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Author: Joshi, Heather
Resulting in 8 citations.
1. Clarke, Lynda
Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Joshi, Heather
Wiggins, Richard D.
McCulloch, Andrew
Consequences of Family Disruption for the Cognitive and Behavioral Development of Children in Britain and the United States
Presented: Chicago, IL, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1998
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavioral Problems; Britain, British; Children, Behavioral Development; Children, Home Environment; Children, Well-Being; Cognitive Development; Cross-national Analysis; Families, Two-Parent; Family Circumstances, Changes in; Family Structure; Family Studies; Marital Disruption; Modeling; NCDS - National Child Development Study (British)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Does the increasing number of children living outside a conventional two-parent nuclear family, mean bad news for children? Is cognitive and emotional development being harmed by the breakdown of the family, or has a moral panic been overstated'? Evidence comes from the second generation of the British NCDS (1958 birth cohort), collected in 1991, when the study members were 33, and the American NLSY (1958-1965 cohorts), interviewed in 1992, when the subsample of their children studied were at least 4. Models relating family structure to child well-being are presented with and without adjustment for other emographic, social and economic circumstances. A multi-variate, multi-level strategy estimates heterogeneity within and between families. Simple associations between family disruption and child well-being are shown to be mediated through material and other factors. The high variability in the data defies deterministic modelling but there appear to be differing associations in the two countries.
Bibliography Citation
Clarke, Lynda, Elizabeth C. Cooksey, Heather Joshi, Richard D. Wiggins and Andrew McCulloch. "Consequences of Family Disruption for the Cognitive and Behavioral Development of Children in Britain and the United States." Presented: Chicago, IL, Population Association of America Meetings, April 1998.
2. Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Joshi, Heather
Verropoulou, Georgia
Does Mothers' Employment Affect Children's Development: Evidence from the Children of the British 1970 Birth Cohort and the American NLSY79
Longitudinal and Life Course Studies 1,1 (May 2009): 95-115
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Longview
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Behavior Problems Index (BPI); British Cohort Study (BCS); Child Care; Child Health; Family Structure; Job Characteristics; Maternal Employment; NCDS - National Child Development Study (British); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Background
The increasing employment of mothers of young children in the UK and the USA is widely believed to affect children adversely. Maternity leave and part-time employment, more common in the UK than the US, are possible offsets.

Methods
This paper analyses the cognitive and behavioural development of school-aged children by maternal employment before the child's first birthday. Data come from the second generation of two cohort studies: the 1970 British Birth Cohort Study (BCS70) and the US 1979 National Longitudinal Study of Youth Child (NLSY79). Both contain several outcomes per child, in some cases several children per mother. The hierarchical structure is tackled by multi-level modelling. Each data set supplies a good array of controls for confounding variables (such as maternal education and ability, family history) which may affect labour market participation.

Results
Similar to other studies, results are mixed and modest. Only two out of five US estimates of maternal employment in the child's first year have a significant (0.05 level) coefficient on child development – negative for reading comprehension, positive for freedom from internalized behaviour problems. None of the estimates were significant for four child outcomes modelled in Britain.

Conclusions
Despite public opinion to the contrary, our study finds little evidence of harm to school-age children from maternal employment during a child's infancy, especially if employment is part-time, and in a context, such as Britain in the 1990s, where several months of maternity leave is the norm.

Bibliography Citation
Cooksey, Elizabeth C., Heather Joshi and Georgia Verropoulou. "Does Mothers' Employment Affect Children's Development: Evidence from the Children of the British 1970 Birth Cohort and the American NLSY79." Longitudinal and Life Course Studies 1,1 (May 2009): 95-115.
3. Joshi, Heather
Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Clarke, Lynda
Wiggins, Richard D.
McCulloch, Andrew
Family Disruption and the Cognitive and Behavioural Development of Children in Longitudinal Data from Britain and USA
Working Paper No. 50, National Child Development Study, User Support Group, March 1998.
Also: London, England: City University, Social Statistics Research Unit
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: National Child Development Study - NCDS
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Britain, British; Children, Well-Being; Cross-national Analysis; Families, Two-Parent; Family Characteristics; Family Circumstances, Changes in; Family Structure; Family Studies; Heterogeneity; Modeling; NCDS - National Child Development Study (British); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Does the increasing number of children living outside a conventional two-parent nuclear family, mean bad news for children? Is cognitive and emotional development being harmed by the breakdown of the family, or has a moral panic been overstated? Evidence comes from the second generation of the British NCDS (1958 birth cohort), collected in 1991, when the study members were 33, and the American NLSY (1958-1965 cohorts), interviewed in 1992, when the sub-sample of their children studied were at least 4. Models relating family structure to child well-being are presented with and without adjustment for other demographic, social and economic circumstances. A multi-variate, multi-level strategy estimates heterogeneity within and between families. Simple associations between family disruption and child well-being are shown to be mediated through material and other factors. The high variability in the data defies deterministic modelling but there appear to be differing associations in the two countries.
Bibliography Citation
Joshi, Heather, Elizabeth C. Cooksey, Lynda Clarke, Richard D. Wiggins and Andrew McCulloch. "Family Disruption and the Cognitive and Behavioural Development of Children in Longitudinal Data from Britain and USA." Working Paper No. 50, National Child Development Study, User Support Group, March 1998.
4. Joshi, Heather
Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Verropoulou, Georgia
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Tzavidis, Nikos
Children of Working Mothers: Does Mother's Employment Affect Children's Development?
Presented: Barcelona, Spain, European Population Conference, July 9-12, 2008
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: European Association for Population Studies (EAPS)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); British Cohort Study (BCS); Child Care; Child Health; Family Structure; Maternal Employment; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In this study we investigate differences in the cognitive and behavioural development of pre-school aged children by maternal employment using information from the second generation of two cohort studies: the 1970 British Birth Cohort Study (BCS70) and the 1979 National Longitudinal Study of Youth Child (NLSY79) from the US. This will update a similar study of children from the 1958 British cohort but will also expand these analyses by enabling a comparison of maternal employment effects in two industrialized countries where policies regarding maternal leave markedly differ. Both data sets contain several outcomes per child, in some cases several children per mother, and a hierarchical structure which we tackle using multivariate multi-level modelling. We are therefore able to model the relationships between the outcomes, i.e. maths and reading, or a cognitive score with aggressive behaviour, as well as contrast the effect of controlling for the characteristics of the child and family. The BCS70 provides data back to birth for the mothers we study, and the NLSY79 started collecting data from mothers in their early to mid teens thus supplying us with a good array of controls for confounding variables (such as maternal education and ability, plus family history) which may affect whether or not she is in the labour market during her child's first few years of life. Both data sets also include variables which may mediate or compensate for maternal employment, such as family income, child care, family structure, number of siblings, maternal health, child health. Based on results from previous research we expect maternal employment will impact child development but that effects will differ according to such factors as age of child, when the mother went back to work and, the nature of her employment.
Bibliography Citation
Joshi, Heather, Elizabeth C. Cooksey, Georgia Verropoulou, Elizabeth G. Menaghan and Nikos Tzavidis. "Children of Working Mothers: Does Mother's Employment Affect Children's Development?" Presented: Barcelona, Spain, European Population Conference, July 9-12, 2008.
5. Joshi, Heather
Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Verropoulou, Georgia
Menaghan, Elizabeth G.
Tzavidis, Nikos
Combining Childrearing with Work: Do Maternal Employment Experiences Compromise Child Development
Presented: Marrakech, Morocco, XXVI International Population Conference of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP), Sep 27-Oct 2, 2009
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); British Cohort Study (BCS); Child Care; Child Health; Family Structure; Job Characteristics; Maternal Employment; NCDS - National Child Development Study (British); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using longitudinal panel study data from both Great Britain (BCS70) and the United States (NLSY79) we explore how various aspects of maternal employment during the first few years of a child's life might impact the cognitive and behavioral development of children as they move through early and middle childhood, and into early adolescence. Both the UK and the US have seen a substantial increase in the employment of mothers with young children in recent years although due to different maternity leave policies in the two countries, American mothers tend to return to employment after a shorter period than British mothers. We investigate both patterns of maternal employment and the nature of that employment, and utilize multi-level, multivariate modeling to examine how mother's labour force involvement during early childhood might be associated with various child outcomes that are complementary across the two countries.
Bibliography Citation
Joshi, Heather, Elizabeth C. Cooksey, Georgia Verropoulou, Elizabeth G. Menaghan and Nikos Tzavidis. "Combining Childrearing with Work: Do Maternal Employment Experiences Compromise Child Development." Presented: Marrakech, Morocco, XXVI International Population Conference of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP), Sep 27-Oct 2, 2009.
6. Joshi, Heather
Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Wiggins, Richard D.
McCulloch, Andrew
Verropoulou, Georgia
Clarke, Lynda
Diverse Family Living Situations and Child Development: A Multi-Level Analysis Comparing Longitudinal Evidence from Britain and the United States
International Journal of Law, Policy, and the Family 13 (1999): 292-314
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Britain, British; Children, Well-Being; Cross-national Analysis; Fathers, Absence; Human Capital Theory; Marital Status; NCDS - National Child Development Study (British); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Earlier version presented: British Society for Population Studies, Cambridge, England and Annual Conference of the Royal Statistical Society, 1998

This study uses national data from both Great Britain and the United State to examine the relationship between children's family history and their educational and behavioral development. We use a multivariate, multi-level modeling strategy to estimate heterogeneity both within and between families. Our results show that associations between family living situations and children's well-being appear to be mediated by levels of human, financial and social capital available to children. Contrary to expectations, we found no evidence that children with non-traditional family living experiences are any more likely to be negatively impacted in Britain than across the Atlantic where diverse living arrangements are more widespread.

Bibliography Citation
Joshi, Heather, Elizabeth C. Cooksey, Richard D. Wiggins, Andrew McCulloch, Georgia Verropoulou and Lynda Clarke. "Diverse Family Living Situations and Child Development: A Multi-Level Analysis Comparing Longitudinal Evidence from Britain and the United States." International Journal of Law, Policy, and the Family 13 (1999): 292-314.
7. Joshi, Heather
Cooksey, Elizabeth C.
Wiggins, Richard D.
McCulloch, Andrew
Verropoulou, Georgia
Clarke, Lynda
Diverse Family Living Situations and Child Development: A Multilevel Analysis Comparing Longitudinal Evidence from Britain and the United States
In: Education, Family and Population Dynamics. M. Cosio, R. Marcoux, M. Pilon, and A. Quesnel, eds. Paris, France: Committee for International Cooperation in National Research in Demography (CICRED), 2003: pp. 329-356
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Commitee for International Cooperation in National Research in Demography (CICRED)
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Britain, British; Children, Well-Being; Cross-national Analysis; Fathers, Absence; Human Capital Theory; Marital Status; NCDS - National Child Development Study (British); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study uses national data from both Great Britain and the United States to examine the relationship between children's family history and their educational and behavioral development. We use a multivariate, multi-level modeling strategy to estimate heterogeneity both within and between families. Our results show that associations between family living situations and children's wellbeing appear to be mediated by levels of human, financial and social capital available to children. Contrary to expectations, we found no evidence that children with non-traditional family living experiences are any more likely to be negatively impacted in Britain than across the Atlantic where diverse living arrangements are more widespread.
Bibliography Citation
Joshi, Heather, Elizabeth C. Cooksey, Richard D. Wiggins, Andrew McCulloch, Georgia Verropoulou and Lynda Clarke. "Diverse Family Living Situations and Child Development: A Multilevel Analysis Comparing Longitudinal Evidence from Britain and the United States" In: Education, Family and Population Dynamics. M. Cosio, R. Marcoux, M. Pilon, and A. Quesnel, eds. Paris, France: Committee for International Cooperation in National Research in Demography (CICRED), 2003: pp. 329-356
8. McCulloch, Andrew
Wiggins, Richard D.
Joshi, Heather
Sachdev, Darshan
Internalizing and Externalizing Children's Behaviour Problems in Britain and the US: Relationships to Family Resources
Children & Society 14 (2000): 368-383
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Britain, British; Cognitive Ability; Cross-national Analysis; Family Circumstances, Changes in; Family Structure; NCDS - National Child Development Study (British); Rutter Child Scales

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A large sample of British children (n=994) of varying ages (7-18 years) and a large sample of American children (n=886) of varying ages (7-16 years) were rated by their mothers using respectively the Rutter Child Scale A and the Behaviour Problems Index both of which cover a variety of behavioural problems. Factor analysis of the behavioural scales distinguished externalising and internalising dimensions of behaviour in both countries. We examined whether children's experiences of family change, cognitive ability and family adversity including economic deprivation were associated with differences in the prevalence of the behavioural dimensions. Mean cognitive scores decreased significantly with increasing externalising behavioural problems in British and American children but showed no significant relationship to levels of internalising behaviour problems in either sample. Among American children internalising and externalising behavioural problems were related to experience of non-intact family structures and measures of family adversity. Externalising behavioural problems were related to measures of family adversity among British boys and girls but were only related to experience of non-intact family structures in the sample of British girls. Among British girls, internalsing behavioural problems were also related to non-intact family structures. The associations between non-intact family structures and behavioural problems were independent of measures of economic deprivation in both samples of children. This study documents some of the background factors which affect children's behavioural and cognitive outcomes. Unlike children's family structure economic deprivation can be influenced through policy intervention, and the analysis supports the view that relieving economic deprivation would help to improve children's cognitive behavioural outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
McCulloch, Andrew, Richard D. Wiggins, Heather Joshi and Darshan Sachdev. "Internalizing and Externalizing Children's Behaviour Problems in Britain and the US: Relationships to Family Resources." Children & Society 14 (2000): 368-383.