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Author: Padilla, Christina
Resulting in 2 citations.
1. Ryan, Rebecca M.
Kalil, Ariel
Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.
Padilla, Christina
Socioeconomic Gaps in Parents' Discipline Strategies From 1988 to 2011
Pediatrics 138,6 (December 2016): DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-0720.
Also: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/early/2016/11/10/peds.2016-0720.full.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Keyword(s): Discipline; Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-B, ECLS-K); Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Mothers, Education; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Parenting Skills/Styles; Punishment, Corporal; Socioeconomic Factors; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of corporal punishment is high in the United States despite a 1998 American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement urging against its use. The current study tests whether the socioeconomic difference in its use by parents has changed over the past quarter century. It goes on to test whether socioeconomic differences in the use of nonphysical discipline have also changed over time.

METHODS: Data are drawn from 4 national studies conducted between 1988 and 2011. Each asked how often a kindergarten-aged child was spanked in the past week and what the parents would do if the child misbehaved, with physical discipline, time-out, and talking to child as possible responses. We use regression models to estimate parents' responses to these questions at the 90th, 50th, and 10th percentiles of the income and education distributions and t tests to compare estimates across cohorts.

RESULTS: The proportion of mothers at the 50th income-percentile who endorse physical discipline decreased from 46% to 21% over time. Gaps between the 90th and 10th income-percentiles were stable at 11 and 18 percentage points in 1988 and 2011. The percentage of mothers at the 10th income-percentile endorsing time-outs increased from 51% to 71%, and the 90/10 income gap decreased from 23 to 14 percentage points between 1998 and 2011.

CONCLUSIONS: Decline in popular support for physical discipline reflects real changes in parents' discipline strategies. These changes have occurred at all socioeconomic levels, producing for some behaviors a significant reduction in socioeconomic differences.

Bibliography Citation
Ryan, Rebecca M., Ariel Kalil, Kathleen M. Ziol-Guest and Christina Padilla. "Socioeconomic Gaps in Parents' Discipline Strategies From 1988 to 2011." Pediatrics 138,6 (December 2016): DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-0720.
2. Ryan, Rebecca M.
Padilla, Christina
Hines, Caitlin
Differential Parenting of Biologically Vulnerable Versus Nonvulnerable Children By Socioeconomic Status
Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Population Association of America
Keyword(s): Birthweight; Children, Temperament; Parental Investments; Parenting Skills/Styles; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

It is well-established that socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage and biological vulnerability contribute to SES-based gaps in children's school readiness. The proposed study will investigate one way in which these two disadvantages may jointly exacerbate these early gaps: low-SES parents may invest fewer resources in vulnerable children, whereas high-SES parents may invest equally or more in them. Unlike prior research, the study focuses on investment during early childhood and examines two biological vulnerabilities: low birth weight (LBW) and difficult temperament. Investments are compared among siblings to minimize the influence of family-specific characteristics that might bias associations, drawing data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Maternal and Child Supplement. Results indicate that low-SES parents are less cognitively stimulating with LBW infants, whereas higher-SES parents are not, but that parents across SES are less stimulating with difficult versus average temperament children and are more likely to report spanking them in infancy.
Bibliography Citation
Ryan, Rebecca M., Christina Padilla and Caitlin Hines. "Differential Parenting of Biologically Vulnerable Versus Nonvulnerable Children By Socioeconomic Status." Presented: Chicago IL, Population Association of America Annual Meeting, April 2017.