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Source: Journal of Human Capital
Resulting in 7 citations.
1. Addison, John T.
Ozturk, Orgul Demet
Wang, Si
The Role of Gender in Promotion and Pay over a Career
Journal of Human Capital 8,3 (Fall 2014): 280-317.
Also: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/677942
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Earnings; Gender Differences; Job Promotion; Wage Growth

Using data from the NLSY79, this paper considers the role of gender in promotion and promotion-related earnings development over the course of a career. The raw data suggest reasonably favorable promotion outcomes for females over a career, but any such advantages are found to be confined to less educated females. Further, the strong returns to education in later career stemming from promotion-related earnings growth accrue solely to males. While consistent with fertility timing and choice on the part of educated females, this earnings result is not inconsistent with discrimination as well, reminiscent of findings from an earlier human capital literature.
Bibliography Citation
Addison, John T., Orgul Demet Ozturk and Si Wang. "The Role of Gender in Promotion and Pay over a Career." Journal of Human Capital 8,3 (Fall 2014): 280-317.
2. Belley, Philippe
Lochner, Lance John
The Changing Role of Family Income and Ability in Determining Educational Achievement
Journal of Human Capital 1,1 (December 2007): 37-89.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/pss/10.1086/524674
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Cognitive Ability; College Enrollment; Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Family Income; School Completion

We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and 1997 cohorts to estimate the effects of ability and family income on educational attainment in the early 1980s and early 2000s. The effects of family income on college attendance increase substantially over this period. Cognitive ability strongly affects schooling outcomes in both periods. We develop an educational choice model that incorporates both borrowing constraints and a "consumption value" of schooling. The model cannot explain the rising effects of family income on college attendance in response to rising costs and returns to college without appealing to borrowing constraints.
Bibliography Citation
Belley, Philippe and Lance John Lochner. "The Changing Role of Family Income and Ability in Determining Educational Achievement." Journal of Human Capital 1,1 (December 2007): 37-89.
3. Kaestner, Robert
Callison, Kevin
Adolescent Cognitive and Noncognitive Correlates of Adult Health
Journal of Human Capital 5,1 (Spring 2011): 29-69.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/660082
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Childhood; Cognitive Ability; Education; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Noncognitive Skills; Self-Esteem

We present an analysis of the associations between cognitive and noncognitive traits measured at the end of childhood and mental and physical health at age 41. Results suggest that adolescent cognitive ability and self-esteem have a significant association with health at age 41. Most noncognitive factors do not have significant associations with adult health, although in some analyses an internal locus of control was associated with better adult health. Net of adolescent influences, completed education has a significant association with adult health. Finally, differences in cognitive and noncognitive factors are not important explanations of gender or racial differences in health.
Bibliography Citation
Kaestner, Robert and Kevin Callison. "Adolescent Cognitive and Noncognitive Correlates of Adult Health." Journal of Human Capital 5,1 (Spring 2011): 29-69.
4. Lovenheim, Michael F.
Reynolds, C. Lockwood
Changes in Postsecondary Choices by Ability and Income: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth
Journal of Human Capital 5,1 (Spring 2011): 70-109.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/pss/10.1086/660123
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); College Education; Gender Differences; High School Completion/Graduates; Higher Education; Income Level

We characterize changes over time in the choices high school graduates make concerning 2-year attendance, 4-year attendance, and college nonattendance across the joint income and ability distribution. We find that college nonattendance decreased substantially between cohorts for both men and women and that these declines were larger for higher-ability students. On the 2-year/4-year margin, there is evidence of growing ability constraints among women. Furthermore, income has become more important among higher-ability men, and increases in 2-year attendance among high-ability but low-income men come at the expense of 4-year college enrollment. State-level college costs explain little of the changes we document.
Bibliography Citation
Lovenheim, Michael F. and C. Lockwood Reynolds. "Changes in Postsecondary Choices by Ability and Income: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth." Journal of Human Capital 5,1 (Spring 2011): 70-109.
5. Mann, David R.
Why We Fight: Understanding Military Participation over the Life Cycle
Journal of Human Capital 6,4 (Winter 2012): 279-315.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/668863
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Business Cycles; Human Capital; Labor Supply; Life Cycle Research; Military Service

This paper specifies a dynamic career decision model that includes military service options to understand how human capital, compensation, the business cycle, and combat risk affect the military labor supply. The model is estimated using data on males from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth.
Bibliography Citation
Mann, David R. "Why We Fight: Understanding Military Participation over the Life Cycle." Journal of Human Capital 6,4 (Winter 2012): 279-315.
6. Petre, Melinda
Contributions of Skills to the Racial Wage Gap
Journal of Human Capital 13,3 (Fall 2019): 479-518.
Also: https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/704322
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Cognitive Ability; Ethnic Differences; Male Sample; Noncognitive Skills; Racial Differences; Skills; Wage Differentials; Wage Gap

Analyzing the distributions of wages, cognitive, and noncognitive skills for white, black, and Hispanic men reveals differences throughout these distributions. I use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and unconditional quantile Oaxaca-Blinder decompositions to decompose observed wage gaps throughout the distribution into portions explained by cognitive and noncognitive skills. Noncognitive skills explain 2-4 percent of the wage gap between blacks and whites and 9-25 percent of the wage gap throughout the distribution between Hispanics and whites, whereas cognitive skills explain 8-70 and 24-90 percent, respectively. Between blacks and Hispanics, noncognitive skills explain 5-10 percent and cognitive skills 9-24 percent.
Bibliography Citation
Petre, Melinda. "Contributions of Skills to the Racial Wage Gap." Journal of Human Capital 13,3 (Fall 2019): 479-518.
7. Todd, Petra E.
Wolpin, Kenneth I.
The Production of Cognitive Achievement in Children: Home, School, and Racial Test Score Gaps
Journal of Human Capital 1,1 (December 2007): 91-136.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/pss/10.1086/526401
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB); Children; Cognitive Ability; Cognitive Development; Hispanics; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Racial Differences; School Characteristics/Rating/Safety; Teachers/Faculty; Test Scores/Test theory/IRT

This paper studies the determinants of children's scores on tests of cognitive achievement in math and reading. Using rich longitudinal data on test scores, home environments, and schools, we implement alternative specifications for the cognitive achievement production function that allow achievement to depend on the entire history of lagged home and school inputs as well as on parents' ability and unobserved endowments. We use cross-validation methods to select among competing specifications and find support for a variant of a value-added model of the production function augmented to include information on lagged inputs. Using this specification, we study the sources of test score gaps between black, white, and Hispanic children. The estimated model captures key patterns in the data, such as the widening of minority-white test score gaps with age and differences in the gap pattern between Hispanics and blacks. We find that differences in mother's "ability," as measured by AFQT, account for about half of the test score gap. Home inputs also account for a significant proportion. Equalizing home inputs at the average levels of white children would close the black-white and the Hispanic-white test score gaps in math and reading by about 10–20 percent.
Bibliography Citation
Todd, Petra E. and Kenneth I. Wolpin. "The Production of Cognitive Achievement in Children: Home, School, and Racial Test Score Gaps." Journal of Human Capital 1,1 (December 2007): 91-136.