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Author: Friedman, Samantha
Resulting in 3 citations.
1. Hayward, Mark D.
Chen, Hsinmu
Friedman, Samantha
Race Differences in Retirement Life Cycle Experiences and Labor Force Participation Rates
Presented: Cincinnati, OH, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1993
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Dual Economic Theory; Labor Force Participation; Life Cycle Research; Markov chain / Markov model; Modeling, Hazard/Event History/Survival/Duration; Mortality; Racial Differences; Retirement; Statistical Analysis; Transition Rates, Activity to Work

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A Markov-based, multistate life-table model is used to examine how race differences in older men's labor force participation rates (LFPRs) are influenced by differences in labor force status transition rates, mortality, and population composition. Key missing information in the scientific literature is how the retirement life cycle experiences of blacks and whites determine race differences in LFPRs. In light of these results, the utility of labor force participation rates to assess race differences in retirement behavior is evaluated. Transition rates are derived from multivariate hazards models based on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men. Race-specific multistate working life tables are estimated, showing the relationship between LFPRs and retirement life cycle experiences for a life table population. Simulations are used to examine changes in LFPRs and retirement life cycle experiences for a given race group produced by substituting transition rates from the other race group.
Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D., Hsinmu Chen and Samantha Friedman. "Race Differences in Retirement Life Cycle Experiences and Labor Force Participation Rates." Presented: Cincinnati, OH, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1993.
2. Hayward, Mark D.
Friedman, Samantha
Chen, Hsinmu
Career Trajectories and Older Men's Retirement
Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 53B,2 (March 1998): S91-S103.
Also: http://psychsocgerontology.oxfordjournals.org/content/53B/2/S91.abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): Benefits, Disability; Career Patterns; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Mobility, Labor Market; Occupational Status; Retirement

The idea of a long and stable career rewarded by retirement is a fixture of the American social ethos and political economy. The paradox is that many Americans' careers do not fit this image. Here, we examined how the structure of the career, as compared to only those circumstances proximate to retirement, is important for understanding career endings. Based on labor force histories drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men, we observed that the occupational roles held through the mid and late career combine additively to influence retirement and disability experiences, with different conditions of work coming into play depending on the career stage. Occupational roles in the mid career also have long-term, indirect effects, operating through the onset of health problems and the adequacy of pension benefits. Although retirement and disability are not hinged to occupational mobility per se, these career endings are sensitive to major discontinuities in the career and work role in terms of unemployment and labor force mobility. (AUTHOR)
Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D., Samantha Friedman and Hsinmu Chen. "Career Trajectories and Older Men's Retirement." Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 53B,2 (March 1998): S91-S103.
3. Hayward, Mark D.
Friedman, Samantha
Chen, Hsinmu
Race Inequities in Men's Retirement
Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 51B,1 (January 1996): S1-S10.
Also: http://psychsocgerontology.oxfordjournals.org/content/51B/1/S1.abstract
Cohort(s): Older Men
Publisher: Gerontological Society of America
Keyword(s): Disability; Labor Force Participation; Life Cycle Research; Male Sample; Mortality; Racial Differences; Retirement

Assessed inequities of retirement access for black and white older men. Cohort-based prospective analysis of mid- and late-career labor force behavior was conducted using the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men (NLS). The NLS is a nationally representative sample of 5,020 men, aged 45-59 in 1966, who were followed for 17 years. A multistate life table model was used to identify how labor force experiences and mortality determined the labor force participation rates (LFPRs) and the qualities of the retirement life cycle for blacks and whites. Results showed that black men's lower LFPRs were a function of disability. Despite lower LFPRs than whites, however, blacks spent a greater portion of their lives both working and disabled, reducing the retirement period. Race differences in the retirement life cycle were also highly sensitive to mortality. Although race did not affect the risk of reentry, retirement reversals were more common among whites than blacks due to differential exposure. The combination of higher disability and mortality rates among blacks suggests that health is a key determinant of retirement inequity. It is concluded that reducing black mortality to that of whites would substantially narrow the life cycle difference, although mortality is not generally thought to be policy manipulable. (AR) (AgeLine Database, copyright 1996 AARP, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Hayward, Mark D., Samantha Friedman and Hsinmu Chen. "Race Inequities in Men's Retirement." Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 51B,1 (January 1996): S1-S10.