Search Results

Source: Epidemiology
Resulting in 4 citations.
1. Altschul, Drew M.
Wraw, Christina
Gale, Catharine R.
Deary, Ian J.
How Youth Cognitive and Sociodemographic Factors Relate to the Development of Overweight and Obesity in the UK and the USA: A Prospective Cross-cohort Study of the National Child Development Study and National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979
Epidemiology 9,12 (November 2019): DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-033011.
Also: https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/9/12/e033011
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group, Ltd. - British Medical Journal Publishing Group
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Body Mass Index (BMI); Cognitive Ability; Cross-national Analysis; Modeling, Growth Curve/Latent Trajectory Analysis; NCDS - National Child Development Study (British); Obesity; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives: We investigated how youth cognitive and sociodemographic factors are associated with the aetiology of overweight and obesity. We examined both onset (who is at early risk for overweight and obesity) and development (who gains weight and when).

Setting: We used data from the US National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979 (NLSY) and the UK National Child Development Study (NCDS); most of both studies completed a cognitive function test in youth.

Bibliography Citation
Altschul, Drew M., Christina Wraw, Catharine R. Gale and Ian J. Deary. "How Youth Cognitive and Sociodemographic Factors Relate to the Development of Overweight and Obesity in the UK and the USA: A Prospective Cross-cohort Study of the National Child Development Study and National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979." Epidemiology 9,12 (November 2019): DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-033011.
2. Jackson, John W.
VanderWeele, Tyler J.
Decomposition Analysis to Identify Intervention Targets for Reducing Disparities
Epidemiology 29,6 (November 2018): 825-835.
Also: https://journals.lww.com/epidem/Fulltext/2018/11000/Decomposition_Analysis_to_Identify_Intervention.11.aspx
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Wolters Kluwer
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Childhood; Educational Attainment; Epidemiology; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

There has been considerable interest in using decomposition methods in epidemiology (mediation analysis) and economics (Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition) to understand how health disparities arise and how they might change upon intervention. It has not been clear when estimates from the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition can be interpreted causally because its implementation does not explicitly address potential confounding of target variables. While mediation analysis does explicitly adjust for confounders of target variables, it typically does so in a way that effectively entails equalizing confounders across racial groups, which may not reflect the intended intervention. Revisiting prior analyses in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth on disparities in wages, unemployment, incarceration, and overall health with test scores, taken as a proxy for educational attainment, as a target intervention, we propose and demonstrate a novel decomposition that controls for confounders of test scores (e.g. measures of childhood socioeconomic status [SES]) while leaving their association with race intact. We compare this decomposition with others that use standardization (to equalize childhood SES [the confounders] alone), mediation analysis (to equalize test scores within levels of childhood SES), and one that equalizes both childhood SES and test scores. We also show how these decompositions, including our novel proposals, are equivalent to implementations of the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition, but provide a more formal causal interpretation for these decompositions.
Bibliography Citation
Jackson, John W. and Tyler J. VanderWeele. "Decomposition Analysis to Identify Intervention Targets for Reducing Disparities." Epidemiology 29,6 (November 2018): 825-835.
3. Margerison-Zilko, Claire E.
Catalano, Ralph
Hubbard, Alan
Ahern, Jennifer
Maternal Exposure to Unexpected Economic Contraction and Birth Weight for Gestational Age
Epidemiology 22,6 (November 2011): 855-858.
Also: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21900824
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wolters Kluwer
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Economic Changes/Recession; Economic Well-Being; Geocoded Data; Gestation/Gestational weight gain; Job Turnover; Maternal Employment; Poverty; State-Level Data/Policy; Stress; Unemployment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Background: The macro-level economy may affect fetal health through maternal behavioral or physiologic responses.

Methods: We used a multilevel design to examine associations between exposure to state-level unexpected economic contraction during each trimester of gestation and birth weight for gestational age percentile and small for gestational age (SGA), using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. We examined differences in observed associations by maternal educational attainment, race/ethnicity, employment status, and poverty status.

Results: Exposure in the first trimester was associated with a 3.7 percentile point decrease in birth weight for gestational age (95% confidence interval [CI] = −6.8 to −0.6). This association appeared stronger for women “keeping house” or with <12 years education. Exposure in the first trimester was also associated with increased odds of SGA (odds ratio = 1.5 [95% CI = 1.1 to 2.1]) and term SGA (odds ratio = 1.6 [95% CI = 1.2 to 2.3]).

Conclusions: Unexpected economic contraction during early pregnancy may be associated with reduced fetal growth.

Bibliography Citation
Margerison-Zilko, Claire E., Ralph Catalano, Alan Hubbard and Jennifer Ahern. "Maternal Exposure to Unexpected Economic Contraction and Birth Weight for Gestational Age." Epidemiology 22,6 (November 2011): 855-858.
4. Patil, Divya
Enquobahrie, Daniel A.
Peckham, Trevor
Seixas, Noah
Hajat, Anjum
Retrospective Cohort Study of the Association between Maternal Employment Precarity and Infant Low Birth Weight in Women in the USA
Epidemiology 10,1 (January 2020): DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-029584.
Also: https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/10/1/e029584
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group, Ltd. - British Medical Journal Publishing Group
Keyword(s): Benefits, Insurance; Birthweight; Ethnic Differences; Income Level; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Poisson (IRT–ZIP); Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Racial Differences; Unions; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives: To investigate the association between maternal employment precarity and infant low birth weight (LBW), and to assess if this association differs by race/ethnicity.

Methods: Data were collected from 2871 women enrolled in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Children and Young Adult Cohort. Employment precarity was evaluated using a summary variable that combined several employment attributes: availability of employer-sponsored insurance, income, long shifts, non-daytime shifts, availability of employer sponsored training or educational benefits and membership in a union or collective bargaining unit. Employment precarity scores (a sum of the number of negative employment attributes) were categorised into low (0–2), medium (3) and high (4-6). LBW was defined as weight less than 2500 g at birth. Modified Poisson models were fit to calculate risk ratios and 95% CIs and adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, nativity, prepregnancy body mass index, alcohol consumption, smoking during pregnancy and infant year of birth. We assessed effect modification by maternal race/ethnicity using a composite exposure-race variable.

Results: Women with high employment precarity had higher risk of a LBW delivery compared with women with low employment precarity (RR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.11 to 1.98). Compared to non-Hispanic/non-black women with low employment precarity, non-Hispanic black women (RR: 2.68; 95% CI: 1.72 to 4.15), Hispanic women (RR: 2.53; 95% CI: 1.54 to 4.16) and non-Hispanic/non-black women (RR: 1.46; 95% CI: 0.98 to 2.16) with high employment precarity had higher risk of LBW.

Bibliography Citation
Patil, Divya, Daniel A. Enquobahrie, Trevor Peckham, Noah Seixas and Anjum Hajat. "Retrospective Cohort Study of the Association between Maternal Employment Precarity and Infant Low Birth Weight in Women in the USA." Epidemiology 10,1 (January 2020): DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-029584.