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Author: Ozturk, Orgul Demet
Resulting in 13 citations.
1. Addison, John T.
Chen, Liwen
Ozturk, Orgul Demet
Occupational Match Quality and Gender over Two Cohorts
IZA Discussion Paper No. 11114, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), October 2017.
Also: http://ftp.iza.org/dp11114.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Career Patterns; Gender Differences; Mobility, Job; Occupations; Skills

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Job mobility, especially early in a career, is an important source of wage growth. This effect is typically attributed to heterogeneity in the quality of employee-employer matches, with individuals learning of their abilities and discovering the tasks at which they are most productive through job search. That is, job mobility enables better matches, and individuals move to better their labor market prospects and settle once they find a satisfactory match. In this paper, we show that there are gender differences in match quality and changes in match quality over the course of careers. In particular, we find that females are mismatched more than males. This is true even for females with the best early-career matches. However, the direction of the gender effect differs significantly by education. Only females among the college educated are more mismatched and are more likely to be over-qualified then their male counterparts. These results are seemingly driven by life events, such as child birth. For their part, college-educated males of the younger cohort are worse off in terms of match quality compared to the older cohort, while the new generation of women is doing better on average.
Bibliography Citation
Addison, John T., Liwen Chen and Orgul Demet Ozturk. "Occupational Match Quality and Gender over Two Cohorts." IZA Discussion Paper No. 11114, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), October 2017.
2. Addison, John T.
Ozturk, Orgul Demet
Wang, Si
Promotion and Wages in Mid-Career: Gender, Unionism, and Sector
IZA Discussion Paper No. 6873, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), September 2012
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Job Promotion; Private Sector; Public Sector; Unions; Wage Growth; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper considers the role of gender in the promotion process and the impact of promotion on wages and wage growth, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79).
Bibliography Citation
Addison, John T., Orgul Demet Ozturk and Si Wang. "Promotion and Wages in Mid-Career: Gender, Unionism, and Sector." IZA Discussion Paper No. 6873, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), September 2012.
3. Addison, John T.
Ozturk, Orgul Demet
Wang, Si
The Occupational Feminization of Wages
IZA Discussion Paper No. 9078, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), May 2015.
Also: http://ftp.iza.org/dp9078.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Gender Differences; Occupations; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper updates the major study by Macpherson and Hirsch (1995) of the effect of the gender composition of occupations on female (and male) earnings. Using large representative national samples of employees from the Current Population Survey, cross-sectional estimates of the impact of proportion female in an occupation (or feminization) on wages are first provided, paying close attention to the role of occupational characteristics. Specification differences in the effects of feminization across alternative subsamples are examined as well as the contribution of the feminization argument to the explanation of the gender wage gap. An updated longitudinal analysis using the CPS data is also provided. This examination of two-year panels of individuals is supplemented using information from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth which has the advantage of offering a longer panel. Analysis of the former suggests the reduction in gender composition effects observed for females in cross section with the addition of controls for occupational characteristics becomes complete after accounting for unobserved individual heterogeneity. This is not the case for the latter dataset, most likely reflecting heritage effects of discrimination in what is an aging cohort.
Bibliography Citation
Addison, John T., Orgul Demet Ozturk and Si Wang. "The Occupational Feminization of Wages." IZA Discussion Paper No. 9078, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), May 2015.
4. Addison, John T.
Ozturk, Orgul Demet
Wang, Si
The Occupational Feminization of Wages
Industrial Relations and Labor (IRL) Review 71,1 (January 2018): 208-241.
Also: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0019793917708314
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Gender Differences; Occupational Information Network (O*NET); Occupations; Wages

This article updates the 1995 study by Macpherson and Hirsch that used monthly Current Population Survey (CPS) data from 1973 to 1993 to examine the effects of occupational gender composition on earnings. In the updating process, the authors correct for biases in this data set that are attributable to the inclusion of imputed earners and the misreporting of occupation. They use CPS data from 1996 to 2010 to provide cross-sectional estimates of the impact of the feminization of occupations on wages, as well as its contribution to the gender wage gap. Longitudinal CPS data indicate that the negative effects of gender composition on earnings observed in cross-sectional data are lessened when researchers control for observed heterogeneity and are much reduced when controlling for unobserved heterogeneity. These findings are confirmed using much longer panels from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79). Finally, the use of synthetic panels of aging cohorts suggests that wage penalties are largest for younger cohorts in predominantly female occupations.
Bibliography Citation
Addison, John T., Orgul Demet Ozturk and Si Wang. "The Occupational Feminization of Wages." Industrial Relations and Labor (IRL) Review 71,1 (January 2018): 208-241.
5. Addison, John T.
Ozturk, Orgul Demet
Wang, Si
The Role of Gender in Promotion and Pay over a Career
Journal of Human Capital 8,3 (Fall 2014): 280-317.
Also: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/677942
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Earnings; Gender Differences; Job Promotion; Wage Growth

Using data from the NLSY79, this paper considers the role of gender in promotion and promotion-related earnings development over the course of a career. The raw data suggest reasonably favorable promotion outcomes for females over a career, but any such advantages are found to be confined to less educated females. Further, the strong returns to education in later career stemming from promotion-related earnings growth accrue solely to males. While consistent with fertility timing and choice on the part of educated females, this earnings result is not inconsistent with discrimination as well, reminiscent of findings from an earlier human capital literature.
Bibliography Citation
Addison, John T., Orgul Demet Ozturk and Si Wang. "The Role of Gender in Promotion and Pay over a Career." Journal of Human Capital 8,3 (Fall 2014): 280-317.
6. Chyi, Hau
Ozturk, Orgul Demet
The Effects of Single Mothers' Welfare Use and Employment Decisions on Children's Cognitive Development
Economic Inquiry 51,1 (January 2013): 675-706.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1465-7295.2012.00466.x/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Birthweight; Maternal Employment; Medicaid/Medicare; Mothers; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We examine the effects of single mothers' welfare use and employment decisions on children's short-run cognitive development, as measured by their preschool standardized math test scores. We control for three mechanisms through which these decisions might affect children's outcomes: direct monetary benefits, parental time invested in the child, and nonpecuniary benefits from in-kind transfer programs such as Medicaid. We employ a correction function approach and control for state-fixed effects to address the endogenous nature of welfare participation and employment decisions. Our estimates suggest that although each additional quarter of either mother's employment or welfare use results in only a small increase in a child's standardized math test score, the total effects after several quarters are sizable. We allow mothers' decisions to have varying effects on attainment by children's observed innate ability and by the intensity of welfare use and employment. A child who has the mean level of observed innate ability with a mother who simultaneously worked and used welfare in all 20 quarters after childbirth experiences an 8.25 standardized-point increase in standardized scores. The positive impact is more pronounced for the more disadvantaged children, who tend to be born to mothers with low Armed Forces Qualification Test scores, or have lower birth weights. We also examine the effects using timing of employment and welfare use, as well as children's maturity and gender. (JEL I3, J13, J22)
Bibliography Citation
Chyi, Hau and Orgul Demet Ozturk. "The Effects of Single Mothers' Welfare Use and Employment Decisions on Children's Cognitive Development." Economic Inquiry 51,1 (January 2013): 675-706.
7. Chyi, Hau
Ozturk, Orgul Demet
Welfare Reform and Children's Short-Run Attainments
Working Paper, Economics Department, Moore School of Business, University of South Carolina, September 8, 2008.
Also: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1238212
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Maternal Employment; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using PIAT Math test score as a measure of attainment, we find that both single mothers' work and welfare use in the first five years of their children's lives have a positive effect on children's outcomes, but this effect declines with initial ability. The higher the initial ability of a child, the lower the positive impact work and welfare have. In fact, in the case of welfare the effect is negative if a child has more than median initial ability. Furthermore, we find that the work requirement reduces a single mother's use of welfare. However, the net effect of the work requirement on a child's test score depends on whether the mother's work brings in enough labor income to compensate for the loss of welfare benefits. We also look at the implications of the welfare eligibility time limit and maternal leave policies on children's outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Chyi, Hau and Orgul Demet Ozturk. "Welfare Reform and Children's Short-Run Attainments." Working Paper, Economics Department, Moore School of Business, University of South Carolina, September 8, 2008.
8. Chyi, Hau
Ozturk, Orgul Demet
Zhang, Weilong
Welfare Reform and Children's Early Cognitive Development
Contemporary Economic Policy 32,4 (October 2014): 729-751.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/coep.12042/abstract
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Birthweight; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Maternal Employment; Medicaid/Medicare; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Welfare

In this paper, we use a dynamic structural model to measure the effects of (1) single mothers' work and welfare use decisions and (2) welfare reform initiatives on the early cognitive development of the children of the NLSY79 mothers. We use PIAT-Math scores as a measure of attainment and show that both the mothers' work and welfare use benefit children on average. Our simulation of a policy that combines a time limit with work requirement reduces the use of welfare and increases employment significantly. These changes in turn significantly increase children's cognitive attainment. This implies that the welfare reform was not only successful in achieving its stated goals, but was also beneficial to welfare children's outcomes. In another policy simulation, we show that increasing work incentives for welfare population by exempting labor income from welfare tax can be a very successful policy with some additional benefits for children's outcomes. Finally, a counterfactual with an extended maternal leave policy significantly reduces employment and has negative, though economically insignificant, impact on cognitive outcomes.
Bibliography Citation
Chyi, Hau, Orgul Demet Ozturk and Weilong Zhang. "Welfare Reform and Children's Early Cognitive Development." Contemporary Economic Policy 32,4 (October 2014): 729-751.
9. Ozturk, Orgul Demet
Chyi, Hau
The Effects of Single Mothers' Welfare Participation and Work Decisions on Children's Attainments
Working Paper, Department of Economics, University of Wisconsin - Madison, February 5, 2006.
Also: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1238160
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Economics, University of Wisconsin - Madison
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Maternal Employment; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This research examines the effects of mothers welfare and work decisions on their children's attainments using a random effect instrumental variables (REIV) estimator. The estimator employs sibling comparisons in a random effect framework and an instrumental variables approach to address the unobserved heterogeneity that may influence mothers work and welfare decisions. The identification comes from the variation in mothers different economic incentives that arises from the AFDC benefit structures across U.S. states. I focus on children who were born to single mothers with twelve or fewer years of schooling. The short-run child attainments under consideration are the Peabody Individual Achievement Test math and reading recognition scores from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort. Long-run attainments are a child's number of years of schooling by age 25 and his or her early adulthood labor income, drawn from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. The REIV estimates imply that, relative to no welfare participation, participating in welfare for one to three years provides up to a 5 percentage point gain in a child's Picture Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) scores. The negative effect of childhood welfare participation on adult earnings found by others is not significant if one accounts for mothers work decisions. At the estimated values of the model parameters, a mothers number of years of work contributes between $3,000 and $7,000 1996 dollars to her child's labor income, but has no significant effect on the child's PIAT test scores. Finally, children's number of years of schooling are relatively unresponsive to mothers work and welfare participation choices.
Bibliography Citation
Ozturk, Orgul Demet and Hau Chyi. "The Effects of Single Mothers' Welfare Participation and Work Decisions on Children's Attainments." Working Paper, Department of Economics, University of Wisconsin - Madison, February 5, 2006.
10. Ozturk, Orgul Demet
Chyi, Hau
The Effects of Single Mothers' Welfare Participation and Work Decisions on Children's Attainments
Presented: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, University of Amsterdam, Annual Meetings of the European Association of Labour Economists, September 18-20, 2008.
Also: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/10110/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Amsterdam
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Maternal Employment; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This research examines the effects of mothers' welfare and work decisions on their children's attainments using a random effect instrumental variables (REIV) estimator. The estimator employs sibling comparisons in a random effect framework and an instrumental variables approach to address the unobserved heterogeneity that may influence mothers' work and welfare decisions. The identification comes from the variation in mothers' different economic incentives that arises from the AFDC benefit structures across U.S. states. We focus on children who were born to single mothers with twelve or fewer years of schooling. The short-run child attainments under consideration are the Peabody Individual Achievement Test math and reading recognition scores from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort. Long-run attainments are a child's number of years of schooling by age 25 and his or her early adulthood labor income, drawn from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. The REIV estimates imply that, relative to no welfare participation, participating in welfare for one to three years provides up to a 5 percentage point gain in a child's Picture Individual Achievement Test (PIAT) scores. The negative effect of childhood welfare participation on adult earnings found by others is not significant if one accounts for mothers' work decisions. At the estimated values of the model parameters, a mother's number of years of work contributes between $3,000 and $7,000 1996 dollars to her child's labor income, but has no significant effect on the child's PIAT test scores. Finally, children's number of years of schooling are relatively unresponsive to mothers' work and welfare participation choices.
Bibliography Citation
Ozturk, Orgul Demet and Hau Chyi. "The Effects of Single Mothers' Welfare Participation and Work Decisions on Children's Attainments." Presented: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, University of Amsterdam, Annual Meetings of the European Association of Labour Economists, September 18-20, 2008.
11. Ozturk, Orgul Demet
Chyi, Hau
Welfare and Work Participation of Single Mothers and Children's Cognitive Development
Working Paper, Economics Department, Moore School of Business, University of South Carolina, February 2007.
Also: hauchyi.googlepages.com/workwelfare.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Economics Department, Moore School of Business, University of Soutn Carolina
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Maternal Employment; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The effects of single mothers' welfare participation and work decisions on children's outcomes are important. First, theories and empirical studies regarding the effects of mothers' work on children's attainments yield ambiguous findings. Second, participating in AFDC also exhibits a negative statistical relationship with the participating children's possible outcomes of all sorts in the data. We develop a dynamic structural model of a single mother's work and welfare participation decisions while their children are young. This model is used to measure the effects of mothers' decisions on children's attainments in the short run. Using NLSY79 children's PIAT Math test scores as a measure of attainment, we find that single mother's work and welfare use in the first five years of her child's life both have positive effect on her child's outcome, but this effect declines by the initial ability. The higher the potential ability of child, the lower the positive impact work and welfare have. In fact, in case of welfare the effect is negative if child has more than about median initial ability.. Furthermore, we find that work requirement reduces a single mother's use of welfare. However, the net effect of work requirement on a child's test score depends on whether mother's work brings in enough labor income to compensate for the loss of welfare benefits. We also look at the implications of welfare eligibility time limit, child bonus, and maternal leave, on child's outcome.
Bibliography Citation
Ozturk, Orgul Demet and Hau Chyi. "Welfare and Work Participation of Single Mothers and Children's Cognitive Development." Working Paper, Economics Department, Moore School of Business, University of South Carolina, February 2007.
12. Ozturk, Orgul Demet
Chyi, Hau
Welfare and Work Participation of Single Mothers and Children's Cognitive Development
Presented: Chicago, IL, European Society for Population Economics, June 14-16, 2007.
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: European Society for Population Economics (ESPE)
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Maternal Employment; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The effects of single mothers' welfare participation and work decisions on children's outcomes are important. First, theories and empirical studies regarding the effects of mothers' work on children's attainments yield ambiguous findings. Second, participating in AFDC also exhibits a negative statistical relationship with the participating children's possible outcomes of all sorts in the data. We develop a dynamic structural model of a single mother's work and welfare participation decisions while their children are young. This model is used to measure the effects of mothers' decisions on children's attainments in the short run. Using NLSY79 children's PIAT Math test scores as a measure of attainment, we find that single mother's work and welfare use in the first five years of her child's life both have positive effect on her child's outcome, but this effect declines by the initial ability. The higher the potential ability of child, the lower the positive impact work and welfare have. In fact, in case of welfare the effect is negative if child has more than about median initial ability.. Furthermore, we find that work requirement reduces a single mother's use of welfare. However, the net effect of work requirement on a child's test score depends on whether mother's work brings in enough labor income to compensate for the loss of welfare benefits. We also look at the implications of welfare eligibility time limit, child bonus, and maternal leave, on child's outcome.
Bibliography Citation
Ozturk, Orgul Demet and Hau Chyi. "Welfare and Work Participation of Single Mothers and Children's Cognitive Development." Presented: Chicago, IL, European Society for Population Economics, June 14-16, 2007.
13. Ozturk, Orgul Demet
Chyi, Hau
Welfare and Work Participation of Single Mothers and Children's Cognitive Development
Presented: New Orleans, LA, Southern Economic Association, November 19-21, 2007.
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Southern Economic Association
Keyword(s): Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Maternal Employment; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Welfare

The effects of single mothers' welfare participation and work decisions on children's outcomes are important. First, theories and empirical studies regarding the effects of mothers' work on children's attainments yield ambiguous findings. Second, participating in AFDC also exhibits a negative statistical relationship with the participating children's possible outcomes of all sorts in the data. We develop a dynamic structural model of a single mother's work and welfare participation decisions while their children are young. This model is used to measure the effects of mothers' decisions on children's attainments in the short run. Using NLSY79 children's PIAT Math test scores as a measure of attainment, we find that single mother's work and welfare use in the first five years of her child's life both have positive effect on her child's outcome, but this effect declines by the initial ability. The higher the potential ability of child, the lower the positive impact work and welfare have. In fact, in case of welfare the effect is negative if child has more than about median initial ability.. Furthermore, we find that work requirement reduces a single mother's use of welfare. However, the net effect of work requirement on a child's test score depends on whether mother's work brings in enough labor income to compensate for the loss of welfare benefits. We also look at the implications of welfare eligibility time limit, child bonus, and maternal leave, on child's outcome.
Bibliography Citation
Ozturk, Orgul Demet and Hau Chyi. "Welfare and Work Participation of Single Mothers and Children's Cognitive Development." Presented: New Orleans, LA, Southern Economic Association, November 19-21, 2007.