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Author: Schwartz, Joseph A.
Resulting in 3 citations.
1. Beaver, Kevin M.
Connolly, Eric J.
Schwartz, Joseph A.
Al-Ghamdi, Mohammed Said
Kobeisy, Ahmed Nezar
Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Stability and Change in Levels of Self-Control
Journal of Criminal Justice 41,5 (September-October 2013): 300-308.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004723521300069X
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Genetics; Kinship; Self-Regulation/Self-Control; Siblings

Purpose: There has been an emerging body of research estimating the stability in levels of self-control across different sections of the life course. At the same time, some of this research has attempted to examine the factors that account for both stability and change in levels of self-control. Missing from much of this research is a concerted focus on the genetic and environmental architecture of stability and change in self-control.

Methods: The current study was designed to address this issue by analyzing a sample of kinship pairs drawn from the Child and Young Adult Supplement of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (CNLSY).

Results: Analyses of these data revealed that genetic factors accounted for between 74 and 92 percent of the stability in self-control and between 78 and 89 percent of the change in self-control. Shared and nonshared environmental factors explained the rest of the stability and change in levels of self-control.

Conclusions: A combination of genetic and environmental influences is responsible for the stability and change in levels of self-control over time.

Bibliography Citation
Beaver, Kevin M., Eric J. Connolly, Joseph A. Schwartz, Mohammed Said Al-Ghamdi and Ahmed Nezar Kobeisy. "Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Stability and Change in Levels of Self-Control." Journal of Criminal Justice 41,5 (September-October 2013): 300-308.
2. Connolly, Eric J.
Schwartz, Joseph A.
Jackson, Dylan B.
Beaver, Kevin M.
How Far Does the Apple Fall from the Tree? Maternal Delinquency and Sex-specific Patterns of Offspring Delinquent Behavior
Journal of Criminal Justice 54 (January-February 2018): 50-61.
Also: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047235217305159
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Parental Influences

Purpose: Examine whether parental offending is directly associated with male and female offspring patterns of delinquent behavior during adolescence and indirectly associated with risk for criminal conviction in young adulthood.

Methods: Latent growth curve models and growth mixture models are estimated using intergenerational data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to examine the effects of maternal offending on rates of growth and distinct trajectories of delinquent behavior in male and female children.

Results: The results revealed that maternal offending was associated with higher starting levels and slower rates of decline in delinquent behavior in male and female children. Growth mixture modeling, however, revealed that a four-class solution explained patterns of delinquency in male offspring, while a three-class solution explained patterns of delinquency in female offspring. Multivariate analyses indicated that maternal offending was more strongly associated with male offending classes than female offending classes, with males in the high and slowly declining class and moderate and increasing class demonstrating the highest risk for criminal conviction in young adulthood.

Conclusions: Maternal offending is more strongly associated with serious patterns of delinquent behavior and risk for future criminal conviction in male offspring than in female offspring.

Bibliography Citation
Connolly, Eric J., Joseph A. Schwartz, Dylan B. Jackson and Kevin M. Beaver. "How Far Does the Apple Fall from the Tree? Maternal Delinquency and Sex-specific Patterns of Offspring Delinquent Behavior." Journal of Criminal Justice 54 (January-February 2018): 50-61.
3. Connolly, Eric J.
Schwartz, Joseph A.
Nedelec, Joseph L.
Beaver, Kevin M.
Barnes, J. C.
Different Slopes for Different Folks: Genetic Influences on Growth in Delinquent Peer Association and Delinquency During Adolescence
Journal of Youth and Adolescence 44,7 (July 2015): 1413-1427.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10964-015-0299-8/fulltext.html
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Delinquency/Gang Activity; Genetics; Kinship; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Siblings

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

An extensive line of research has identified delinquent peer association as a salient environmental risk factor for delinquency, especially during adolescence. While previous research has found moderate-to-strong associations between exposure to delinquent peers and a variety of delinquent behaviors, comparatively less scholarship has focused on the genetic architecture of this association over the course of adolescence. Using a subsample of kinship pairs (N = 2379; 52% female) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth--Child and Young Adult Supplement (CNLSY), the present study examined the extent to which correlated individual differences in starting levels and developmental growth in delinquent peer pressure and self-reported delinquency were explained by additive genetic and environmental influences. Results from a series of biometric growth models revealed that 37% of the variance in correlated growth between delinquent peer pressure and self-reported delinquency was explained by additive genetic effects, while nonshared environmental effects accounted for the remaining 63% of the variance. Implications of these findings for interpreting the nexus between peer effects and adolescent delinquency are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Connolly, Eric J., Joseph A. Schwartz, Joseph L. Nedelec, Kevin M. Beaver and J. C. Barnes. "Different Slopes for Different Folks: Genetic Influences on Growth in Delinquent Peer Association and Delinquency During Adolescence." Journal of Youth and Adolescence 44,7 (July 2015): 1413-1427.