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Author: Belley, Philippe
Resulting in 7 citations.
1. Belley, Philippe
Human Capital Investments of Workers and the Schooling Decision of Young Adults
Ph.D. Dissertation, University of West Ontario (Canada), 2011
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Canada, Canadian; College Cost; College Enrollment; Education; Educational Attainment; Family Income; Human Capital; Skill Formation; Youth in Transition Survey (YITS), Canada

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

My thesis consists of three chapters that focus on investments in human capital by individuals.

The first chapter focuses on the skill accumulation of workers who have completed their formal education. Skills are acquired through work experience in the learning-by-doing (LBD) model. This model predicts that once hours of work are accounted for, there should be no systematic variation in wage growth. I use this prediction to test the LBD model by estimating, conditional on hours worked, the correlation between wage growth and variables affecting the incentives to accumulate skills. This correlation is found statistically significant and suggests a rejection of the LBD model for a sample of male and female workers from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) 1979.

The second chapter is co-authored with Lance Lochner. We use the NLSY 1979 and NLSY 1997 to estimate the effects of family income on educational attainment in the early 1980s and early 2000s. The effects of family income on college attendance increase substantially over this period. We develop an educational choice model that incorporates both borrowing constraints and a "consumption value" of schooling. The model cannot explain the rising effects of family income on college attendance in response to rising costs and returns to college without appealing to borrowing constraints.

The third chapter is co-authored with Marc Frenette and Lance Lochner. We conduct a parallel empirical analysis of the effects of parental income on post-secondary (PS) education attendance for recent high school cohorts in both the U.S. and Canada using data from the NLSY 1997 and Youth in Transition Survey. We estimate smaller post-secondary education attendance gaps by parental income in Canada relative to the U.S., even after controlling for family background and adolescent cognitive achievement. We develop an intergenerational schooling choice model that sheds light on the role of potentially import ant determinants of the family income - post-secondary education attendance gap. We document Canada - U.S. differences in financial returns to PS schooling, tuition policy, and financial aid, discussing the extent to which these differences contribute to the stronger family income - attendance relationship in the U.S.

Bibliography Citation
Belley, Philippe. Human Capital Investments of Workers and the Schooling Decision of Young Adults. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of West Ontario (Canada), 2011.
2. Belley, Philippe
Frenette, Marc
Lochner, Lance John
Post-Secondary Attendance by Parental Income in the U.S. and Canada : What Role for Financial Aid Policy?
NBER Working Paper No. 17218, National Bureau of Economic Research, July 2011.
Also: http://www.nber.org/papers/w17218
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): College Enrollment; Family Income; Financial Assistance; Higher Education; Tuition

This paper examines the implications of tuition and need-based financial aid policies for family income -- post-secondary (PS) attendance relationships. We first conduct a parallel empirical analysis of the effects of parental income on PS attendance for recent high school cohorts in both the U.S. and Canada using data from the 1997 Cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and Youth in Transition Survey. We estimate substantially smaller PS attendance gaps by parental income in Canada relative to the U.S., even after controlling for family background, adolescent cognitive achievement, and local residence fixed effects. We next document that U.S. public tuition and financial aid policies are actually more generous to low-income youth than are Canadian policies. By contrast, Canada offers more generous aid to middle-class youth than does the U.S. These findings suggest that the much stronger family income -- PS attendance relationship in the U.S. is not driven by differences in the need-based nature of financial aid policies. Based on previous estimates of the effects of tuition and aid on PS attendance, we consider how much stronger income -- attendance relationships would be in the absence of need-based aid and how much additional aid would need to be offered to lower income families to eliminate existing income -- attendance gaps entirely.
Bibliography Citation
Belley, Philippe, Marc Frenette and Lance John Lochner. "Post-Secondary Attendance by Parental Income in the U.S. and Canada : What Role for Financial Aid Policy?" NBER Working Paper No. 17218, National Bureau of Economic Research, July 2011.
3. Belley, Philippe
Frenette, Marc
Lochner, Lance John
Post-secondary Attendance by Parental Income in the U.S. and Canada: Do Financial Aid Policies Explain the Differences?
Canadian Journal of Economics 47,2 (May 2014): 664-696.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1111/caje.12088/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Canadian Economics Association / Association canadienne d\'economiques
Keyword(s): Canada, Canadian; College Enrollment; Cross-national Analysis; Family Income; Financial Assistance; Tuition

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

We examine the extent to which tuition and needs-based aid policies explain important differences in the relationship between family income and post-secondary attendance relationships between Canada and the U.S. Using data from recent cohorts, we estimate substantially smaller attendance gaps by parental income in Canada relative to the U.S., even after controlling for family background, cognitive achievement, and local-residence fixed effects. We next document that U.S. public tuition and financial aid policies are actually more generous to low-income youth than are Canadian policies. Equalizing these policies across Canada and the U.S. would likely lead to a greater difference in income-attendance gradients.
Bibliography Citation
Belley, Philippe, Marc Frenette and Lance John Lochner. "Post-secondary Attendance by Parental Income in the U.S. and Canada: Do Financial Aid Policies Explain the Differences?" Canadian Journal of Economics 47,2 (May 2014): 664-696.
4. Belley, Philippe
Lochner, Lance John
The Changing Role of Family Income and Ability in Determining Educational Achievement
NBER Working Paper No. 13527, National Bureau of Economic Research, October 2007.
Also: http://www.nber.org/papers/w13527
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Keyword(s): Cognitive Ability; College Enrollment; Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Family Income; High School Diploma; Modeling

This paper uses data from the 1979 and 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth cohorts (NLSY79 and NLSY97) to estimate changes in the effects of ability and family income on educational attainment for youth in their late teens during the early 1980s and early 2000s. Cognitive ability plays an important role in determining educational outcomes for both NLSY cohorts, while family income plays little role in determining high school completion in either cohort. Most interestingly, we document a dramatic increase in the effects of family income on college attendance (particularly among the least able) from the NLSY79 to the NLSY97. Family income has also become a much more important determinant of college 'quality' and hours/weeks worked during the academic year (the latter among the most able) in the NLSY97. Family income has little effect on college delay in either sample.

To interpret our empirical findings on college attendance, we develop an educational choice model that incorporates both borrowing constraints and a 'consumption' value of schooling - two of the most commonly invoked explanations for a positive family income - schooling relationship. Without borrowing constraints, the model cannot explain the rising effects of family income on college attendance in response to the sharply rising costs and returns to college experienced from the early 1980s to early 2000s: the incentives created by a 'consumption' value of schooling imply that income should have become less important over time (or even negatively related to attendance). Instead, the data are more broadly consistent with the hypothesis that more youth are borrowing constrained today than were in the early 1980s.

Bibliography Citation
Belley, Philippe and Lance John Lochner. "The Changing Role of Family Income and Ability in Determining Educational Achievement." NBER Working Paper No. 13527, National Bureau of Economic Research, October 2007.
5. Belley, Philippe
Lochner, Lance John
The Changing Role of Family Income and Ability in Determining Educational Achievement
Working Paper No. 2008-2, Department of Economics, Social Science Centre, University of Western Ontario, December 2008.
Also: http://economics.uwo.ca/faculty/lochner/papers/thechangingrole.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Department of Economics, University of Western Ontario
Keyword(s): College Enrollment; Debt/Borrowing; Educational Attainment; Family Income; High School Diploma; Modeling

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper uses data from the 1979 and 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth cohorts (NLSY79 and NLSY97) to estimate changes in the effects of ability and family income on educational attainment for youth in their late teens during the early 1980s and early 2000s. Cognitive ability plays an important role in determining educational outcomes for both NLSY cohorts, while family income plays little role in determining high school completion in either cohort. Most interestingly, we document a dramatic increase in the effects of family income on college attendance (particularly among the least able) from the NLSY79 to the NLSY97. Family income has also become a much more important determinant of college 'quality' and hours/weeks worked during the academic year (the latter among the most able) in the NLSY97. Family income has little effect on college delay in either sample. To interpret our empirical findings on college attendance, we develop an educational choice model that incorporates both borrowing constraints and a 'consumption' value of schooling--two of the most commonly invoked explanations for a positive family income--schooling relationship. Without borrowing constraints, the model cannot explain the rising effects of family income on college attendance in response to the sharply rising costs and returns to college experienced from the early 1980s to early 2000s: the incentives created by a 'consumption' value of schooling imply that income should have become less important over time (or even negatively related to attendance). Instead, the data are more broadly consistent with the hypothesis that more youth are borrowing constrained today than were in the early 1980s.
Bibliography Citation
Belley, Philippe and Lance John Lochner. "The Changing Role of Family Income and Ability in Determining Educational Achievement." Working Paper No. 2008-2, Department of Economics, Social Science Centre, University of Western Ontario, December 2008.
6. Belley, Philippe
Lochner, Lance John
The Changing Role of Family Income and Ability in Determining Educational Achievement
Journal of Human Capital 1,1 (December 2007): 37-89.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/pss/10.1086/524674
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Keyword(s): Cognitive Ability; College Enrollment; Educational Attainment; Educational Returns; Family Income; School Completion

We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and 1997 cohorts to estimate the effects of ability and family income on educational attainment in the early 1980s and early 2000s. The effects of family income on college attendance increase substantially over this period. Cognitive ability strongly affects schooling outcomes in both periods. We develop an educational choice model that incorporates both borrowing constraints and a "consumption value" of schooling. The model cannot explain the rising effects of family income on college attendance in response to rising costs and returns to college without appealing to borrowing constraints.
Bibliography Citation
Belley, Philippe and Lance John Lochner. "The Changing Role of Family Income and Ability in Determining Educational Achievement." Journal of Human Capital 1,1 (December 2007): 37-89.
7. Lochner, Lance John
Belley, Philippe
Frenette, Marc
Family Income, Ability and Post-Secondary Attendance in the US and Canada
Presented: Washington, DC, Bureau of Labor Statistics Conference Center, NLSY97 Tenth Anniversary Conference, May 29-30, 2008
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: U.S. Department of Labor
Keyword(s): Canada, Canadian; Family Income; Schooling, Post-secondary

Bibliography Citation
Lochner, Lance John, Philippe Belley and Marc Frenette. "Family Income, Ability and Post-Secondary Attendance in the US and Canada." Presented: Washington, DC, Bureau of Labor Statistics Conference Center, NLSY97 Tenth Anniversary Conference, May 29-30, 2008.