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Source: Urban Institute Press
Resulting in 10 citations.
1. Baydar, Nazli
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Dynamics of Child Support and its Consequences for Children
In: Child Support and Child Well-Being. I. Garfinkel, S. S. McLanahan and P. K. Robins, eds. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press, 1994
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Child Support; Children; Children, Academic Development; Children, Adjustment Problems; Children, Behavioral Development; Children, Home Environment; Fathers, Absence; Fathers, Involvement; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Maternal Employment; Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Parents, Non-Custodial; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)

The focus of this paper is on children who are eligible for child support rather than the custodial parent who receives the payments and the non-custodial parent who makes the payments. The paper investigates (1) the patterns of receipt of child-support and (2) its impact on children. Child-support payments are examined from a child's point of view. First, the process of becoming eligible for child support and the process of receiving child support are examined. Next, whether child-support payments have observable beneficial effects on children's well-being is examined. The study of the process of child-support receipt shows the extent of pre-existing differences between the children receiving child support payments and children who are eligible but not receiving child support payments. In the study of the effects of child support on children's developmental outcomes, a model that will statistically control for these pre-existing differences to the extent possible is developed. Although the data do not allow us to fully identify the factors that might mediate the effects of child support on child outcomes, an effort is made to account for likely mediators of these effects, such as mother's working hours, the quality of the home environment, and the frequency of contact with the father.
Bibliography Citation
Baydar, Nazli and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn. "Dynamics of Child Support and its Consequences for Children" In: Child Support and Child Well-Being. I. Garfinkel, S. S. McLanahan and P. K. Robins, eds. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press, 1994
2. Freeman, Richard B.
Crime and the Employment of Disadvantaged Youths
In: Urban Labor Markets and Job Opportunity. G. Peterson and W. Vroman, eds. Latham, MD: Urban Institute Press, 1992
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Crime; Incarceration/Jail

See also:
FREEMAN, RICHARD B. Crime and the Employment of Disadvantaged Youths. Working Paper No. 3875, National Bureau of Economic Research, October 1991. Also: http://papers.nber.org/papers/w3875.pdf Cohort(s): NLSY79
ID Number: 4880
Bibliography Citation
Freeman, Richard B. "Crime and the Employment of Disadvantaged Youths" In: Urban Labor Markets and Job Opportunity. G. Peterson and W. Vroman, eds. Latham, MD: Urban Institute Press, 1992
3. Grogger, Jeffrey
Incarceration-Related Costs of Early Childbearing
In: Kids Having Kids: Economic Costs and Social Consequences of Teen Pregnancy. R.A. Maynard, ed. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press, 1997: pp. 95-143
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Vanderbilt University Press
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Childbearing, Adolescent; Deviance; Educational Attainment; Fertility; Illegal Activities; Incarceration/Jail; Maternal Employment; Parents, Single

This chapter begins by presenting descriptive statistics showing that the children of young teen mothers are almost three times as likely to be behind bars at some point in their adolescence or early 20s as are the children of mothers who delayed childbearing. When the analysis controls for a number of important background factors the link between young teen childbearing and incarceration remains, although the extent of the difference is greatly reduced. In a further effort to tease out the effect of teen childbearing per se, the author takes a novel approach to controlling for unobservable characteristics of the mother that may be correlated with her early age at first birth. He uses a comparison group consisting of the subsequent children of mothers who first gave birth as a young teen. The mothers are the same. They are simply older. The link between young teen childbearing and higher incarceration rates among the offspring remains, although its magnitude is further reduced.
Bibliography Citation
Grogger, Jeffrey. "Incarceration-Related Costs of Early Childbearing" In: Kids Having Kids: Economic Costs and Social Consequences of Teen Pregnancy. R.A. Maynard, ed. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press, 1997: pp. 95-143
4. Hoffman, Saul D.
Maynard, Rebecca A.
Kids Having Kids: Economic Costs and Social Consequences of Teen Pregnancy, 2nd Edition
Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press, 2008
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult, NLSY97
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at First Birth; Birth Rate; Childbearing, Adolescent; Methods/Methodology

Teen childbearing in the United States has been declining since 1991, yet we consistently have the highest teen birth rates in the industrialized world. In 1997, Kids Having Kids was the first comprehensive effort to identify the consequences of teen childbearing for the mothers, the fathers, the children, and our society. Rather than simply comparing teen mothers with their childless counterparts, the assembled researchers achieved a new methodological sophistication, seeking to isolate the birth itself from the mother's circumstances and thus discover its true costs. This updated second edition features a new chapter evaluating teen pregnancy interventions, along with revised and updated versions of most first edition chapters.
Bibliography Citation
Hoffman, Saul D. and Rebecca A. Maynard. Kids Having Kids: Economic Costs and Social Consequences of Teen Pregnancy, 2nd Edition. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press, 2008.
5. Hoffman, Saul D.
Scher, Lauren S.
Consequences of Teen Childbearing for the Life Chances of Children, 1979–2002
In: Kids Having Kids: Economic Costs and Social Consequences of Teen Pregnancy, Second Edition. S. D. Hoffman, and R. A. Maynard eds. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press, 2008
Cohort(s): NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Adolescent Fertility; Age at Birth; Childbearing, Adolescent

"In part 2, Saul Hoffman and Lauren Sue Scher use data from the NLSY79 Young Adult Sample through 2002. These young adults were born between 1970 and 1981, 8 to 13 years later than those in the original analysis, and the outcomes, measured as of 2002, are substantially more recent. As such, the revised analysis provides far more timely information. The updated analysis shows that the daughters of young teen mothers are far more likely to become teen mothers themselves than if their mothers had delayed childbearing. After accounting for other risk factors such as family background and academic ability, it is estimated that a daughter's risk of having a birth would fall by almost 60 percent, from 33 to just 14 percent, if a would-be teen mother delayed childbearing until her early 20s. This translates into the potential to decrease the number of teen births by more than 27,000 a year. If these young teen mothers delayed their first births until age 20 or 21, it is estimated that their children's high school graduation rate would rise to 73 percent, an increase of 10 percent. Further, after adjusting for other risk factors, the children of young teen mothers complete an average of about a quarter-year less education, which means preventing teen births would result in an estimated 35,000 adolescents a year completing one more year of schooling than they otherwise would have. Most of the observed difference in high school graduation rates for children of older teen mothers compared with other children is attributable to factors other than teen motherhood. The estimates in this chapter suggest that high school graduation rates for the children of older teen mothers would increase by 1 percentage point if their mothers delayed their first births to at least age 20, and the graduation rates of younger teen mothers would remain about the same. Being the daughter of an older teen mother has a strong net effect, even after accounting for other risk factors such as family background and academic ability. If a young woman's mother delayed her own first birth to age 20-21, her daughter's risk of having a teen birth would fall by one-third, from 17 percent to 11 percent." (p.17)
Bibliography Citation
Hoffman, Saul D. and Lauren S. Scher. "Consequences of Teen Childbearing for the Life Chances of Children, 1979–2002" In: Kids Having Kids: Economic Costs and Social Consequences of Teen Pregnancy, Second Edition. S. D. Hoffman, and R. A. Maynard eds. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press, 2008
6. Hotz, V. Joseph
McElroy, Susan Williams
Sanders, Seth G.
The Impacts of Teenage Childbearing on the Mothers and the Consequences of those Impacts for Government
In: Kids Having Kids: Economic Costs and Social Consequences of Teen Pregnancy. R.A. Maynard, ed. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press, 1997: pp. 55-90
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Vanderbilt University Press
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT); Childbearing; Childbearing, Adolescent; GED/General Educational Diploma/General Equivalency Degree/General Educational Development; High School Completion/Graduates; Marriage; Mothers, Behavior; Socioeconomic Factors; Welfare

There is growing concern in the United States about the number of children born to teen mothers and the proportion of these births that occur out of wedlock. A decade ago, the National Research Council concluded that "adolescent pregnancy and childbearing are matters of substantial national concern" (Hayes 1987, p. ii) and President Bill Clinton, in his 1995 State of the Union Message, asserted that teenage pregnancy is "our most serious social problem." Part of the concern centers around the plight of teen mothers. The everyday hardships of teen motherhood come into public consciousness through media attention to and the prevalence of teen childbearing throughout the United States. Furthermore, there is a strong statistical association between the age at which a woman has her first child and her subsequent socioeconomic well-being. For example, one finds that women who have a baby in their teens are subsequently less likely to complete school, less likely to marry (and thus have a par enting partner), less likely to participate in the labor force, likely to earn less in their jobs, and more likely to rely on various forms of public assistance than are women who do not give birth in adolescence.
Bibliography Citation
Hotz, V. Joseph, Susan Williams McElroy and Seth G. Sanders. "The Impacts of Teenage Childbearing on the Mothers and the Consequences of those Impacts for Government" In: Kids Having Kids: Economic Costs and Social Consequences of Teen Pregnancy. R.A. Maynard, ed. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press, 1997: pp. 55-90
7. Manlove, Jennifer S.
Terry-Humen, Elizabeth
Mincieli, Lisa A.
Moore, Kristin Anderson
Chapter 5: Outcomes for Children from Kindergarten through Adolescence
In: Kids Having Kids: Economic Costs and Social Consequences of Teen Pregnancy, 2nd Edition. S.D. Hoffman and R.A. Maynard, eds. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press, 2008.
Also: http://www.urban.org/books/kidshavingkids/contents.cfm
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Academic Development; Behavior; Childbearing, Adolescent; Cognitive Development; Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-B, ECLS-K); Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Well-Being

This chapter uses recent nationally representative data to update the portrait of the consequences of teen childbearing for the health, development, and welfare of children and adolescents. This chapter examines a broad set of outcomes in five domains: cognitive development and academic achievement, behavioral outcomes, home environment, relationship outcomes, and physical health and well-being. The analysis uses two large national datasets: the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) to examine outcomes for children at kindergarten entry, and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort (NLSY97) to look at outcomes during adolescence.

Jennifer S. Manlove, Elizabeth Terry-Humen, Lisa A. Mincieli, and Kristin A. Moore examine outcomes for children of teen parents and compare these outcomes with those for children born to older mothers. As in the previous edition of Kids Having Kids, the authors find that children of teenage mothers fare poorly compared with other children. However, much of the difference is explained by factors other than adolescent childbearing. Compared with children whose mothers begin parenting at age 20 to 21, children of teen mothers are much more likely to be low birth weight, have lower health assessment scores, have lower cognitive attainment and proficiency scores at kindergarten entry, and exhibit more behavior problems. Adolescent children have significantly lower academic achievement as measured by performance on standardized tests, and they are at higher risk of not completing high school. Generally, these differences are most pronounced for the children born to women who have their first child before age 18.

For example, compared with children whose mothers begin parenting at age 20 to 21, children of teen mothers have lower standardized test scores at kindergarten entry, and adolescent daughters of teen mothers are less likely to graduate from high school, net of controls. In addition, children of teen mothers exhibit more behavior problems, and children of the youngest teen mothers are more likely to be low birth weight. Adolescent children of teen mothers are also more likely to be married or cohabiting at a young age and are more likely to have a teen birth themselves.

These adverse effects for children are most pronounced for those outcomes measured at kindergarten. However, unlike chapter 5 in the previous edition of Kids Having Kids, which found more pronounced differences for the children born to women who have their first child before age 18, this chapter finds similarly poor outcomes among children of younger and older teen mothers. The authors suggest that this similarity may result, in part, from the different living situations of younger and older teen mothers. These findings suggest that it will take more than convincing teen mothers to delay childbearing for a few years to eliminate the myriad disadvantages their children face relative to children whose mothers choose to begin parenting in their 20s or later.

Bibliography Citation
Manlove, Jennifer S., Elizabeth Terry-Humen, Lisa A. Mincieli and Kristin Anderson Moore. "Chapter 5: Outcomes for Children from Kindergarten through Adolescence " In: Kids Having Kids: Economic Costs and Social Consequences of Teen Pregnancy, 2nd Edition. S.D. Hoffman and R.A. Maynard, eds. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press, 2008.
8. Moore, Kristin Anderson
Burt, Martha R.
The Consequences of Early Childbearing
In: Private Crisis, Public Cost: Policy Perspectives on Teenage Childbearing. K.A. Moore and M.R. Burt, eds. Washington DC: Urban Institute Press, 1982
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Age at First Birth; Childbearing; Childbearing, Adolescent; Earnings; Educational Attainment; Labor Force Participation; Mothers; Poverty

This chapter reviews findings to date on the impact of early childbearing on: (1) subsequent educational attainment of the parent; (2) medical risks for the mother and child; (3) marriage and divorce rates; (4) subsequent fertility; (5) labor force participation and earnings; and (6) dependency on governmental support programs. The authors estimate a path model of the impact of age at first birth on the probability of being in poverty at age 27 using data from the NLS of Young Women and the PSID. It was found that the impact of an early birth differed among various population subgroups with lower educational attainment of the teenage mother and her larger family size impacting labor force participation rates and earnings and thus chances of being in poverty. Postponement of a first birth netted the NLS women studied $193 (in 1975 dollars) or $293 (in 1980 dollars) for each year the birth was delayed. The probability of being in poverty fell by an average of two percentage points per year of delayed childbirth.
Bibliography Citation
Moore, Kristin Anderson and Martha R. Burt. "The Consequences of Early Childbearing" In: Private Crisis, Public Cost: Policy Perspectives on Teenage Childbearing. K.A. Moore and M.R. Burt, eds. Washington DC: Urban Institute Press, 1982
9. Peterson, George E.
Vroman, Wayne
Urban Labor Markets and Job Opportunity
Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press, January 1992
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Inner-City; Job Skills; Labor Economics; Labor Market Demographics; Mobility, Job; Risk-Taking; Schooling; Skilled Workers; Small Business (Owner/Employer); Transfers, Skill; Unemployment, Youth

Three fundamental mismatches in labor markets are being played out in the cities: the skills mismatch between the young people emerging from urban school systems and high-paying jobs in the growth sectors of the economy; the spatial mismatch between unemployed workers in the inner cities and the new jobs being generated in the suburbs; and the social mismatch between employers unwilling to take risks in hiring and city youth who from a young age have been part of the high-risk worlds of drugs and crime. This volume investigates the structural changes that have produced these mismatches and how various vehicles for job mobility are now functioning.

Table of Contents
Urban labor markets and economic opportunity / George E. Peterson, Wayne Vroman -- Changing skills in the U.S. workforce : trends of supply and demand / Arnold H. Packer, John G. Wirt -- Comment : skill requirements and the work force / Lawrence Mishel -- Comment : restructuring work and learning / Richard J. Murnane -- Mismatches and the urban labor market / Harry J. Holzer, Wayne Vroman -- Structural changes in the U.S. economy and black male joblessness : a reassessment / James H. Johnson, Jr., Melvin L. Oliver -- Comment : structural change and black unemployment / Keith R. Ihlanfeldt -- Comment : demand-side and supply-side explanations of black male joblessness / Roberto M. Fernandez -- Urban schooling and the perpetuation of job inequality in metropolitan Chicago / Gary Orfield -- Crime and the employment of disadvantaged youths / Richard B. Freeman -- Facilitating upward mobility through small business ownership / Timothy Bates, Constance R. Dunham -- Immigrants, cities, and equal opportunity / Michael J. White -- Comment : social structure and business development / Richard Waldinger.

Bibliography Citation
Peterson, George E. and Wayne Vroman. Urban Labor Markets and Job Opportunity. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press, January 1992.
10. Sorensen, Elaine
Exploring the Reasons Behind the Narrowing Gender Gap in Earnings
Report 91-2, Washington DC: Urban Institute Press, 1991
Cohort(s): NLSY79, Young Women
Publisher: Urban Institute
Keyword(s): Attitudes; Bureau of Labor Statistics; Census of Population; Earnings; Labor Force Participation; Occupational Choice; Occupations; Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID); Women

This report: (1) examines some of the reasons behind the recent decline in the male-female pay differential; (2) identifies those occupations which offer women above-average earnings and growth rates over the next decade; and (3) analyzes whether the intermittent labor force participation of women continues to be a contributing factor in women's lower pay. Data from the NLS of Young Women and NLSY are used to compare the demographic, educational, attitudinal and labor market characteristics of (1) women ages 35-41 in 1985 who were in higher- paying/growth versus other types of occupations or not in the labor market, (2) women ages 23-29 in 1973 versus those of the same age in 1987 and (3) women ages 23-29 in 1973 who worked in higher pay/growth rate jobs in 1985. Other data sources utilized in this comprehensive analysis are the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics and the 1980 Census.
Bibliography Citation
Sorensen, Elaine. "Exploring the Reasons Behind the Narrowing Gender Gap in Earnings." Report 91-2, Washington DC: Urban Institute Press, 1991.