sample of women who were widowed between the ages of 30 and 53 are compared with those of a similar group of women whose marriages remained intact. The racial difference in mortality rates is pronounced: the gross mortality rate of black men was one-third again as high as that of whites. The differential persists when educational attainment is controlled but tends to disappear within occupational categories. This suggests that black men of this generation have been channeled into less desirable occupations than white men with ostensibly comparable educational backgrounds. Other topics discussed and compared are: racial group death rates, men with previously reported health problems, income and employment experience of decedents, decendents' employment opportunities, labor force behavior of decendents.
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L. and R. Jean Haurin. "The Impact of Health Problems and Mortality on Family Well-Being" In: Work and Retirement: A Longitudinal Study of Men. H.S. Parnes, ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981.
9. Mott, Frank L.
Haurin, R. Jean
Variations in the Educational and Career Development Paths of Brothers and Sisters
In: Employment Revolution, Young American Women in the 1970s. F.L. Mott, ed. Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1982.
Cohort(s): Young Men, Young Women
Publisher: MIT Press
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Education; Educational Attainment; Family Resources; Pairs (also see Siblings); Parental Influences; Siblings

This study examines the extent to which socioeconomic and internal characteristics of families differentially affect the ability of matched pairs of brothers and sisters to progress through the educational system. The data utilized came from the NLS of Young Men and Women. It was found that young men were apparently advantaged in their educational progress compared with young women. Sibling position or sex of other siblings had little, if any, influence. The extent of parental education did have a major effect, and the educational progress probabilities for sons were higher than those for daughters, regardless of the parents' education. Greater ability for boys and girls was associated with higher probabilities of education completion. Parental encouragement affected the ability of youth to succeed.
Bibliography Citation
Mott, Frank L. and R. Jean Haurin. "Variations in the Educational and Career Development Paths of Brothers and Sisters" In: Employment Revolution, Young American Women in the 1970s. F.L. Mott, ed. Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1982.
10. Parnes, Herbert S.
Work and Retirement: A Longitudinal Study of Men
Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: MIT Press
Keyword(s): Earnings; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Layoffs; Mortality; Retirement; Unemployment; Widows

Race, health, and employment difficulties are examined as they influence both labor market decisions and quality of life. A variety of significant findings result from dealing with actual retirement decisions with data from the NLS of Older Men The opening chapter introduces the sample and the data base. Subsequent chapters take up changes over the studied decade in black-white differences in the labor force participation of older males, the retirement experience, and family adjustment to poor health and mortality. The methodological and statistical formulations on which the study is based are developed in appendices. The fact that the data were collected through repeated interviews with the same group of individuals over a ten-year period allows certain kinds of analysis that would not be possible in other situations-- for example, the attitudes of men before retirement decisions that would not be possible after the fact.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. Work and Retirement: A Longitudinal Study of Men. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981.
11. Parnes, Herbert S.
Gagen, Mary G.
King, Randall H.
Job Loss Among Long-Service Workers
In: Work and Retirement: A Longitudinal Study of Men. H.S. Parnes, ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: MIT Press
Keyword(s): Displaced Workers; Job Patterns; Job Turnover; Layoffs; Unemployment; Wages

This article investigates that part of the group of Older Men 45-59 in 1966 who had lost their jobs involuntarily, and using data from the 1976 survey examines the impact of this loss on their later work lives and attitudes. Unmarried men seem more likely to be displaced than married men, and private sector employees seem much more likely to be than those in the public sector. Seniority and average hourly earnings appear to play little part in determining displacement, although establishments with no pension plan seem much more likely to displace workers. Although 40% of displaced workers were apparently immediately able to move into new jobs, and the percentage of workers unemployed in 1976 who had been displaced in 1969 or before was the same as the unemployment percentage of workers never displaced, the average hourly earnings for displaced workers was 22% less the average figure for those never displaced, and, so far, there is no evidence that this or its psychological effects soften with time.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S., Mary G. Gagen and Randall H. King. "Job Loss Among Long-Service Workers" In: Work and Retirement: A Longitudinal Study of Men. H.S. Parnes, ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981
12. Parnes, Herbert S.
Nestel, Gilbert
Retirement Experience
In: Work and Retirement: A Longitudinal Study of Men. H.S. Parnes, ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: MIT Press
Keyword(s): Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Life Satisfaction; Retirees; Retirement; Work Experience

This paper addresses three research issues about the retirement decision among retired men interviewed in 1976: (1) The relative importance of an unwilling separation from a job because of a mandatory retirement provision, a withdrawal because of poor health, or a "voluntary" choice to retire. The distribution of the reason retired obtained from a retrospective question asked in 1976 is compared with the responses obtained from the panel response immediately prior to the actual retirement. (2) How does the reason retired vary by demographic and employment characteristics of retirees? (3) Is the post-retirement work experience, economic status, and life satisfaction related to reason retired? The authors find that only a small percentage of the retirements were involuntary (no more than five percent) in the sense that workers wanted to continue working at their jobs but were unable to do so. Health was a major reason for withdrawal with about 40 percent of the men reporting a health problem preceding their retirement. About twenty percent of the retirees were at work in survey week 1976 and only a small proportion of those not at work expressed an unqualified interest in working. There is little evidence that retirees are unhappy with the timing of their retirement or their life in retirement. Only those with health problems appear to be at some disadvantage.
Bibliography Citation
Parnes, Herbert S. and Gilbert Nestel. "Retirement Experience" In: Work and Retirement: A Longitudinal Study of Men. H.S. Parnes, ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981