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Author: Hajat, Anjum
Resulting in 2 citations.
1. Oddo, Vanessa M.
Chen Zhuan, Castiel
Andrea, Sarah B.
Eisenberg-Guyot, Jerzy
Peckham, Trevor
Jacoby, Daniel
Hajat, Anjum
Changes in Precarious Employment in the United States: A Longitudinal Analysis
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health published online (7 December 2020): DOI: 10.5271/sjweh.3939.
Also: https://www.sjweh.fi/show_abstract.php?abstract_id=3939
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Nordic Association of Occupational Safety and Health (NOROSH)
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Occupational Information Network (O*NET); Racial Differences; Work Hours; Work, Atypical; Work, Contingent

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objective: This longitudinal study aimed to measure precarious employment in the US using a multidimensional indicator.

Methods: We used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1988-2016) and the Occupational Information Network database to create a longitudinal precarious employment score (PES) among 7568 employed individuals over 18 waves (N=101 290 observations). We identified 13 survey indicators to operationalize 7 dimensions of precarious employment, which we included in our PES (range: 0-7, with 7 indicating the most precarious): material rewards, working-time arrangements, stability, workers' rights, collective organization, interpersonal relations, and training. Using generalized estimating equations, we estimated the mean PES and change over time in the PES overall and by race/ethnicity, gender, education, income, and region.

Results: On average, the PES was 3.17 [standard deviation (SD) 1.19], and was higher among women (3.34, SD 1.20), people of color (Hispanics: 3.24, SD 1.23; non-Hispanic Blacks: 3.31, SD 1.23), those with less education (primary: 3.99, SD 1.07; high school: 3.43, SD 1.19), and with lower-incomes (3.84, SD 1.08), and those residing in the South (3.23, SD 1.17). From 1988 to 2016, the PES increased by 9% on average [0.29 points; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.26-0.31]. While precarious employment increased over time across all subgroups, the increase was largest among males (0.35 points; 95% CI 0.33–0.39), higher-income (0.39 points; 95% CI 0.36-0.42) and college-educated (0.37 points; 95% CI 0.33-0.41) individuals.

Bibliography Citation
Oddo, Vanessa M., Castiel Chen Zhuan, Sarah B. Andrea, Jerzy Eisenberg-Guyot, Trevor Peckham, Daniel Jacoby and Anjum Hajat. "Changes in Precarious Employment in the United States: A Longitudinal Analysis." Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health published online (7 December 2020): DOI: 10.5271/sjweh.3939.
2. Patil, Divya
Enquobahrie, Daniel A.
Peckham, Trevor
Seixas, Noah
Hajat, Anjum
Retrospective Cohort Study of the Association between Maternal Employment Precarity and Infant Low Birth Weight in Women in the USA
Epidemiology 10,1 (January 2020): DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-029584.
Also: https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/10/1/e029584
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group, Ltd. - British Medical Journal Publishing Group
Keyword(s): Benefits, Insurance; Birthweight; Ethnic Differences; Income Level; Maternal Employment; Modeling, Poisson (IRT–ZIP); Pre-natal Care/Exposure; Racial Differences; Unions; Work Hours

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives: To investigate the association between maternal employment precarity and infant low birth weight (LBW), and to assess if this association differs by race/ethnicity.

Methods: Data were collected from 2871 women enrolled in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Children and Young Adult Cohort. Employment precarity was evaluated using a summary variable that combined several employment attributes: availability of employer-sponsored insurance, income, long shifts, non-daytime shifts, availability of employer sponsored training or educational benefits and membership in a union or collective bargaining unit. Employment precarity scores (a sum of the number of negative employment attributes) were categorised into low (0–2), medium (3) and high (4-6). LBW was defined as weight less than 2500 g at birth. Modified Poisson models were fit to calculate risk ratios and 95% CIs and adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, nativity, prepregnancy body mass index, alcohol consumption, smoking during pregnancy and infant year of birth. We assessed effect modification by maternal race/ethnicity using a composite exposure-race variable.

Results: Women with high employment precarity had higher risk of a LBW delivery compared with women with low employment precarity (RR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.11 to 1.98). Compared to non-Hispanic/non-black women with low employment precarity, non-Hispanic black women (RR: 2.68; 95% CI: 1.72 to 4.15), Hispanic women (RR: 2.53; 95% CI: 1.54 to 4.16) and non-Hispanic/non-black women (RR: 1.46; 95% CI: 0.98 to 2.16) with high employment precarity had higher risk of LBW.

Bibliography Citation
Patil, Divya, Daniel A. Enquobahrie, Trevor Peckham, Noah Seixas and Anjum Hajat. "Retrospective Cohort Study of the Association between Maternal Employment Precarity and Infant Low Birth Weight in Women in the USA." Epidemiology 10,1 (January 2020): DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-029584.