Search Results

Author: Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Resulting in 22 citations.
1. Gee, Gilbert C.
Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Does Health Predict the Reporting of Racial Discrimination or Do Reports of Discrimination Predict Health? Findings from The National Longitudinal Study Of Youth
Social Science and Medicine 68,9 (May 2009): 1676-1684.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277953609000872
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Ethnic Studies; Health Factors; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Racial Studies; Well-Being

Racial discrimination may contribute to diminished well-being, possibly through stress and restricted economic advancement. Our study examines whether reports of racial discrimination predict health problems, and whether health problems predict the reporting of racial discrimination. Data come from years 1979 to 1983 of the US National Longitudinal Study of Youth, focusing on respondents of Black (n = 1851), Hispanic (n = 1170), White (n = 3450) and other (n = 1387) descent. Our analyses indicate that reports of racial discrimination in seeking employment predict health-related work limitations, although these limitations develop over time, and not immediately. We also find that reports of discrimination at two time-points appear more strongly related to health-related work limitations than reports at one time-point. A key finding is that these limitations do not predict the subsequent reporting of racial discrimination in seeking employment. These findings inform our knowledge of the temporal ordering of racial discrimination in seeking employment and health-related work conditions among young adults. The findings also indicate that future research should carefully attend to the patterns and timing of discrimination. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Gee, Gilbert C. and Katrina Michelle Walsemann. "Does Health Predict the Reporting of Racial Discrimination or Do Reports of Discrimination Predict Health? Findings from The National Longitudinal Study Of Youth." Social Science and Medicine 68,9 (May 2009): 1676-1684.
2. Hassett-Walker, Connie
Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Bell, Bethany A.
Fisk, Calley E.
Shadden, Mark
Zhou, Weidan
How Does Early Adulthood Arrest Alter Substance use Behavior? Are There Differential Effects by Race/Ethnicity and Gender?
Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology 3,2 (June 2017): 196-220.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40865-017-0060-y
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Arrests; Criminal Justice System; Drug Use; Gender Differences; Racial Differences; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Much criminal justice research has ignored racial/ethnic and gender differences in substance use subsequent to criminal justice involvement. This paper investigated how early adulthood arrest (i.e., 18 to 21 years of age) influences individuals' subsequent transitions from non-substance use to substance use and substance use to non-substance use through age 30. We also consider if these relationships differ by race/ethnicity and gender. Processes proscribed by labeling theory subsequent to getting arrested are considered.
Bibliography Citation
Hassett-Walker, Connie, Katrina Michelle Walsemann, Bethany A. Bell, Calley E. Fisk, Mark Shadden and Weidan Zhou. "How Does Early Adulthood Arrest Alter Substance use Behavior? Are There Differential Effects by Race/Ethnicity and Gender?" Journal of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology 3,2 (June 2017): 196-220.
3. Skalamera, Julie
Hummer, Robert A.
Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Humphries, Melissa
Highest Earned Degree, Education in Years, and Health Behavior among U.S. Young Adults
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); College Degree; Educational Attainment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Smoking (see Cigarette Use); Socioeconomic Status (SES); Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Highly educated U.S. adults have better health and this relationship has strengthened among recent cohorts. One key pathway relating education to health is health behavior. This study describes the relationships between highest degree obtained, years of education, and health behavior among young adults; examines whether socioeconomic attainment mediates the relationships; and tests whether these relationships vary by gender. We focus on whether years of education, educational degrees, or both matter for more favorable health behavior. We use NLSY-97 data, which includes both quantity and credential education measures. Findings reveal that higher educational degrees are associated with more positive health behavior, while increasing years of education also matters net of degree attainment. Some differences across behaviors exist. Socioeconomic status mediates these relationships, but the effects are weak. Findings also show no notable gender differences. This research shows that both educational quantity and credentials matter quite strongly for favorable health behavior.
Bibliography Citation
Skalamera, Julie, Robert A. Hummer, Katrina Michelle Walsemann and Melissa Humphries. "Highest Earned Degree, Education in Years, and Health Behavior among U.S. Young Adults." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
4. Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Diverging Pathways: Using a Lifecourse Perspective to Assess the Cumulative Effects of Education on Physical and Mental Health
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, 2005. DAI-B 66/09, p. 4766, Mar 2006
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): CESD (Depression Scale); College Education; Depression (see also CESD); Educational Attainment; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; High School Diploma; Hispanics

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Current research documents the consistent positive relationship between educational attainment and a variety of health outcomes. For example, individuals with higher levels of educational attainment report fewer physical limitations and lower rates of depressive symptomology. Yet, most of this research measures education in terms of the quantity of schooling completed, disregarding the underlying mechanisms that place individuals on divergent academic trajectories, such as educational inequality and access to educational opportunities. However, these early experiences may ultimately shape long-term health status.

To address this gap in the literature, I develop an index of advantage that quantifies the number of advantages individuals accumulate throughout their education, including such factors as school resources, educational aspirations, and coursework taken. A total of 13 items covering three domains (individual, family, and school) are included in the index, with each item weighted by its independent effect on college attainment. I use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), a nationally representative sample of young men and women who were 14-21 years old in 1979, restricting the sample to civilian respondents self-reporting as black, Hispanic, or white, and for whom data was collected for work limitations and/or depressive symptomology on at least one time point, to test whether or not (1) increasing number of educational advantages as well as educational attainment is related to physical and mental health over time, and (2) educational advantages and educational attainment result in diverging health trajectories between respondents with high versus low educational advantages, and between respondents with high versus low educational attainment.

The results suggests that the index is associated with a widening disparity over time in predicted probabilities of work limitations and the level of depressive symptomology between respondents in the 10 th and 90 th percentiles on the index of advantage. Similar results were found between respondents with a college education versus those with less than a high school education. Our results point to a need for more extensive examination of the educational system as a potential mechanism of existing health disparities as well as a viable area for future research and policy intervention.

Bibliography Citation
Walsemann, Katrina Michelle. Diverging Pathways: Using a Lifecourse Perspective to Assess the Cumulative Effects of Education on Physical and Mental Health. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, 2005. DAI-B 66/09, p. 4766, Mar 2006.
5. Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Educational Pathways and Cigarette Smoking in Early and Mid-Adulthood: Findings from the NLSY79 Cohort
Presented: Boston MA, Gerontological Society of America (GSA) Annual Scientific Meeting, November 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Education, Adult; Educational Attainment

Over the past four decades, educational disparities in tobacco use have widened in the United States. At the same time, there has been an increase in the prevalence of non-normative educational pathways -- that is, the length of time it takes to complete one's education. I take advantage of these two historical trends by examining the relationship between educational pathways and daily smoking in early (~30-35 years) and mid-adulthood (~50-55 years) using prospective and retrospective data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979 (NLSY79). The NLSY79 cohort is ideal for examining this question because they entered adulthood after the Surgeon General's Report and as educational pathways became more heterogeneous. I expect respondents who attained a bachelor's degree by their early 20’s will have similar rates of smoking in early adulthood, but lower rates of smoking in mid-adulthood, than respondents who attained a bachelor's degree after their early 20's.
Bibliography Citation
Walsemann, Katrina Michelle. "Educational Pathways and Cigarette Smoking in Early and Mid-Adulthood: Findings from the NLSY79 Cohort." Presented: Boston MA, Gerontological Society of America (GSA) Annual Scientific Meeting, November 2018.
6. Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Ailshire, Jennifer A.
A New Midlife Crisis?: An Examination of Parents Who Borrow to Pay for Their Children's College Education
Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Children; College Cost; College Education; Debt/Borrowing; Parental Investments; Student Loans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Discussions of educational debt often overlook the debts parents take on to pay for their children's education. We identify parental characteristics associated with child-related educational debt among the late baby boom cohort using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. We restrict our sample to parents who had at least one child ≥17 years old and answered questions on educational debt during mid-life (n=6,562). Craggit models estimated 1) having any child-related educational debt and 2) the amount of debt owed among debtors. Black parents and parents with more education, higher income, and higher networth were more likely to report child-related educational debt than White parents and parents with no degree, low-income, or negative networth. Among debtors, high-income parents had more debt than low-income parents. Our findings suggest the student debt crisis is a looming concern for mid-life adults and may have important implications for the aging population.
Bibliography Citation
Walsemann, Katrina Michelle and Jennifer A. Ailshire. "A New Midlife Crisis?: An Examination of Parents Who Borrow to Pay for Their Children's College Education." Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017.
7. Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Ailshire, Jennifer A.
Are Young Adults Losing Out on Sleep? Changes in Sleep Duration in a U.S. Population-based Study
Presented: Dublin, Ireland, Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies (SLLS) International Conference, October 2015
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies
Keyword(s): Children; Educational Attainment; Gender Differences; Household Composition; Labor Force Participation; Sleep; Transition, Adulthood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Chronic sleep problems are widespread in the U.S. population, affect an estimated 50 to 70 million U.S. adults, and are associated with a number of adverse health outcomes. We know relatively little about how sleep duration changes over time, and specifically how sleep duration changes over the course of early adulthood, a period marked by substantial transitions into and out of education, employment, and family roles. We use prospective data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, a U.S. based representative sample of persons born between 1980 and 1984. Baseline interviews were conducted in 1997, with annual follow-ups through 2011. Sleep duration was assessed in 2002, 2007, 2009, 2010, and 2011. We estimated random-coefficient models to examine how sleep duration changes during early adulthood as a function of demographic characteristics, educational experiences, employment, and family roles. Results indicate that sleep duration declines from 18 to 30 years old, from approximately 7.25 hours to 6.6 hours on a typical weeknight. Men sleep an average of 1.25 hours longer than women at age 18, but this sleep advantage declines to 18 minutes by age 30. Young adults with less than a high school education sleep longer than those with more education with the exception of college-educated young adults, and this difference does not change over time. Part-time and full-time workers report shorter sleep than non-workers, but over time, this difference narrows slightly. Finally, young adults with children in the household sleep consistently less than young adults with no children in the household. Overall, U.S. young adults experience shorter sleep over the course of early adulthood, but changes in sleep duration vary widely by demographic factors, education, employment, and family roles. This study is the first to establish how sleep duration changes during this important life stage.
Bibliography Citation
Walsemann, Katrina Michelle and Jennifer A. Ailshire. "Are Young Adults Losing Out on Sleep? Changes in Sleep Duration in a U.S. Population-based Study." Presented: Dublin, Ireland, Society for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies (SLLS) International Conference, October 2015.
8. Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Ailshire, Jennifer A.
Student Debt Spans Generations: Characteristics of Parents Who Borrow to Pay for Their Children's College Education
The Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 72,6 (October 2017): 1084-1089.
Also: https://academic.oup.com/psychsocgerontology/article/72/6/1084/2645641
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): College Cost; Debt/Borrowing; Parental Investments; Student Loans

Objectives: Discussions of student debt often overlook the debt parents take on to pay for their children's education. We identify characteristics of parents with child-related educational debt among the late baby boom cohort.

Method: Data come from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, a nationally representative sample of individuals born between 1957 and 1964. We restrict our sample to parents who had any children aged ≥17 and answered questions on educational debt during midlife (n = 6,562). Craggit models estimated (a) having any child-related educational debt and (b) the amount of debt owed among debtors.

Results: Black parents and parents with more education, higher income, and higher net worth were more likely to report child-related educational debt than White parents and parents with no degree, low-income, or negative net worth. Among debtors, high-income parents had more debt than low-income parents.

Bibliography Citation
Walsemann, Katrina Michelle and Jennifer A. Ailshire. "Student Debt Spans Generations: Characteristics of Parents Who Borrow to Pay for Their Children's College Education." The Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 72,6 (October 2017): 1084-1089.
9. Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Ailshire, Jennifer A.
Bell, Bethany A.
Frongillo, Edward A.
Body Mass Index Trajectories from Adolescence to Midlife: Differential Effects of Parental and Respondent Education by Race/Ethnicity and Gender
Ethnicity and Health 17,4 (2012): 337-362.
Also: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13557858.2011.635374
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Routledge ==> Taylor & Francis (1998)
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Educational Attainment; Ethnic Differences; Life Course; Parental Influences; Racial Differences; Weight

Objectives: Race/ethnicity and education are among the strongest social determinants of body mass index (BMI) throughout the life course, yet we know relatively little about how these social factors both independently and interactively contribute to the rate at which BMI changes from adolescence to midlife. The purpose of this study is to (1) examine variation in trajectories of BMI from adolescence to midlife by mothers’ and respondents’ education and (2) determine if the effects of mothers’ and respondents’ education on BMI trajectories differ by race/ethnicity and gender.

Design: We used nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Our sample included White (n=4433), Black (n=2420), and Hispanic (n=1501) respondents. Self-reported height and weight were collected on 16 occasions from 1981 to 2008. We employed two-level linear growth models to specify BMI trajectories.

Results: Mothers' education was inversely associated with BMI and BMI change among women. Among men, mothers’ education was inversely associated with BMI; these educational disparities persisted for Whites, diminished for Blacks, and widened for Hispanics. Respondents’ education was inversely associated with BMI among women, but was positively associated with the rate of BMI change among Black women. Respondents’ education was inversely associated with BMI among White and Hispanic men, and positively associated with BMI among Black men. These educational disparities widened for White and Black men, but narrowed for Hispanic men.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that by simultaneously considering multiple sources of stratification, we can more fully understand how the unequal distribution of advantages or disadvantages across social groups affects BMI across the life course.

Bibliography Citation
Walsemann, Katrina Michelle, Jennifer A. Ailshire, Bethany A. Bell and Edward A. Frongillo. "Body Mass Index Trajectories from Adolescence to Midlife: Differential Effects of Parental and Respondent Education by Race/Ethnicity and Gender." Ethnicity and Health 17,4 (2012): 337-362.
10. Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Ailshire, Jennifer A.
Fisk, Calley E.
Brown, Lauren L.
Do Gender and Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Sleep Duration Emerge in Early Adulthood? Evidence from a Longitudinal Study of U.S. Adults
Sleep Medicine 36 (August 2017): 133-140.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1389945717302216
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Racial Differences; Sleep

Objective: Gender and racial/ethnic disparities in sleep duration are well documented among the U.S. adult population, but we know little about how these disparities are shaped during the early course of adult life, a period marked by substantial changes in social roles that can influence time for sleep.

Methods: Prospective data was used from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), a U.S.-based representative sample of persons born between 1980 and 1984, who were first interviewed in 1997. Sleep duration was assessed in 2002, 2007/2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011. Random-coefficient models were estimated to examine gender and racial/ethnic disparities in trajectories of sleep duration across early adulthood as a function of educational experiences, employment, and family relationships.

Results: Sleep duration declined during early adulthood. Women reported shorter sleep than men from age 18 to 22, but slept longer than men by age 28. Young adults of black race/ethnnicity reported sleep durations similar to those of young adults of white race/ethnicity until age 24, after which blacks slept less than whites. Educational experiences and employment characteristics reduced gender and racial/ethnic disparities, but family relationships exacerbated them.

Bibliography Citation
Walsemann, Katrina Michelle, Jennifer A. Ailshire, Calley E. Fisk and Lauren L. Brown. "Do Gender and Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Sleep Duration Emerge in Early Adulthood? Evidence from a Longitudinal Study of U.S. Adults." Sleep Medicine 36 (August 2017): 133-140.
11. Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Ailshire, Jennifer A.
Gee, Gilbert C.
Student Loans and Racial Disparities in Self-reported Sleep Duration: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Sample of US Young Adults
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 70,1 (January 2016): 42-48.
Also: http://jech.bmj.com/content/70/1/42.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group, Ltd. - British Medical Journal Publishing Group
Keyword(s): College Education; Debt/Borrowing; Racial Differences; Sleep; Student Loans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Background: Student loans are the second largest source of personal debt in the USA and may represent an important source of financial strain for many young adults. Little attention has been paid to whether debt is associated with sleep duration, an important health-promoting behaviour. We determine if student loans are associated with sleep duration. Since black young adults are more likely to have student debt and sleep less, we also consider whether this association varies by race.

Methods: Data come from the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. The main analytic sample includes 4714 respondents who were ever enrolled in college and who reported on sleep duration in 2010. Most respondents had completed their college education by 2010, when respondents were 25 to 31 years old. Multivariable linear regression models assessed the cross-sectional association between student loans accumulated over the course of college and sleep duration in 2010, as well as between student debt at age 25 and sleep duration in 2010.

Results: Black young adults with greater amounts of student loans or more student debt reported shorter sleep duration, controlling for occupation, hours worked, household income, parental net worth, marital status, number of children in the household and other sociodemographic and health indicators. There was no association between student loans or debt with sleep for white or latino adults and other racial/ethnic groups.

Conclusions: Student loans may contribute to racial inequities in sleep duration. Our findings also suggest that the student debt crisis may have important implications for individuals’ sleep, specifically and public health, more broadly.

Bibliography Citation
Walsemann, Katrina Michelle, Jennifer A. Ailshire and Gilbert C. Gee. "Student Loans and Racial Disparities in Self-reported Sleep Duration: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Sample of US Young Adults ." Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 70,1 (January 2016): 42-48.
12. Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Ailshire, Jennifer A.
Hartnett, Caroline Sten
Mental Health Among Mothers and Fathers Who Borrow to Pay for Their Child's College Education
Presented: Austin TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Cost; Debt/Borrowing; Health, Mental; Parental Investments; Student Loans

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

More parents are borrowing to help their children pay for college. These loans may be a source of financial stress and worry, which could, in turn, impact parents' mental health. Our study investigates if child-related educational debt is associated with poorer mental health among parents and if fathers are more sensitive to this debt than mothers, given potential gender differences in who oversees the household finances and who is responsible for maintaining relationships with adult children. Data come from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, a nationally representative sample of persons born between 1957 and 1964. We restricted our sample to parents whose biological child(ren) attended college and were interviewed at age 50, when mental health was assessed (n=3,545). Acquiring any child-related educational debt was associated with better mental health among fathers, but as the amount borrowed increased, fathers reported worse mental health. No relationship was found among mothers.
Bibliography Citation
Walsemann, Katrina Michelle, Jennifer A. Ailshire and Caroline Sten Hartnett. "Mental Health Among Mothers and Fathers Who Borrow to Pay for Their Child's College Education." Presented: Austin TX, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2019.
13. Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Bell, Bethany A.
Effects of Timing and Level of Degree Attainment on Depressive Symptoms and Self-Rated Health at Mid-Life
Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Education; Depression (see also CESD); Educational Attainment; Health Factors; Health, Mental; High School Diploma; Self-Reporting

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We examined if the attainment of a higher educational degree after age 25 was associated with fewer depressive symptoms and better self-rated health at mid-life. We analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, restricting our sample to respondents who had not attained at least a bachelor's degree by age 25 (n=7,179). All regression models were stratified by highest degree attained by age 25. Among respondents with no degree, a high school diploma, or a post-high school certificate at age 25, attaining at least a bachelor's degree by mid-life was associated with fewer depressive symptoms and better self-rated health at mid-life compared to respondents who did not attain a higher degree by mid-life. Better self-rated health at mid-life was also reported by those with an associate's degree at age 25 who later attained a bachelor's degree or higher.
Bibliography Citation
Walsemann, Katrina Michelle and Bethany A. Bell. "Effects of Timing and Level of Degree Attainment on Depressive Symptoms and Self-Rated Health at Mid-Life." Presented: Washington, DC, Population Association of America Annual Meetings, March 31-April 2, 2011.
14. Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Bell, Bethany A.
Hummer, Robert A.
Effects of Timing and Level of Degree Attained on Depressive Symptoms and Self-Rated Health at Midlife
American Journal of Public Health 102,3 (March 2012): 557-563 .
Also: http://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/abs/10.2105/AJPH.2011.300216
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): College Education; Depression (see also CESD); Educational Attainment; Health Factors; Health, Mental; High School Diploma; Self-Reporting

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives. We examined whether attaining a higher educational degree after 25 years of age was associated with fewer depressive symptoms and better self-rated health at midlife than was not attaining a higher educational degree.

Methods. We analyzed data from National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, restricting our sample to respondents who had not attained a bachelor's degree by 25 years of age (n = 7179). We stratified all regression models by highest degree attained by 25 years of age.

Results. Among respondents with no degree, a high school diploma, or a post–high school certificate at 25 years of age, attaining at least a bachelor's degree by midlife was associated with fewer depressive symptoms and better self-rated health at midlife compared with respondents who did not attain a higher degree by midlife. Those with an associate's degree at 25 years of age who later attained a bachelor's degree or higher reported better health at midlife.

Conclusions. Attaining at least a bachelor's degree after 25 years of age is associated with better midlife health. Other specifications of educational timing and its health effects across the life course should be studied.

Bibliography Citation
Walsemann, Katrina Michelle, Bethany A. Bell and Robert A. Hummer. "Effects of Timing and Level of Degree Attained on Depressive Symptoms and Self-Rated Health at Midlife." American Journal of Public Health 102,3 (March 2012): 557-563 .
15. Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Gee, Gilbert C.
Gentile, Danielle
Sick of Our Loans: Student Borrowing and the Health of U.S. Young Adults
Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): College Education; Debt/Borrowing; Financial Assistance; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Student Loans; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We investigated how college loans are related to health during early adulthood, whether this relationship is stronger among those with less parental wealth or without a college degree, and if this relationship varied by type of college attended (e.g. 2-year versus 4-year). We analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, a nationally representative sample of young adults, restricting our sample to persons who ever attended college (n=4,643). Multivariate regression tested the association between college loans and self-rated health and psychological functioning in 2010, adjusting for a robust set of socio-demographic indicators. Student loans were associated with poorer self-rated health and psychological functioning. This association varied by level of parental wealth, but not degree attainment or type of college attended. Our study raises provocative questions for further research regarding student loan debt and the possible spillover effects on other life circumstances, such as occupational trajectories and health inequities.
Bibliography Citation
Walsemann, Katrina Michelle, Gilbert C. Gee and Danielle Gentile. "Sick of Our Loans: Student Borrowing and the Health of U.S. Young Adults." Presented: Boston MA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, May 2014.
16. Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Gee, Gilbert C.
Gentile, Danielle
Sick of Our Loans: Student Borrowing and the Mental Health of Young Adults in the United States
Social Science and Medicine 124 (January 2015): 85-93.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277953614007503
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): College Enrollment; Debt/Borrowing; Educational Attainment; Financial Assistance; Health, Mental; Human Capital; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Student Loans

Student loans are increasingly important and commonplace, especially among recent cohorts of young adults in the United States. These loans facilitate the acquisition of human capital in the form of education, but may also lead to stress and worries related to repayment. This study investigated two questions: 1) what is the association between the cumulative amount of student loans borrowed over the course of schooling and psychological functioning when individuals are 25-31 years old; and 2) what is the association between annual student loan borrowing and psychological functioning among currently enrolled college students? We also examined whether these relationships varied by parental wealth, college enrollment history (e.g. 2-year versus 4-year college), and educational attainment (for cumulative student loans only). We analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), a nationally representative sample of young adults in the United States. Analyses employed multivariate linear regression and within-person fixed-effects models. Student loans were associated with poorer psychological functioning, adjusting for covariates, in both the multivariate linear regression and the within-person fixed effects models. This association varied by level of parental wealth in the multivariate linear regression models only, and did not vary by college enrollment history or educational attainment. The present findings raise novel questions for further research regarding student loan debt and the possible spillover effects on other life circumstances, such as occupational trajectories and health inequities. The study of student loans is even more timely and significant given the ongoing rise in the costs of higher education.
Bibliography Citation
Walsemann, Katrina Michelle, Gilbert C. Gee and Danielle Gentile. "Sick of Our Loans: Student Borrowing and the Mental Health of Young Adults in the United States." Social Science and Medicine 124 (January 2015): 85-93.
17. Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Gee, Gilbert C.
Geronimus, Arline T.
Ethnic Differences in Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms: Disadvantage in Family Background, High School Experiences, and Adult Characteristics
Journal of Health and Social Behavior 50,1 (March 2009): 82-98.
Also: http://hsb.sagepub.com/content/50/1/82.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): CESD (Depression Scale); Depression (see also CESD); Ethnic Groups/Ethnicity; Health, Mental; Life Course; Modeling, Random Effects; Racial Differences; Variables, Independent - Covariate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although research investigating ethnic differences in mental health has increased in recent years, we know relatively little about how mental health trajectories vary across ethnic groups. Do these differences occur at certain ages but not others? We investigate ethnic variation in trajectories of depressive symptoms, and we examine the extent to which disadvantages in family background, high school experiences, and adult characteristics explain these differences. Employing random-coefficient modeling using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we find that blacks and Hispanics experience higher symptom levels in early adulthood in comparison to whites, but equivalent levels by middle age. Ethnic differences remained in early adulthood after including all covariates, but those differences were eliminated by middle age for Hispanics after controlling for demographics only, and for blacks after accounting for the age-varying relationship between income and depressive symptoms. These results highlight the importance of integrating a life course perspective when investigating ethnic variations in mental health. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

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Bibliography Citation
Walsemann, Katrina Michelle, Gilbert C. Gee and Arline T. Geronimus. "Ethnic Differences in Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms: Disadvantage in Family Background, High School Experiences, and Adult Characteristics." Journal of Health and Social Behavior 50,1 (March 2009): 82-98.
18. Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Geronimus, Arline T.
Gee, Gilbert C.
Accumulating Disadvantage over the Life Course: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study Investigating the Relationship Between Educational Advantage in Youth and Health in Middle Age
Research on Aging 30,2 (March 2008): 169-199.
Also: http://roa.sagepub.com/content/30/2/169.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Education; Educational Attainment; Ethnic Differences; Health Care; Life Course; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Recent studies suggest the importance of examining cumulative risk or advantage as potential predictors of health over the life course. Researchers investigating the cumulative health effects of education, however, have mainly conceptualized education in years or degrees, often disregarding educational quality and access to educational opportunities that may place individuals on divergent academic trajectories. We investigate whether educational advantages in youth are associated with an individual's health trajectory. We develop a novel index of educational advantage and employ random-intercept modeling using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. A widening health disparity was found in adulthood between respondents with greater and those with fewer educational advantages in youth. Furthermore, among respondents with few educational advantages, Blacks experience a greater health burden as they age compared to Whites and Hispanics. These results suggest that differential access to educational advantages during youth may contribute to persisting health disparities in adulthood. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

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Bibliography Citation
Walsemann, Katrina Michelle, Arline T. Geronimus and Gilbert C. Gee. "Accumulating Disadvantage over the Life Course: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study Investigating the Relationship Between Educational Advantage in Youth and Health in Middle Age." Research on Aging 30,2 (March 2008): 169-199.
19. Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Hummer, Robert A.
Hayward, Mark D.
Educational Pathways and the Smoking and Binge Drinking Behavior of U.S. Young Adults
Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; College Education; College Enrollment; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using a life course perspective, we investigate whether and why different educational pathways are associated with smoking and binge drinking among US young adults. This is important because educational heterogeneity is infrequently studied in the education-health literature. We use 14 waves (1997-2011) of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n=7,359). Young adults who delayed college enrollment or who did not attain their bachelor's degree within 4 years were more likely to smoke whereas young adults who delayed college enrollment were less likely to binge drink than young adults who enrolled in college immediately after high school and attained a bachelor's degree within 4 years. Marital and occupational statuses in young adulthood explained a portion of the relationships between educational pathways and health behavior. These findings strongly suggest that heterogeneity in educational pathways is important for understanding young adult health behavior.
Bibliography Citation
Walsemann, Katrina Michelle, Robert A. Hummer and Mark D. Hayward. "Educational Pathways and the Smoking and Binge Drinking Behavior of U.S. Young Adults." Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017.
20. Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Hummer, Robert A.
Hayward, Mark D.
Heterogeneity in Educational Pathways and the Health Behavior of U.S. Young Adults
Population Research and Policy Review 37,3 (June 2018): 343-366.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11113-018-9463-7
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; College Enrollment; Educational Attainment; Heterogeneity; Life Course; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

An increasing number of U.S. adults are progressing through college in decidedly more complex ways. Little is known, however, about how this growing heterogeneity may be associated with the health behaviors and ultimately health of young adults. Using a life course perspective, we investigate whether and why different educational pathways--that is, variation in when people attend and complete school--are associated with daily smoking and binge drinking among U.S. young adults. We use 14 waves (1997-2011) of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort (n = 7359) that enable us to identify the most common educational pathways, as well as their association with young adult health behaviors. Bachelor's degree recipients who enrolled immediately after high school but did not attain their degree within 4 years were more likely to smoke daily in early adulthood (i.e., ages 26-32) than those who enrolled in college immediately after high school and attained a bachelor's degree within 4 years. Conversely, bachelor's degree recipients who delayed college enrollment were less likely to binge drink in early adulthood than individuals who enrolled in college immediately after high school and attained a bachelor's degree within 4 years. Marital status and household income in young adulthood accounted for some of the relationships between educational pathways and health behavior. These findings highlight the complexity of education's relationship to health behavior and strongly suggest that heterogeneity in educational pathways should be explicitly examined in population health research.
Bibliography Citation
Walsemann, Katrina Michelle, Robert A. Hummer and Mark D. Hayward. "Heterogeneity in Educational Pathways and the Health Behavior of U.S. Young Adults." Population Research and Policy Review 37,3 (June 2018): 343-366.
21. Zajacova, Anna
Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Adolescent Health and Its Effects on Educational Attainment: Evidence from Two Nationally Representative Longitudinal Studies (NLSY79 and NLSY97)
Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Modeling, Fixed Effects

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We examine how adolescent health impacts educational attainment among American adults. Linear models and within-sibling fixed-effects models are used to analyze data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979 and 1997 cohorts, which include information on the adolescents’ health, parental background, cognitive and non-cognitive skills, and subsequent educational attainment. The results indicate that adolescent health limitations and self-rated health are only moderately associated with adult educational attainment. The bivariate relationship is in the expected direction and significant but the effects are fully explained by ‘traditional’ predictors of attainment like parental background. The results suggest that at the population level, adolescent health may not have a pronounced independent influence on educational attainment. Research on educational determinants of adult health should primarily incorporate individuals’ childhood socioeconomic status and cognitive and noncognitive characteristics as potential confounders.
Bibliography Citation
Zajacova, Anna and Katrina Michelle Walsemann. "Adolescent Health and Its Effects on Educational Attainment: Evidence from Two Nationally Representative Longitudinal Studies (NLSY79 and NLSY97)." Presented: New Orleans LA, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2013.
22. Zajacova, Anna
Walsemann, Katrina Michelle
Dowd, Jennifer Beam
The Long Arm of Adolescent Health Among Men and Women: Does Attained Status Explain Its Association with Mid-Adulthood Health?
Population Research and Policy Review 34,1 (February 2015): 19-48.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11113-014-9327-8
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Gender Differences; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Income; Life Course

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A growing body of research has established the effect of early health on later-life health. This study extends the literature by (1) examining multiple dimensions of mid-adulthood health including physical and mental conditions, (2) analyzing attained status (education and income) as a potential pathway through which health problems in adolescence may impact later health, and (3) considering the role of gender in these life course processes. Using over 20 years of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979 cohort (NLSY79), we test the associations between adolescent health limitations and eight adult health measures for men and women, and whether these associations are mediated by status attainment. We find strong links between adolescent health limitations and mid-adulthood health, especially among women. Among men, the associations are strong for measures of physical health but somewhat weaker for mental and general health measures--taking into account the men's demographic characteristics, family background, and skills, the effects of adolescent limitations become non-significant for these dimensions. These patterns are largely independent of attained socioeconomic status; that is, education and income do not appear to be critical pathways from adolescent to adult health. Understanding how early health influences the long-term trajectory of health and social capital accumulation for men and women is critical for developing social and health research and policy, in order to optimize health over the entire life course.
Bibliography Citation
Zajacova, Anna, Katrina Michelle Walsemann and Jennifer Beam Dowd. "The Long Arm of Adolescent Health Among Men and Women: Does Attained Status Explain Its Association with Mid-Adulthood Health?" Population Research and Policy Review 34,1 (February 2015): 19-48.