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Source: Journal of Quantitative Criminology
Resulting in 12 citations.
1. Apel, Robert John
Bushway, Shawn D.
Paternoster, Raymond
Brame, Robert
Sweeten, Gary
Using State Child Labor Laws to Identify the Causal Effect of Youth Employment on Deviant Behavior and Academic Achievement
Journal of Quantitative Criminology 24,4 (December 2008): 337-362
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Keyword(s): Academic Development; Adolescent Behavior; Behavior, Antisocial; Child Labor; Crime; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Deviance; High School Dropouts; Legislation; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

On the basis of prior research findings that employed youth, and especially intensively employed youth, have higher rates of delinquent behavior and lower academic achievement, scholars have called for limits on the maximum number of hours per week that teenagers are allowed to work. We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to assess the claim that employment and work hours are causally related to adolescent problem behavior. We utilize a change model with age-graded child labor laws governing the number of hours per week allowed during the school year as instrumental variables. We find that these work laws lead to additional number of hours worked by youth, which then lead to increased high school dropout but decreased delinquency. Although counterintuitive, this result is consistent with existing evidence about the effect of employment on crime for adults and the impact of dropout on youth crime. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Journal of Quantitative Criminology is the property of Springer Science & Business Media B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)

Bibliography Citation
Apel, Robert John, Shawn D. Bushway, Raymond Paternoster, Robert Brame and Gary Sweeten. "Using State Child Labor Laws to Identify the Causal Effect of Youth Employment on Deviant Behavior and Academic Achievement." Journal of Quantitative Criminology 24,4 (December 2008): 337-362.
2. Bjerk, David
Measuring the Relationship Between Youth Criminal Participation And Household Economic Resources
Journal of Quantitative Criminology 23,1 (March 2007): 23-39.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/d1p8w883k84w4606/
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Keyword(s): Crime; Economics, Demographic; Gender Differences; Household Income

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study revisits the empirical relationship between household economic resources and youth criminal participation. Data were obtained from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Contrary to previous research, the current findings suggested that much of the strength of this association may be obscured because of nonlinearities, the fact that the relationship is restricted to serious crimes, and, most important, error with respect to measuring household economic resources. Adjusting for these issues substantially increased the estimated strength of the link between household economic resources and youth crime. Indeed, the differences in serious criminal participation between youth from households in the upper parts of the income distribution and those from households in the lower parts of this distribution appeared to be greater than the difference in serious criminal participation between genders.
Bibliography Citation
Bjerk, David. "Measuring the Relationship Between Youth Criminal Participation And Household Economic Resources." Journal of Quantitative Criminology 23,1 (March 2007): 23-39.
3. Jarjoura, G. Roger
Triplett, Ruth
Brinker, Gregory P.
Growing Up Poor: Examining the Link between Persistent Childhood Poverty and Delinquency
Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 18, 2, (June 2002): 159-187.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/lxnf3lbuwk7brj1p/fulltext.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Keyword(s): Child Self-Administered Supplement (CSAS); Delinquency/Gang Activity; Fathers, Presence; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Parent Supervision/Monitoring; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Poverty

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Findings from aggregate-level and ethnographic research suggest that poverty and delinquency are related. The inability of individual-level quantitative research to demonstrate consistent evidence of this relationship, however, has been used to call into question whether poverty is indeed related to an increased propensity for delinquent involvement. This may be due to the difficulty individual-level analyses have in identifying the group most important in uncovering the relationship of poverty to delinquency—those individuals that experience persistent childhood poverty. This paper provides an assessment of the effects of both the level of exposure to poverty and its timing on delinquent involvement using fourteen years of longitudinal data for a national sample of younger adolescents. Findings indicate that exposure to poverty and the timing of such exposure are indeed related to an increased likelihood of involvement in delinquency.
Bibliography Citation
Jarjoura, G. Roger, Ruth Triplett and Gregory P. Brinker. "Growing Up Poor: Examining the Link between Persistent Childhood Poverty and Delinquency." Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 18, 2, (June 2002): 159-187.
4. Kim, Jaeok
Bushway, Shawn D.
Using Longitudinal Self-Report Data to Study the Age-Crime Relationship
Journal of Quantitative Criminology 34,2 (June 2018): 367-396.
Also: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10940-017-9338-9
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Arrests; Crime; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; Self-Reporting; Substance Use

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Given the growing reliance on longitudinal self-report data for making causal inferences about crime, it is essential to investigate whether the within-individual change in criminal involvement exists and is not a measurement artifact driven by attrition or survey fatigue--a very real possibility first identified by Lauritsen (Soc Forces 77(1):127–154, 1998) using the National Youth Survey (NYS). The current study examines whether the same threats to the validity of within-individual change in criminal involvement exist in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort (NLSY97).
Bibliography Citation
Kim, Jaeok and Shawn D. Bushway. "Using Longitudinal Self-Report Data to Study the Age-Crime Relationship." Journal of Quantitative Criminology 34,2 (June 2018): 367-396.
5. Liu, Siyu
Is the Shape of the Age-Crime Curve Invariant by Sex? Evidence from a National Sample with Flexible Non-parametric Modeling
Journal of Quantitative Criminology 31,1 (March 2015): 93-123.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10940-014-9225-6
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Age and Ageing; Arrests; Crime; Gender Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives: Prior theoretical scholarship makes strong assumptions about the invariance of the age-crime relationship by sex. However, scant research has evaluated this assumption. This paper asks whether the age-crime curve from age 12-30 is invariant by sex using a contemporary, nationally representative sample of youth, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort (NLSY97).

Methods: To address the limitations of the existing empirical literature, a novel localized modeling approach is used that does not require a priori assumptions about the shape of the age-crime curve. With a non-parametric method-B-spline regression, the study models self-report criminal behavior and arrest by sex using age as the independent variable, and its cubic spline terms to accommodate different slopes for different phases of the curve.

Results: The study shows that males and females have parallel age-crime curves when modeled with self-report criminal behavior variety score but they have unique age-crime in the frequency of self-report arrest. Group-based trajectory analysis is then used to provide a deeper understanding of heterogeneity underlying the average trends. The onset patterns by sex are quite similar but the post-peak analyses using the early onset sample reveal different patterns of desistance for arrest by sex.

Conclusions: The study found evidence of relatively early and faster desistance of arrest among females but little difference exists for the variety of criminal behaviors. Implications and future directions are discussed.

Bibliography Citation
Liu, Siyu. "Is the Shape of the Age-Crime Curve Invariant by Sex? Evidence from a National Sample with Flexible Non-parametric Modeling." Journal of Quantitative Criminology 31,1 (March 2015): 93-123.
6. Maroto, Michelle Lee
The Absorbing Status of Incarceration and its Relationship with Wealth Accumulation
Journal of Quantitative Criminology 31,2 (June 2015): 207-236.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10940-014-9231-8
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Home Ownership; Incarceration/Jail; Modeling, Mixed Effects; Net Worth; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives: This study extends our knowledge on the negative effects of incarceration to the accumulation of wealth by examining whether, how, and how much incarceration affects home ownership and net worth. It also investigates how these outcomes vary with the time since a person was incarcerated and the number of incarceration periods, along with addressing potential mechanisms behind this relationship.

Methods: I apply hybrid mixed effects models that disaggregate within- and between person variation to investigate incarceration’s relationship with home ownership and net worth, using National Longitudinal Study of Youth data from 1985 to 2008. I also incorporate a set of mediation models in order to test for indirect effects of incarceration on wealth through earnings, health, and family formation.

Results: My results show that incarceration limits wealth accumulation. Compared to never-incarcerated persons, ex-offenders are less likely to own their homes by an average of 5 percentage points, and their probability of home ownership decreases by an additional 28 percentage points after incarceration. Ex-offenders’ net worth also decreases by an average of $42,000 in the years after incarceration.

Conclusions: When combined with previous research on incarceration, my findings show that incarceration acts as an absorbing status, potentially leading to the accumulation of disadvantage. Although incarceration’s negative effects on wealth accumulation were partially mediated by its relationship with earnings and family formation, incarceration directly affected home ownership and net worth. In most cases, former inmates began with flatter wealth trajectories and experienced additional losses after incarceration.

Bibliography Citation
Maroto, Michelle Lee. "The Absorbing Status of Incarceration and its Relationship with Wealth Accumulation." Journal of Quantitative Criminology 31,2 (June 2015): 207-236.
7. Pezzin, Liliana E.
Earnings Prospects, Matching Effects, and the Decision to Terminate a Criminal Career
Journal of Quantitative Criminology 11,1 (March 1995): 29-50.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/k245pv441u576522/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Plenum Publishing Corporation
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Earnings; Economic Changes/Recession; Income; Modeling; Punishment, Criminal; Welfare; Youth Problems

Data from the 1979 Youth Cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey (N = 12,686 respondents ages 14-22) are used to investigate the age pattern of criminal involvement from an economist's perspective. A dynamic stochastic model of sequential search and match evaluation is used to explain the reasons for, and the timing of, the decision to terminate a criminal career. Estimation results strongly support the prediction of a negative relation between the option value of retaining a criminal career and desistance decisions. More specifically, the effects of current and future expected criminal earnings are shown to be negative, substantial, and statistically significant in determining desistance probabilities. Retiring behavior is also significantly related to variables measuring personal costs of punishment and the availability and attractiveness of a legal income-generating activity in ways consistent with theoretical expectations. 4 Tables, 37 References. Adapted from the source document. (Copyright 1995, Sociological Abstracts, Inc., all rights reserved.)
Bibliography Citation
Pezzin, Liliana E. "Earnings Prospects, Matching Effects, and the Decision to Terminate a Criminal Career." Journal of Quantitative Criminology 11,1 (March 1995): 29-50.
8. Phillips, Llad
Votey, Harold L.
The Influence of Police Interventions and Alternative Income Sources on the Dynamic Process of Choosing Crime as a Career
Journal of Quantitative Criminology 3,3 (September 1987): 251-273.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/w06t5j70247513n6/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Plenum Publishing Corporation
Keyword(s): Behavior, Antisocial; Behavioral Differences; Behavioral Problems; Crime; Data Analysis; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Illegal Activities; Income; Markov chain / Markov model; Statistical Analysis

An attempt is made to demonstrate that a rational process of choices, influenced by both deterrence efforts and economic factors, underlies the self-sorting process by youth into three subpopulations: (1) those who never experiment with crime, (2) those who experiment and thereafter desist from criminal behavior, and (3) those who persist in criminal lifestyles. A simple Markov model is used to illustrate the probabilities of transition between the groups, and to describe the effects of perceived probability of apprehension/punishment and the availability or lack of income opportunities on the self-sorting process. Application of the model to data on 12,686 United States youth aged 14-24 who were part of the 1982 NLSY supports the existence of a learning effect from police contact that tends to reduce future criminal behavior when alternative, legitimate sources of income are available. [Sociological Abstracts, Inc.]
Bibliography Citation
Phillips, Llad and Harold L. Votey. "The Influence of Police Interventions and Alternative Income Sources on the Dynamic Process of Choosing Crime as a Career." Journal of Quantitative Criminology 3,3 (September 1987): 251-273.
9. Pyrooz, David Cyrus
“From Your First Cigarette to Your Last Dyin’ Day”: The Patterning of Gang Membership in the Life-Course
Journal of Quantitative Criminology 30,2 (June 2014): 349-372.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10940-013-9206-1
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Life Course; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objective: Motivated by the reorientation of gang membership into a life-course framework and concerns about distinct populations of juvenile and adult gang members, this study draws from the criminal career paradigm to examine the contours of gang membership and their variability in the life-course.

Methods: Based on nine annual waves of national panel data from the NLSY97, this study uses growth curve and group-based trajectory modeling to examine the dynamic and cumulative prevalence of gang membership, variability in the pathways into and out of gangs, and the correlates of these pathways from ages 10 to 23.

Results: The cumulative prevalence of gang membership was 8%, while the dynamic age-graded prevalence of gang membership peaked at 3% at age 15. Six distinct trajectories accounted for variability in the patterning of gang membership, including an adult onset trajectory. Gang membership in adulthood was an even mix of adolescence carryover and adult initiation. The typical gang career lasts 2 years or less, although much longer for an appreciable subset of respondents. Gender and racial/ethnic disproportionalities in gang membership increase in magnitude over the life-course.

Conclusions: Gang membership is strongly age-graded. The results of this study support a developmental research agenda to unpack the theoretical and empirical causes and consequences of gang membership across stages of the life-course.

Bibliography Citation
Pyrooz, David Cyrus. "“From Your First Cigarette to Your Last Dyin’ Day”: The Patterning of Gang Membership in the Life-Course." Journal of Quantitative Criminology 30,2 (June 2014): 349-372.
10. Rodgers, Joseph Lee
Buster, Maury Allen
Rowe, David C.
Genetic and Environmental Influences on Delinquency: DF Analysis of NLSY Kinship Data
Journal of Quantitative Criminology 17,2 (June 2001): 145-168.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/t7n3h10664827068/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Plenum Publishing Corporation
Keyword(s): Adolescent Behavior; Delinquency/Gang Activity; Family Environment; Family Influences; Genetics; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) (see Self-Esteem); Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Siblings

This paper follows earlier research (Rowe et al., 1992) in evaluating the basis of family influences on adolescent delinquent behavior. Delinquency is measured in a number of different ways to account for important theoretical distinctions that exist in the delinquency literature. We use recently identified kinship structure in a large national data set--the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth--to estimate genetic and shared environmental influences on self-reported delinquency scores. Our analytic model is based on DF analysis, a regression procedure used to estimate parameters reflecting genetic and environmental influence. Results suggest a consistent and moderate genetic basis to sibling similarity in delinquency and little evidence of a shared environmental basis. A large amount of variance is attributable to nonshared influences and/or measurement error. Our findings suggest that the search for environmental influences on adolescent delinquency should focus on those that are not shared by siblings.
Bibliography Citation
Rodgers, Joseph Lee, Maury Allen Buster and David C. Rowe. "Genetic and Environmental Influences on Delinquency: DF Analysis of NLSY Kinship Data." Journal of Quantitative Criminology 17,2 (June 2001): 145-168.
11. Sweeten, Gary
Scaling Criminal Offending
Journal of Quantitative Criminology 28,3 (September 2012): 533-557.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/vv66480p60522707/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Crime; Methods/Methodology; Scale Construction

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objective: This paper reviews a century of research on creating theoretically meaningful and empirically useful scales of criminal offending and illustrates their strengths and weaknesses.

Methods: The history of scaling criminal offending is traced in a detailed literature review focusing on the issues of seriousness, unidimensionality, frequency, and additivity of offending. Modern practice in scaling criminal offending is measured using a survey of 130 articles published in five leading criminology journals over a two-year period that included a scale of individual offending as either an independent or dependent variable. Six scaling methods commonly used in contemporary criminological research are demonstrated and assessed using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979: dichotomous, frequency, weighted frequency, variety, summed category, and item response theory ‘theta’.

Results: The discipline of criminology has seen numerous scaling techniques introduced and forgotten. While no clearly superior method dominates the field today, the most commonly used scaling techniques are dichotomous and frequency scales, both of which are fraught with methodological pitfalls including sensitivity to the least serious offenses.

Conclusions: Variety scales are the preferred criminal offending scale because they are relatively easy to construct, possess high reliability and validity, and are not compromised by high frequency non-serious crime types.

Bibliography Citation
Sweeten, Gary. "Scaling Criminal Offending ." Journal of Quantitative Criminology 28,3 (September 2012): 533-557.
12. Sweeten, Gary
Apel, Robert John
Incapacitation: Revisiting an Old Question with a New Method and New Data
Journal of Quantitative Criminology 23,4 (December 2007): 303-326.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/a260178u063702lx/
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Keyword(s): Crime; Incarceration/Jail; Propensity Scores

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to obtain estimates of the number of crimes avoided through incapacitation of individual offenders. Incarcerated individuals are matched to comparable non-incarcerated counterparts using propensity score matching. Propensity scores for incarceration are calculated using a wide variety of time-stable and time-varying confounding variables. We separately analyze juvenile (age 16 or 17) and adult (age 18 or 19) incapacitation effects. Our best estimate is that between 6.2 and 14.1 offenses are prevented per year of juvenile incarceration, and 4.9 to 8.4 offenses are prevented per year of adult incarceration. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Copyright of Journal of Quantitative Criminology is the property of Springer Science & Business Media B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)

Bibliography Citation
Sweeten, Gary and Robert John Apel. "Incapacitation: Revisiting an Old Question with a New Method and New Data." Journal of Quantitative Criminology 23,4 (December 2007): 303-326.