Search Results

Source: Journal of Law and Economics
Resulting in 3 citations.
1. Carneiro, Pedro M.
Heckman, James J.
Masterov, Dimitriy V.
Labor Market Discrimination and Racial Differences in Premarket Factors
Journal of Law and Economics 48,1 (April 2005): 1-40.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/426878
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Children, Academic Development; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Educational Attainment; Family Influences; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math)

This paper investigates the relative significance of differences in cognitive skills and discrimination in explaining racial/ethnic wage gaps. We show that cognitive test scores for exams taken prior to entering the labor market are influenced by schooling. Adjusting the scores for racial/ethnic differences in education at the time the test is taken reduces their role in accounting for the wage gaps. We also consider evidence on parental and child expectations about education and on stereotype threat effects. We find both factors to be implausible alternative explanations for the gaps we observe. We argue that policies need to address the sources of early skill gaps and to seek to influence the more malleable behavioral abilities in addition to their cognitive counterparts. Such policies are far more likely to be effective in promoting racial and ethnic equality for most groups than are additional civil rights and affirmative action policies targeted at the workplace.
Bibliography Citation
Carneiro, Pedro M., James J. Heckman and Dimitriy V. Masterov. "Labor Market Discrimination and Racial Differences in Premarket Factors." Journal of Law and Economics 48,1 (April 2005): 1-40.
2. Chou, Shin-Yi
Rashad, Inas
Grossman, Michael
Fast-Food Restaurant Advertising on Television and Its Influence on Childhood Obesity
The Journal of Law and Economics 51,4 (November 2008): 599-618.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/590132
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Body Mass Index (BMI); Child Health; Data Linkage (also see Record Linkage); Market Level Data; Nutritional Status/Nutrition/Consumption Behaviors; Obesity; Television Viewing; Variables, Instrumental; Weight

Childhood obesity is an escalating problem around the world that is especially detrimental as its effects carry on into adulthood. In this paper we employ the 1979 Child–Young Adult National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to estimate the effects of television fast-food restaurant advertising on children and adolescents with respect to being overweight. A ban on these advertisements would reduce the number of overweight children ages 3–11 in a fixed population by 18 percent and would reduce the number of overweight adolescents ages 12–18 by 14 percent. The elimination of the tax deductibility of this type of advertising would produce smaller declines of between 5 and 7 percent in these outcomes but would impose lower costs on children and adults who consume fast food in moderation because positive information about restaurants that supply this type of food would not be completely banned from television.
Bibliography Citation
Chou, Shin-Yi, Inas Rashad and Michael Grossman. "Fast-Food Restaurant Advertising on Television and Its Influence on Childhood Obesity." The Journal of Law and Economics 51,4 (November 2008): 599-618.
3. Lakdawalla, Darius N.
The Economics of Teacher Quality
Journal of Law and Economics 49,1 (April 2006): 285-329.
Also: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/JLE/journal/issues/v49n1/490104/490104.web.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Schooling; Skilled Workers; Teachers/Faculty; Technology/Technological Changes; Wage Rates

Concern is often voiced about the quality of American schoolteachers. This paper suggests that, while the relative quality of teachers is declining, this decline may be the result of technological changes that have raised the price of skilled workers outside teaching without affecting the productivity of skilled teachers. Growth in the price of skilled workers can cause schools to lower the relative quality of teachers and raise teacher quantity instead. Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth demonstrates that wage and schooling are good measures of teacher quality. Analysis of U.S. census microdata then reveals that the relative schooling and experience-adjusted relative wages of U.S. schoolteachers have fallen significantly from 1940 to 1990. Moreover, class sizes have also fallen substantially. The declines in class size and in relative quality seem correlated over time and space with growth in the relative price of skilled workers.
Bibliography Citation
Lakdawalla, Darius N. "The Economics of Teacher Quality ." Journal of Law and Economics 49,1 (April 2006): 285-329.