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Author: Darity, William A. Jr.
Resulting in 8 citations.
1. Darity, William A. Jr.
Employment Discrimination, Segregation, and Health
American Journal of Public Health 93,2 (February 2003): 226-232.
Also: http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=9036683&db=aph
Cohort(s): NLS General, NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Discrimination, Racial/Ethnic; Discrimination, Sex; Gender Differences; Health Care; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Racial Differences; Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Certain limitations in the scope and range of the NLSY dataset (among others) are discussed and the need for a single data set that would enable researchers to trace the connections between health outcomes and discrimination is outlined and suggested. [Ed.'s Note]

The author examines available evidence on the effects of exposure to joblessness on emotional well-being according to race and sex. The impact of racism on general health outcomes also is considered, particularly racism in the specific form of wage discrimination. Perceptions of racism and measured exposures to racism may be distinct triggers for adverse health outcomes. Whether the effects of racism are best evaluated on the basis of self-classification or social classification of racial identity is unclear. Some research sorts between the effects of race and socioeconomic status on health. The development of a new longitudinal database will facilitate more accurate identification of connections between racism and negative health effects. (Am J Public Health, 2003;93:226-231) [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Bibliography Citation
Darity, William A. Jr. "Employment Discrimination, Segregation, and Health." American Journal of Public Health 93,2 (February 2003): 226-232.
2. Goldsmith, Arthur H.
Veum, Jonathan R.
Darity, William A. Jr.
Are Being Unemployed and Being Out of the Labor Force Distinct States? A Psychological Approach
Journal of Economic Psychology 16,2 (July 1995): 275-295.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/016748709500009D
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Data Quality/Consistency; Heterogeneity; Labor Force Participation; Psychological Effects; Self-Esteem; Unemployment

Examined whether a difference in psychological well-being exists between unemployed people and labor force drop-outs (i.e., unemployed people who become so discouraged that they cease searching for employment). Data were from 12,686 persons (aged 14-22 years) in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, who have been interviewed annually since 1979. Joblessness fostered feelings of externality. Also, as duration of joblessness advanced so did feelings of helplessness, thus favoring the stages of psychological impairment theory. Data on the psychological status of the jobless are consistent with the view of K. B. Clark and L. H. Summers (1979) that the 2 forms of joblessness are effectively indistinguishable. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1996 American Psychological Association, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Goldsmith, Arthur H., Jonathan R. Veum and William A. Jr. Darity. "Are Being Unemployed and Being Out of the Labor Force Distinct States? A Psychological Approach." Journal of Economic Psychology 16,2 (July 1995): 275-295.
3. Goldsmith, Arthur H.
Veum, Jonathan R.
Darity, William A. Jr.
The Impact of Labor Force History on Self-Esteem and Its Component Parts, Anxiety, Alienation and Depression
Journal of Economic Psychology 17,2 (April 1996): 183-220.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0167487096000037
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Data Quality/Consistency; Employment; Heterogeneity; Labor Force Participation; Quits; Self-Esteem; Unemployment

Estimated the correlation between unemployment and self-esteem. A methodology that controls for 3 potential sources of bias (omitted variables, unobserved heterogeneity, and data selection) was used. Data were drawn from the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, which provided detailed information on the personal characteristics of 1,198 14-21 yr olds, including their self-esteem and labor force experiences. Evidence of the damage of joblessness on an individual's perception of self-worth was found. Exposure to bouts of both forms of joblessness (unemployment or time out of the labor force) was also found to harm self-esteem. Decompositional analysis suggested that joblessness damages self-esteem by generating feelings of depression. The authors suggest that policies designed to lessen joblessness will also yield a psychologically healthier labor force. (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1997 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved)
Bibliography Citation
Goldsmith, Arthur H., Jonathan R. Veum and William A. Jr. Darity. "The Impact of Labor Force History on Self-Esteem and Its Component Parts, Anxiety, Alienation and Depression." Journal of Economic Psychology 17,2 (April 1996): 183-220.
4. Goldsmith, Arthur H.
Veum, Jonathan R.
Darity, William A. Jr.
The Impact of Psychological and Human Capital on Wages
Economic Inquiry 35,4. (October 1997): 815-829.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1465-7295.1997.tb01966.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Western Economic Association International
Keyword(s): Human Capital; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Manpower Programs; Occupational Choice; Psychological Effects; Self-Esteem; Training, Occupational; Training, On-the-Job; Wages

Historically, economists have taken the position that psychological capital is either unobservable or unmeasurable; thus, heretofore, little evidence has been available on the contribution of psychological capital to wages. Using data drawn from two different waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the authors offer evidence that psychological capital has both a direct effect--via self-esteem--and an indirect effect--through locus of control--on an individual's real wage. They find a person's wage is more sensitive to changes in self-esteem than to comparable alterations in human capital. Both relative wages and human capital contribute to self-esteem.
Bibliography Citation
Goldsmith, Arthur H., Jonathan R. Veum and William A. Jr. Darity. "The Impact of Psychological and Human Capital on Wages." Economic Inquiry 35,4. (October 1997): 815-829.
5. Goldsmith, Arthur H.
Veum, Jonathan R.
Darity, William A. Jr.
The Psychological Impact of Unemployment and Joblessness
Journal of Socio-Economics 25,3 (Fall 1996): 333-358.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053535796900098
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Job Search; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Quits; Retirement; Unemployment

Economists have identified two principal adverse effects of unemployment. One is the output foregone that could have been produced if unemployed workers had been productively employed. The second is the psychological damage suffered by unemployed workers and their families. Psychologists have offered theories to explain how experiences such as Joblessness may lead to a deterioration in mental health. They also have designed and validated survey instruments capable of measuring various aspects of emotional health. Unfortunately, their efforts to document the psychological impact of unemployment have been plagued by data limitations, while economists largely have ignored this task. The purpose of this study is three-fold. First, we discuss why unemployment and Joblessness are likely to influence an individual's perception of personal efficacy, locus of control, and hence psychological well-being. Second, we discuss and critique existing efforts to examine the relationship between labor force experiences and locus of control. Third, we investigate the relationship between Joblessness and its component parts—unemployment and dropping out of the labor force—on personal locus of control, using observations from the NLSY and an alternative methodological framework. The NLSY is a longitudinal data set that contains detailed information on the personal characteristics of individuals in the sample, their labor force experiences and a specific personal locus of control. In discussing the results we also attempt to shed some new light on the debate between Clark and Summers (1979) and Flinn and Heckman (1982, 1983) over the question of whether being out of the labor force and being unemployed should be thought of as distinct states. We add further insight into this issue by examining whether there are psychological differences, as measured by locus of control, between otherwise comparable members of these two groups. Finally, we reconsider the Ellwood and Ruhm exchange over whether joblessness and unemployment lead to “psychological” scarring. We find that labor force experiences fail to influence personal locus of control for male youths. There is evidence, however, that perception of personal efficacy is altered by joblessness among young women. As the duration of a current unemployment spell lengthens, the likelihood of holding beliefs of personal efficacy decline for young women. There is also some evidence of scarring among women. For females who in the past have spent time both unemployed and out of the labor force, the greater the duration of their joblessness the more likely is a reduction in feelings of personal efficacy and more aggravated one's self-perception of helplessness. We also offer psychological evidence on the relative emotional well-being of the unemployed and labor force drop outs that largely supports the position of Clark and Summers that these conditions are largely indistinguishable.
Bibliography Citation
Goldsmith, Arthur H., Jonathan R. Veum and William A. Jr. Darity. "The Psychological Impact of Unemployment and Joblessness." Journal of Socio-Economics 25,3 (Fall 1996): 333-358.
6. Goldsmith, Arthur H.
Veum, Jonathan R.
Darity, William A. Jr.
Unemployment, Joblessness, Psychological Well-being and Self-esteem: Theory and Evidence
Journal of Socio-Economics 26,2 (January 1997): 133-158.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1053535799800067
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Gender Differences; Labor Force Participation; Self-Esteem; Unemployment; Unemployment Duration; Unemployment, Youth; Well-Being

Social psychologists Erikson (1959), Jahoda (1979, 1981, 1982) and Seligman (1975) believe that exposure to events such as joblessness are capable of impairing an individual's psychological well-being. Psychological well-being is a multidimensional concept. Therefore, the impact of unemployment on mental health is likely to be manifest in many forms, including denigration of self-worth or self-esteem.

The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between joblessness and its component parts, unemployment and dropping out of the labor force, on self-esteem using data drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). The NLSY is well suited for such an investigation since it contains detailed information on the personal characteristics of individuals in the sample, as well as their labor force experiences and measures of self-esteem.

Two additional issues will be addressed. First, we examine the psychological counterpart of Ellwood's (1982) hypothesis that joblessness may scar an individual. Second, we shed new light on the debate between Clark and Summers (1979) and Flinn and Heckman (1982, 1983) over whether being out of the labor force (OLF) and being unemployed should be thought of as distinct states.

We find that joblessness damages self-esteem for female youths; however, the damage is akin to a blemish. Surprisingly, prior labor force experiences generally fail to influence perceptions of self-worth on the part of young men. However, we do find that for both young men and women who in the past spent time out of the labor force, the greater the duration of their exposure to this form of joblessness, the lower their level of self-esteem. We also offer psychological evidence on the relative emotional wellbeing of the unemployed and labor force drop outs that largely supports the position of Clark and Summers that these conditions are essentially indistinguishable.

Bibliography Citation
Goldsmith, Arthur H., Jonathan R. Veum and William A. Jr. Darity. "Unemployment, Joblessness, Psychological Well-being and Self-esteem: Theory and Evidence ." Journal of Socio-Economics 26,2 (January 1997): 133-158.
7. Goldsmith, Arthur H.
Veum, Jonathan R.
Darity, William A. Jr.
Working Hard for the Money? Efficiency Wages and Worker Effort
Journal of Economic Psychology 21,4 (August 2000): 351-385.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167487000000088
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Psychological Association (APA)
Keyword(s): Benefits; Locus of Control (see Rotter Scale); Rotter Scale (see Locus of Control); Simultaneity; Wage Levels; Wages

This paper offers a test of the relative wage version of the efficiency wage hypothesis - that firms are able to improve worker productivity by paying workers a wage premium. Psychologists believe work effort reflects motivation that is governed by a feature of personality referred to as locus of control. Measures of locus of control are available in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Using data drawn from the NLSY in 1992, structural real wage and effort equation are simultaneously estimated. It is found that receiving an efficiency wage enhances a person's effort and that person's providing greater effort earn higher wages.
Bibliography Citation
Goldsmith, Arthur H., Jonathan R. Veum and William A. Jr. Darity. "Working Hard for the Money? Efficiency Wages and Worker Effort." Journal of Economic Psychology 21,4 (August 2000): 351-385.
8. Zaw, Khaing
Hamilton, Darrick
Darity, William A. Jr.
Race, Wealth and Incarceration: Results from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
Race and Social Problems 8,1 (March 2016): 103-115.
Also: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12552-016-9164-y
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Incarceration/Jail; Racial Differences; Wealth

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth to explore the interwoven links between race, wealth and incarceration, this study examines the data on race and wealth status before and after incarceration. Data indicate that although higher levels of wealth were associated with lower rates of incarceration, the likelihood of future incarceration still was higher for blacks at every level of wealth compared to the white likelihood, as well as the Hispanic likelihood, which fell below the white likelihood for some levels of wealth. Further, we find that racial wealth gaps existed among those who would be incarcerated in the future and also among the previously incarcerated.
Bibliography Citation
Zaw, Khaing, Darrick Hamilton and William A. Jr. Darity. "Race, Wealth and Incarceration: Results from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." Race and Social Problems 8,1 (March 2016): 103-115.