Search Results

Author: Turner, Michael G.
Resulting in 12 citations.
1. Brame, Robert
Bushway, Shawn D.
Paternoster, Raymond
Turner, Michael G.
Demographic Patterns of Cumulative Arrest Prevalence by Ages 18 and 23
Crime and Delinquency 60,3 (April 2014): 471-486.
Also: http://cad.sagepub.com/content/60/3/471.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Arrests; Gender Differences; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this study, we examine race, sex, and self-reported arrest histories (excluding arrests for minor traffic violations) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97; N = 7,335) for the period 1997 through 2008 covering cumulative arrest histories through ages 18 and 23. The analysis produces three key findings: (a) males have higher cumulative prevalence of arrest than females and (b) there are important race differences in the probability of arrest for males but not for females. Assuming that the missing cases are missing at random (MAR), about 30% of Black males have experienced at least one arrest by age 18 (vs. about 22% for White males); by age 23 about 49% of Black males have been arrested (vs. about 38% for White males). Earlier research using the NLSY97 showed that the risk of arrest by age 23 was 30%, with nonresponse bounds [25.3%, 41.4%]. This study indicates that the risk of arrest is not evenly distributed across the population. Future research should focus on the identification and management of collateral risks that often accompany arrest experiences.
Bibliography Citation
Brame, Robert, Shawn D. Bushway, Raymond Paternoster and Michael G. Turner. "Demographic Patterns of Cumulative Arrest Prevalence by Ages 18 and 23." Crime and Delinquency 60,3 (April 2014): 471-486.
2. Brame, Robert
Turner, Michael G.
Paternoster, Raymond
Bushway, Shawn D.
Cumulative Prevalence of Arrest From Ages 8 to 23 in a National Sample
Pediatrics 129,1 (January 2012): 21-27.
Also: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/129/1/21.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Arrests; Comparison Group (Reference group); Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Statistics

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cumulative proportion of youth who self-report having been arrested or taken into custody for illegal or delinquent offenses (excluding arrests for minor traffic violations) from ages 8 to 23 years.

METHODS: Self-reported arrest history data (excluding arrests for minor traffic violations) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (N = 7335) were examined from 1997 to 2008.

RESULTS: By age 18, the in-sample cumulative arrest prevalence rate lies between 15.9% and 26.8%; at age 23, it lies between 25.3% and 41.4%. These bounds make no assumptions at all about missing cases. If we assume that the missing cases are at least as likely to have been arrested as the observed cases, the in-sample age-23 prevalence rate must lie between 30.2% and 41.4%. The greatest growth in the cumulative prevalence of arrest occurs during late adolescence and the period of early or emerging adulthood.

CONCLUSIONS: Since the last nationally defensible estimate based on data from 1965, the cumulative prevalence of arrest for American youth (particularly in the period of late adolescence and early adulthood) has increased substantially. At a minimum, being arrested for criminal activity signifies increased risk of unhealthy lifestyle, violence involvement, and violent victimization. Incorporating this insight into regular clinical assessment could yield significant benefits for patients and the larger community.

Bibliography Citation
Brame, Robert, Michael G. Turner, Raymond Paternoster and Shawn D. Bushway. "Cumulative Prevalence of Arrest From Ages 8 to 23 in a National Sample." Pediatrics 129,1 (January 2012): 21-27.
3. Hartman, Jennifer L.
Turner, Michael G.
Daigle, Leah E.
Exum, M. Lyn
Cullen, Francis T.
Exploring the Gender Differences in Protective Factors
International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 52,3 (June 2009): 249-277
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Delinquency/Gang Activity; Drug Use; Gender Differences; Resilience/Developmental Assets

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Understanding the causes of why individuals desist from or are resilient to delinquency and drug use has become a salient social concern. Much research has centered on the effects that protective factors possess in fostering resiliency but that research has not fully explored how the effects of protective factors might vary across gender. Using a sample of 711 individuals from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, Child-Mother data set, the authors investigate how individual protective factors vary across gender on two measures of resiliency that document the lack of involvement in serious delinquency and drug use. They also examine whether the accumulation of protective factors varies across gender in fostering resiliency. The findings suggest that although males and females rely on different individual protective factors to foster resiliency, the accumulation of protective factors appears to be equally important for males and females in promoting resiliency. The authors discuss theoretical and policy implications. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Hartman, Jennifer L., Michael G. Turner, Leah E. Daigle, M. Lyn Exum and Francis T. Cullen. "Exploring the Gender Differences in Protective Factors." International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 52,3 (June 2009): 249-277.
4. Piquero, Alex R.
Brezina, Timothy
Turner, Michael G.
Testing Moffitt's Account of Delinquency Abstention
Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 42,1 (February 2005): 27-55
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Behavior, Antisocial; Behavior, Violent; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Teenagers

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

An established finding in criminology is that most adolescents engage in delinquency. Still, studies continue to identify a small group of individuals who refrain from delinquency even when it is nonnative for their same-age peers. Moffitt's developmental taxonomy provides some reasons for delinquency abstention, but research has been slow to assess these hypotheses. Herein, the authors use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to examine one of Moffitt's unexplored abstention hypotheses: that some individuals abstain because individual characteristics block their access to delinquent peer networks and, hence, opportunities to mimic antisocial behavior In addition, the authors also present the first empirical examination of gender differences in abstention. The results support some aspects of Moffitt's hypotheses concerning the importance of peer networks, but provide mixed evidence regarding the personal characteristics associated with delinquency abstention and involvement in deviant peer networks. Directions for future research and theorizing are discussed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Piquero, Alex R., Timothy Brezina and Michael G. Turner. "Testing Moffitt's Account of Delinquency Abstention." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 42,1 (February 2005): 27-55.
5. Pratt, Travis C.
Turner, Michael G.
Piquero, Alex R.
Parental Socialization and Community Context: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Structural Sources of Low Self-Control
Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 41,3 (August 2004): 219-244.
Also: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=14012333&db=aph
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Discipline; Neighborhood Effects; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Parenting Skills/Styles; Parents, Behavior; Racial Differences; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Several empirical studies have attempted to estimate the effect of low self-control on criminal and "analogous" behaviors. Most of these studies have shown that low self-control is an important feature of the cause(s) of crime. Although research is begining to emerge that targets more specifically the "roots" of self-control via parental socialization (the most salient factor in the development of self-control according to Hirschi and Gottfredson), researchers have yet to explore the degree to which the structural characteristics of communities may influence patterns of parental socialization and, in turn, individual levels of self-control. To address this question, the authors employ longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to examine community-level influences on parental socialization and self-control. The results indicate (1) self-control was predicted both cross-sectionally and longitudinally by both parental socialization and adverse neighborhood conditions, (2) the total effect of adverse neighborhood conditions on children's levels of self-control was just as strong as the total effect for indicators of parental socialization, and (3) important race differences did emerge, particularly with regard to the interrelationships between our neighborhood-level measures and parental socialization. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Bibliography Citation
Pratt, Travis C., Michael G. Turner and Alex R. Piquero. "Parental Socialization and Community Context: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Structural Sources of Low Self-Control." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 41,3 (August 2004): 219-244.
6. Tigri, Henry B.
Reid, Shannon
Turner, Michael G.
Devinney, Jennifer M.
Investigating the Relationship Between Gang Membership and Carrying a Firearm: Results from a National Sample
American Journal of Criminal Justice 41,2 (June 2016): 168-184.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12103-015-9297-3/fulltext.html
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

While there is evidence that gang membership impacts an individual's gun carrying proclivities, existing research has largely focused only on males and at-risk youth. The present study investigates the role of gang membership, peer gang membership, and delinquency on whether individuals carry a firearm using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. Carrying a firearm was associated with involvement in delinquency, peer gang membership, and respondent gang membership. The association between gang membership and carrying a firearm weakened with age. Few significant differences across categories of sex and race emerged suggesting that the relationship between gang membership and carrying a firearm is equivocal across these groups.
Bibliography Citation
Tigri, Henry B., Shannon Reid, Michael G. Turner and Jennifer M. Devinney. "Investigating the Relationship Between Gang Membership and Carrying a Firearm: Results from a National Sample." American Journal of Criminal Justice 41,2 (June 2016): 168-184.
7. Turner, Michael G.
Good Kids in Bad Circumstances: A Longitudinal Analysis of Resilient Youth
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Cincinnati, 2000
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: UMI - University Microfilms, Bell and Howell Information and Learning
Keyword(s): Behavioral Problems; Birthweight; CESD (Depression Scale); Cigarette Use (see Smoking); Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Depression (see also CESD); Gender Differences; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Household Composition; Life Course; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty; Racial Differences; Resilience/Developmental Assets; Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC); Welfare

A central concern of the life-course perspective has been to demarcate the factors-often called "risk factors"--that place an individual at risk for criminal activity at various points of development. This perspective, however, has resulted in only limited investigation of the factors--often called "Protective factors"--that prevent an individual from becoming involved in these problem behaviors. It is noteworthy that researchers have infrequently investigated the effects that protective factors have on high-risk youths (e.g., individuals exposed to multiple criminogenic risks as opposed to an isolated risk). This research, commonly referred to resiliency research, has generally found that protective factors emerging over the life course from many different domains play an integral role in insulating or buffering youths from the effects of multiple risk factors. The existing research on resiliency, however, has been limited by one or more considerations: the use of cross-sectional research designs; approaching research hypotheses in an atheoretical manner; relying on small samples that are not nationally representative; and generally focusing on a narrow period of the life course. The intent of this dissertation is to overcome these limitations and extend the knowledge base on resiliency by using a sample of 711 individuals from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, Child-Mother data set. Using multiple analytic strategies, the findings suggest that protective factors only have trivial independent effects, however, their cumulative effects are significant and robust across multiple measures of resiliency. In addition, these findings appeared to be general across categories of race and sex. The evidence did not suggest that protective factors also functioned to moderate the effects of risk. Finally, contrary to much prior research, those identified as resilient did not experience greater levels of depression. The theoretical and policy implications of this research are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Turner, Michael G. Good Kids in Bad Circumstances: A Longitudinal Analysis of Resilient Youth. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Cincinnati, 2000.
8. Turner, Michael G.
Repeat Bully Victimizations and Legal Outcomes in a National Sample: The Impact Over the Life Course
Presented: Honolulu HI, American Psychological Association Annual Conference, 2013
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Arrests; Bullying/Victimization; Criminal Justice System; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Life Course

OBJECTIVE: While it has been shown that bullying is associated with subsequent legal problems (i.e., arrest), the evidence related to the association of bully victimization and legal problems is less clear. The present study investigates the repeated bully victimization/legal consequences relationship over an extended period of the life course.

METHODS: This study uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (N = 7335), a population-based longitudinal study of individuals who were age 12 to 16 at the study outset. A typological measure was created where individuals were categorized as: (1) non-victims, (2) childhood victims (victims below the age of 12), (3) adolescent victims (victims between the age of 12 and 18), and (4) chronic victims (victims before age 12 and between age 12 and 18). The repeat bully victimization variable was then associated with several offending and victimization legal outcome measures experienced in late adolescence and adulthood.

RESULTS: Experiencing repeat bully victimizations was associated with an increase in respondent’s likelihood of engaging in substance use, delinquency, arrest, conviction, and incarceration. Experiencing repeat bully victimizations was also associated with an increase in respondent’s perceptions and experiences with violent victimizations. The association between these measures was consistently stronger for females while there were few differences across categories of race.

CONCLUSIONS: Being the victim of a bully during childhood and adolescence serves as a marker for subsequent legal problems and victimization in adolescence and adulthood. Prevention and intervention programs aimed at reducing involvement in delinquency, crime, and victimization would benefit by targeting bully victimizations as a risk factor.

Bibliography Citation
Turner, Michael G. "Repeat Bully Victimizations and Legal Outcomes in a National Sample: The Impact Over the Life Course." Presented: Honolulu HI, American Psychological Association Annual Conference, 2013.
9. Turner, Michael G.
Hartman, Jennifer L.
Bishop, Donna M.
Effects of Prenatal Problems, Family Functioning, and Neighborhood Disadvantage in Predicting Life-Course-Persistent Offending
Criminal Justice and Behavior 34,10 (2007): 1241-1261
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Disadvantaged, Economically; Family Environment; Illegal Activities; Life Course; Mothers, Health; Neighborhood Effects; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Research examining Moffitt's dual taxonomy theory of offending has generally supported the idea that neuropsychological deficits interact with disadvantaged familial environments to predict life-course-persistent offending. Most research, however, has neglected to investigate the power of this interaction across different neighborhood and racial contexts. Using data extracted from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, Moffitt's biosocial hypothesis is tested across different neighborhood and racial contexts. The findings indicate that the biosocial interaction predicts life-course-persistent offending only among non-Whites in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Stated differently, macro-level structural factors appear to moderate the effects of individual and family risks. That poor non-Whites reside in neighborhoods that are ecologically distinct from those in which poor Whites reside exacerbates the criminogenic effects of individual-level deficits and family disadvantage.
Bibliography Citation
Turner, Michael G., Jennifer L. Hartman and Donna M. Bishop. "Effects of Prenatal Problems, Family Functioning, and Neighborhood Disadvantage in Predicting Life-Course-Persistent Offending." Criminal Justice and Behavior 34,10 (2007): 1241-1261.
10. Turner, Michael G.
Livecchi, Crista M.
Beaver, Kevin M.
Booth, Jeb
Moving Beyond the Socialization Hypothesis: The Effects of Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy on the Development of Self-control
Journal of Criminal Justice 39,2 (March-April 2011): 120-127.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047235210002175
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Neighborhood Effects; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Parenting Skills/Styles; Parents, Behavior; Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Racial Differences; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety; Self-Regulation/Self-Control; Smoking (see Cigarette Use)

Purpose: Gottfredson and Hirschi, in A General Theory of Crime, argue that the primary source of self-control is parental socialization. Specifically, parents who fail to supervise their children, to recognize their child's deviant behavior, and to punish such behavior are more likely to raise children with lower levels of self-control. Recent empirical research, however, has broadened the explanatory factors to include sources within schools, neighborhoods, and individual factors as significant contributors to the development of self-control. This study proposes that maternal smoking during pregnancy places additional limits on the development of self-control.

Methods: Using a subsample of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (N = 542), we provide a comprehensive investigation of the variety of sources of self-control to include both individual and environmental covariates.

Results: Results indicate that maternal smoking during pregnancy significantly impacts the development of self-control net of parental, neighborhood, and school socialization. We also found that individual sources of self-control significantly vary across race and neighborhood context.

Conclusions: The sources of self-control are more complex than socialization from parents, schools, and within neighborhoods occurring in childhood and adolescence.

Bibliography Citation
Turner, Michael G., Crista M. Livecchi, Kevin M. Beaver and Jeb Booth. "Moving Beyond the Socialization Hypothesis: The Effects of Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy on the Development of Self-control." Journal of Criminal Justice 39,2 (March-April 2011): 120-127.
11. Turner, Michael G.
Phillips, Matthew D.
Tigri, Henry B.
Williams, Meredith A.
Hartman, Jennifer L.
On the Association Between Repeat Bully Victimizations and Carrying a Firearm: Evidence in a National Sample
International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 60,8 (June 2016): 871-896.
Also: http://ijo.sagepub.com/content/60/8/871.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Sage Publications
Keyword(s): Bullying/Victimization; Childhood

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Bullying is a significant public concern. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether being repeatedly victimized by a bully during childhood and adolescence is associated with gun carrying in adolescence and adulthood. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, we found that just over one fourth of the respondents reported carrying a gun at some point in their lifetime. Respondents experiencing repeat bully victimizations reported higher rates of gun carrying during the last 12 months and the last 30 days. No support was found for the association of repeat bully victimizations and carrying a gun to school. Individuals victimized during childhood (before the age of 12) and during adolescence were found to be at risk of carrying a gun later in the life course. Repeat bully victimizations should be considered a marker for gun-carrying behaviors in adolescence and adulthood.
Bibliography Citation
Turner, Michael G., Matthew D. Phillips, Henry B. Tigri, Meredith A. Williams and Jennifer L. Hartman. "On the Association Between Repeat Bully Victimizations and Carrying a Firearm: Evidence in a National Sample." International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 60,8 (June 2016): 871-896.
12. Turner, Michael G.
Piquero, Alex R.
Pratt, Travis C.
The School Context as a Source of Self-Control
Journal of Criminal Justice 33,4 (July-May 2005): 327-339.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004723520500022X
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Crime; Discipline; Neighborhood Effects; Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parental Influences; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety; Self-Regulation/Self-Control; Sociability/Socialization/Social Interaction

Researchers investigating Gottfredson and Hirschi's General Theory of Crime primarily concentrated their efforts on the relationship between an individual's self-control and involvement in crime and/or analogous behaviors. Much less research examined the potential sources of an individual's self-control. In this study, an argument was developed for the importance of exploring the contribution of the school context in the development of self-control within individuals. In particular, Gottfredson and Hirschi's position on this front was theoretically elaborated by including school/teacher socialization practices in a larger model of the development of self-control. Using data extracted from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, it was found that the effects of school socialization on self-control were significant net of parental socialization. In addition, the effects of school socialization varied across parenting and neighborhood contexts. The theoretical implications of this research, specifically as they relate to the development of self-control, are discussed. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR; Copyright 2005 Elsevier]

The development of self-control, or the ability to manage one's behavior to comply with normative behavioral expectations, is generally recognized as a significant factor in preventing antisocial behavior and crime. Although extensive research has focused on the link between an individual's self-control and involvement in crime and/or problem behaviors, much less research has identified and examined the potential sources of an individual's self-control. The current study considers the school context as a potential resource for the development of self-control. One source of data was the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), which was a multistage, stratified cluster sample of 12,686 individuals between the ages of 14 and 21 in 1979. Since 1979, yearly interviews have been conducted with the sample to examine experiences when the youth s completed high school and entered the workforce. The second source of data was the NLSY Child-Mother, which was a separate biennial data collection that began in 1986. It included detailed assessments of each child born to the females in the original NLSY data cohort. The two surveys provided information on the following variables related to the cultivation of self-control: poor parental supervision, parental discipline, neighborhood socialization, and school socialization. The behavioral measures of self-control were based on an individual's total score on portions of the Behavioral Problem Index measured when individuals were age 10. The study found that although school socialization was a significant contributor to self-control in less disadvantaged neighborhoods, it failed to enhance self-control in more disadvantaged neighborhoods. [NCJRS]

Bibliography Citation
Turner, Michael G., Alex R. Piquero and Travis C. Pratt. "The School Context as a Source of Self-Control." Journal of Criminal Justice 33,4 (July-May 2005): 327-339.