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Source: Future of Children: Princeton - Brookings
Resulting in 10 citations.
1. Brien, Michael J.
Willis, Robert J.
The Partners of Welfare Mothers. Potential Earnings and Child Support
The Future of Children: Welfare to Work 7,1 (Spring 1997).
Also: http://www.futureofchildren.org/pubs-info2825/pubs-info_show.htm?doc_id=72223
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs - Princeton - Brookings
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Child Support; Fathers, Absence; Fertility; Mothers, Race; Racial Differences; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Public interest in promoting the self-sufficiency of families that depend on welfare concerns the ability of fathers, as well as mothers, to support their children through employment. Many welfare recipients are never-married women, and their children seldom receive child support payments. This article estimates the financial resources that go untapped when child support is not collected from the men who father children who later receive AFDC benefits. While these men may earn little at the time the child is born their incomes are likely to escalate over time. The child support payments they would make over the child's first 18 years equal almost half of the welfare benefit received by the mother and child. Based on these probable long-term earnings, the authors urge policymakers to invest in efforts to establish paternity and collect child support.
Bibliography Citation
Brien, Michael J. and Robert J. Willis. "The Partners of Welfare Mothers. Potential Earnings and Child Support ." The Future of Children: Welfare to Work 7,1 (Spring 1997).
2. Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Duncan, Greg J.
The Effects of Poverty on Children
The Future of Children: Children and Poverty 7,2 (Summer/Fall 1997): 55-71.
Also: http://www.princeton.edu/futureofchildren/publications/docs/07_02_03.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs - Princeton - Brookings
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Birthweight; Children; Children, Home Environment; Family Income; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Poverty; School Completion

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Although hundreds of studies have documented the association between family poverty and children's health achievement and behavior few measure the effects of the timing depth and duration of poverty on children, and many fail to adjust for other family characteristics (for example, female headship, mother's age, and schooling) that may account for much of the observed correlation between poverty and child outcomes. This article focuses on a recent set of studies that explore the relationship between poverty and child outcomes in depth. By and large, this research supports the conclusion that family income has selective but, in some instances, quite substantial effects on child and adolescent well-being. Family income appears to be more strongly related to children's ability and achievement than to their emotional outcomes. Children who live in extreme poverty or who live below the poverty line for multiple years appear, all other things being equal, to suffer the worst outcomes. The timing of poverty also seems to be important for certain child outcomes. Children who experience poverty during their preschool and early school years have lower rates of school completion than children and adolescents who experience poverty only in later years. Although more research is needed on the significance of the timing of poverty on child outcomes, findings to date suggest that interventions during early childhood may be most important in reducing poverty's impact on children.
Bibliography Citation
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne and Greg J. Duncan. "The Effects of Poverty on Children." The Future of Children: Children and Poverty 7,2 (Summer/Fall 1997): 55-71.
3. Burtless, Gary T.
Welfare Recipients, Job Skills and Employment Prospects
The Future of Children: Welfare to Work 7,1, (Spring 1997).
Also: http://www.futureofchildren.org/pubs-info2825/pubs-info_show.htm?doc_id=72223
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs - Princeton - Brookings
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Child Care; Educational Attainment; Health Care; Insurance, Health; Job Skills; Maternal Employment; Private Sector; Wages; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The welfare reform goal of moving mothers who rely on welfare into private-sector employment cannot be achieved only by changes in public policy. Employment rates reflect the job qualifications of individuals, obstacles to work outside the home, the attractiveness of available jobs, and the capacity of the labor market to absorb new workers at particular skill levels. This article examines how each of these factors is likely to influence current welfare recipients' success in finding employment and the wages they are likely to earn. The author concludes that the skill deficiencies of recipients of Aid to Families with Dependent Children do not represent an insurmountable barrier to employment, although these deficiencies do restrict the wages recipients can earn. Without continued public assistance in the form of wage subsidies, child care payments, or help securing health insurance, most families that move from welfare to work will remain below the poverty level.
Bibliography Citation
Burtless, Gary T. "Welfare Recipients, Job Skills and Employment Prospects." The Future of Children: Welfare to Work 7,1, (Spring 1997).
4. Devaney, Barbara L.
Ellwood, Marilyn R.
Love, John M.
Programs That Mitigate the Effects of Poverty on Children
The Future of Children: Children and Poverty 7,2 (Summer-Fall 1997).
Also: http://www.futureofchildren.org/information2826/information_show.htm?doc_id=72179
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs - Princeton - Brookings
Keyword(s): Children, Health Care; Children, Poverty; Children, Well-Being; Food Stamps (see Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program); Head Start; Medicaid/Medicare; Poverty; Preschool Children

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article reviews six federally funded in-kind public assistance programs that are intended to mitigate the effects of poverty on low-income children by providing access to basic human necessities such as food, housing, education, and health care. The evidence suggests that, while each program can be improved, these programs do achieve their basic objectives. In general, food stamps, the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), and school nutrition programs are successful at providing food assistance to low-income children, starting with the prenatal period and continuing through the school years. The Food Stamp Program provides food assistance nationwide to all households solely on the basis of financial need and is central to the food assistance safety net for low-income children. The WIC program has helped reduce the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia in infants and children and has increased intakes of certain targeted nutrients for program participants. The school nutrition programs provide free or low-cost meals that satisfy the dietary goals of lunches and breakfasts to most school-age children. The Medicaid program has extended health insurance coverage to millions of low-income children. However, many children remain uninsured, and children enrolled in Medicaid do not have the same access to medical care as privately insured children. Relatively little is known about the effects of Medicaid on children's health status. For Head Start, empirical evidence suggests that participating children show enhanced cognitive, social, and physical development in the short term. Studies of the longer-term impacts of Head Start are inconclusive. Although housing assistance improves housing quality and reduces housing costs for recipients, there is a large unmet need for acceptable, affordable housing among poor families. Important gaps remain in our knowledge of the effects of these programs on the well-being of children. Questions regarding a program's effects over time on health and developmental outcomes particularly need more study.
Bibliography Citation
Devaney, Barbara L., Marilyn R. Ellwood and John M. Love. "Programs That Mitigate the Effects of Poverty on Children." The Future of Children: Children and Poverty 7,2 (Summer-Fall 1997).
5. Duncan, Greg J.
Magnuson, Katherine A.
Can Family Socioeconomic Resources Account for Racial and Ethnic Test Score Gaps?
The Future of Children 15,1 (Spring 2005): 35-54
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs - Princeton - Brookings
Keyword(s): Family Background; Family Characteristics; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); School Entry/Readiness; Socioeconomic Background; Socioeconomic Factors; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This article considers whether the disparate socioeconomic circumstances of families in which white, black, and Hispanic children grow up account for the racial and ethnic gaps in school readiness among American preschoolers. It first reviews why family socioeconomic resources might matter for children's school readiness. The authors concentrate on four key components of parent socioeconomic status that are particularly relevant for children's well-being—income, education, family structure, and neighborhood conditions. They survey a range of relevant policies and programs that might help to close socioeconomic gaps, for example, by increasing family incomes or maternal educational attainment, strengthening families, and improving poor neighborhoods.

Their survey of links between socioeconomic resources and test score gaps indicates that resource differences account for about half of the standard deviation—about 8 points on a test with a standard deviation of 15—of the differences. Yet, the policy implications of this are far from clear. They note that although policies are designed to improve aspects of "socioeconomic status" (for example, income, education, family structure), no policy improves "socioeconomic status" directly. Second, they caution that good policy is based on an understanding of causal relationships between family background and children outcomes, as well as cost-effectiveness.

They conclude that boosting the family incomes of preschool children may be a promising intervention to reduce racial and ethnic school readiness gaps. However, given the lack of successful large-scale interventions, the authors suggest giving only a modest role to programs that address parents' socioeconomic resources. They suggest that policies that directly target children may be the most efficient way to narrow school readiness gaps.

Bibliography Citation
Duncan, Greg J. and Katherine A. Magnuson. "Can Family Socioeconomic Resources Account for Racial and Ethnic Test Score Gaps? ." The Future of Children 15,1 (Spring 2005): 35-54.
6. Gustafsson, Siv S.
Stafford, Frank P.
Links Between Early Childhood Programs and Maternal Employment in Three Countries
The Future of Children: Long-Term Outcomes of Early Childhood Programs 5,3 (Winter 1995).
Also: http://www.futureofchildren.org/pubs-info2825/pubs-info_show.htm?doc_id=77657
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs - Princeton - Brookings
Keyword(s): Child Care; Child Development; Cross-national Analysis; Family Structure; Labor Market Studies, Geographic; Maternal Employment; Occupational Choice; Sweden, Swedish; Taxes

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Early childhood programs are usually viewed as a service that promotes children's development. In addition, these programs often serve a broader purpose of enabling mothers with young children to join the paid labor force. Therefore, government policies relating to the provision and use of child care programs reflect such economic and social factors as the demand for women workers in the labor market; expectations of the relationship among government, family, and the private market; and the value placed on maintaining traditional family structures with a breadwinner, a homemaker, and children. This article examines the evolution of policies toward maternal employment and child care provision in the United States, Sweden, and the Netherlands-three countries that differ sharply in the extent of government involvement in child and family policy, and in the emphasis government leaders place on promoting or discouraging maternal employment. This analysis shows that child care policy is best viewed as but one element among many that make it more or less likely that mothers of young children will be employed and will need to rely on early childhood programs to care for their youngsters. The design of tax codes, labor laws, parental leave policies, and cash assistance programs combines with child care policies to shape women's choices about employment.
Bibliography Citation
Gustafsson, Siv S. and Frank P. Stafford. "Links Between Early Childhood Programs and Maternal Employment in Three Countries." The Future of Children: Long-Term Outcomes of Early Childhood Programs 5,3 (Winter 1995).
7. Hershey, Alan M.
Pavetti, Ladonna Ann
Turning Job Finders into Job Keepers
The Future of Children: Welfare to Work 7,1, (Spring 1997): 74-86.
Also: http://www.futureofchildren.org/pubs-info2825/pubs-info_show.htm?doc_id=72223
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs - Princeton - Brookings
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Employment, Part-Time; Family Studies; Job Search; Job Turnover; Labor Force Participation; Layoffs; Part-Time Work; Welfare; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Most welfare-to-work programs designed to help single mothers leave welfare for employment focus on the challenge of finding a job. This article looks beyond the point of employment to consider the difficulty many former welfare recipients have keeping their jobs. The authors review evidence showing that many families cycle back and forth between welfare and work, losing jobs and resuming to public assistance while they seek work again. Factors contributing to high rates of job loss include characteristics of the job and of the worker: Temporary jobs, frequent layoffs, low pay in relation to work expenses, lack of experience meeting employer expectations, and personal or family problems all lead to dismissals and resignations. Drawing from the experience of innovative programs, the authors recommend policy changes and program approaches that can help families overcome setbacks and stabilize their lives as they move from welfare into increasingly stable employment. Copyright 1997 by Center for the Future of Children. The David and Lucile Packard Foundation. All rights reserved.
Bibliography Citation
Hershey, Alan M. and Ladonna Ann Pavetti. "Turning Job Finders into Job Keepers." The Future of Children: Welfare to Work 7,1, (Spring 1997): 74-86.
8. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Driscoll, Anne K.
Low-Wage Maternal Employment and Outcomes for Children a Study
The Future of Children: Welfare to Work 7,1, (Spring 1997).
Also: http://www.futureofchildren.org/pubs-info2825/pubs-info_show.htm?doc_id=72223
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs - Princeton - Brookings
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Maternal Employment; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Wage Levels; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite the importance of anticipating how children may be affected by policies that move mothers off welfare and into employment, as the article by Zaslow and Emig in this journal issue points out, few research studies have addressed this critical policy question. To help fill that gap, this article presents the results of a new study using national survey data to examine child outcomes among families that had previously received welfare. About half the families studied had mothers who remained at home, the others were working at varying wage levels. The findings reported here echo themes discussed in the two preceding articles. Maternal employment does not appear to undermine children's social or cognitive development from ages 5 to 14, and it may yield advantages. Children whose mothers earned more than $5.00 per hour, particularly, had ,somewhat better outcomes than others. The authors emphasize, however, that background characteristics specific to the mothers who chose employment contributed to these positive outcomes. The authors add that it would be risky to apply these generalizations based on these findings to families forced into employment by welfare reform. Copyright 1997 by Center for the Future of Children. The David and Lucile Packard Foundation. All rights reserved.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson and Anne K. Driscoll. "Low-Wage Maternal Employment and Outcomes for Children a Study." The Future of Children: Welfare to Work 7,1, (Spring 1997).
9. Parcel, Toby L.
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Effects of Low-Wage Employment on Family Well-Being
The Future of Children Welfare to Work 7,1 (Spring 1997).
Also: http://www.futureofchildren.org/pubs-info2825/pubs-info_show.htm?doc_id=72223
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs - Princeton - Brookings
Keyword(s): Child Development; Children, Well-Being; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Marital Status; Maternal Employment; Wage Levels; Wages, Women; Welfare; Well-Being; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Assumptions about the processes that link a mother's employment to the development of her child must underlie expectations about how children may fare when their mothers move from welfare dependence into employment. This article explores the idea, mentioned in the research overview by Zaslow and Emig in this journal issue, that the working conditions such as ages, work hours, and task complexity that mothers experience on the job can influence their behavior as parents and shape the home environments they provide for their children. This article discusses the significance of home environments for children's intellectual and emotional development and considers how home surroundings change when mothers begin jobs that are more rewarding or less rewarding. The authors conclude that, while maternal employment is not necessarily harmful, if welfare recipients find only low-wage, stressful jobs, working may prose costly for both family and child well being. The authors recommend that welfare-to-work programs devote attention to (1) assisting mothers to obtain more complex work at good wages, (2) helping mothers understand the role home environments play in shaping children's development, and (3) encouraging parents to make their children's home surroundings as positive as possible. Copyright 1997 by Center for the Future of Children. The David and Lucile Packard Foundation. All rights reserved. Also available in .pdf format: http://www.futureofchildren.org/usr_doc/vol7no1ART11.pdf
Bibliography Citation
Parcel, Toby L. and Elizabeth G. Menaghan. "Effects of Low-Wage Employment on Family Well-Being." The Future of Children Welfare to Work 7,1 (Spring 1997).
10. Rock, Donald A.
Stenner, A. Jackson
Assessment Issues in the Testing of Children at School Entry
The Future of Children: School Readiness: Closing Racial and Ethnic Gaps 15,1 (Spring 2005): 15-34.
Also: http://www.futureofchildren.org/pubs-info2825/pubs-info_show.htm?doc_id=255946
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs - Princeton - Brookings
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-B, ECLS-K); Overview, Child Assessment Data; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT); School Entry/Readiness; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT; Tests and Testing

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Summary
The authors introduce readers to the research documenting racial and ethnic gaps in school readiness. They describe the key tests, including the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS), and several intelligence tests, and describe how they have been administered to several important national samples of children.
Bibliography Citation
Rock, Donald A. and A. Jackson Stenner. "Assessment Issues in the Testing of Children at School Entry." The Future of Children: School Readiness: Closing Racial and Ethnic Gaps 15,1 (Spring 2005): 15-34.