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Source: Southern Sociological Society
Resulting in 10 citations.
1. Baird, Chardie L.
Aspirations in Young Adulthood
Presented: New Orleans, LA, Southern Sociological Society Meetings, March 2003
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Southern Sociological Society
Keyword(s): Education; Family Background; Mobility; Occupational Aspirations; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Background; Socioeconomic Factors; Sons

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Early research on mobility emphasized the importance of formal education (Blau & Duncan 1967), ability, academic performance, social influences, & aspirations (Featherman & Hauser 1975, Sewell et al 1970) on the occupational attainment of sons. These studies were criticized for being too individualistic (Kaufman 1983, 1987; Kerckhoff 1976; Knotterus 1987) & for ignoring disadvantaged groups, such as women & race/ethnic minorities (Hout 1988; Rosenfeld 1978, 1979; Stolzenberg 1990). The gender & race/ethnic limitations of these earlier studies raise interesting questions for the study of occupational aspirations. For example, women born in the late 1950s to early 1960s may have framed their aspirations relative to occupational positions frequently identified with women, such as teacher, nurse, dental hygienist for those who imagined employment, & full-time homemaker for those who planned early marriages. The purpose of this study is to identify factors that shape the occupational aspirations of young adults. To answer this question, I analyze data from the young women's & young men's cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), which began in 1979. In this analysis, I model the relationships between sociodemographic, family background, & family attitude measures on occupational aspirations. Results suggest that gender & race/ethnicity as well as family background characteristics structure the distributions of aspirations. These findings are discussed within the general framework of inequality & the micro/macro linkage between structural constraints & identity formation.
Bibliography Citation
Baird, Chardie L. "Aspirations in Young Adulthood." Presented: New Orleans, LA, Southern Sociological Society Meetings, March 2003.
2. Baird, Chardie L.
Process of Career Goal Formation
Presented: New Orleans, LA, Annual Meetings of the Southern Sociological Society, 2006
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Southern Sociological Society
Keyword(s): Attitudes; Career Patterns; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Modeling; Occupational Aspirations; Self-Esteem; Women; Women's Studies

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

[The] study analyzed students performing poorly, based on GPA and standardized tests, in high school. Despite their past performances, one group decided to attend college. The other group decided to end their education after they graduated high school. "The group that's worse off in terms of mental health [later in life] is the group that planned for the probable," Baird said. "The shoot for the stars group has a higher level of self esteem and a higher sense of mastery. We think that this basically lends evidence to the theory of self-worth."

The Theory of Self-worth says people are reinforced by trying, not succeeding, Baird said, "There is some inherent benefit in trying, because people will support us and won't see us as lazy because they saw that we tried to do it," she said.

The Deprivation Theory opposes the self-worth theory. This perspective predicts people who fail to achieve goals face negative mental health consequences, Baird said. "Deprivation Theory predicts what most of us expect," Baird said. "It's a dominant theory in sociology, and the self-worth theory is newer."

Baird and Reynolds both expected the opposite of what they found. They predicted the "planning for the probable" students to have better mental health than the "shooting for the stars" group. "We wanted to come away with rigorous evidence that would say we need unrealistic teenagers to wake up and smell the coffee in terms of their career plans," Reynolds said. "I really thought we were doing a disservice by letting below-average students think they can become anything they want."

In essence, students who attended college but failed had better mental health than students who did not go to college.

Quotes are from The Shorthorn, the University of Texas at Arlington, "Study Done to Test Theroy", by Melissa Hall.

Bibliography Citation
Baird, Chardie L. "Process of Career Goal Formation." Presented: New Orleans, LA, Annual Meetings of the Southern Sociological Society, 2006.
3. Johnson, Tallese D.
An Analysis of Job Quality and Welfare Recidivism
Presented: New Orleans, LA, Southern Sociological Society Annual Meeting, April 2000
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Southern Sociological Society
Keyword(s): Event History; Job Turnover; Labor Market Segmentation; Part-Time Work; Unions; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Utilizes a macroperspective to analyze the relationship between key occupational characteristics & welfare recidivism, focusing on the types of occupations that may lead women to return to welfare. Several hypotheses of the relationship between each occupational characteristics & welfare recidivism are proposed: (1) the higher the turnover rate of an occupation, the more likely a woman will return to welfare; (2) the higher the % of part-time workers in an occupation, the more likely a woman will return to welfare; & (3) the higher the % of females in an occupation, the more likely a woman will return to welfare. Event history analysis is conducted utilizing the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1983-1991. Along with the key occupational characteristics, the model includes as control variables those individual characteristics associated with welfare recipients that have been studied in past research.
Bibliography Citation
Johnson, Tallese D. "An Analysis of Job Quality and Welfare Recidivism." Presented: New Orleans, LA, Southern Sociological Society Annual Meeting, April 2000.
4. Levin, Martin L.
Xu, Xiaohe
Bartkowski, John
Seasonality of Sexual Debut: The "Summer Vacation Theory" Reconsidered
Presented: New Orleans, LA, Southern Sociological Society Annual Meeting, April 2000
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Southern Sociological Society
Keyword(s): National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth); Seasonality; Sexual Activity; Sexual Behavior; Sexual Experiences/Virginity

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Previous studies on seasonality of sexual debut have suggested that the summer months are a period of time during which many adolescents are likely to lose their virginity (Rogers, et al, 1990; Barak, et al, 1997). To account for this seasonal pattern of sexual debut among youngsters, researchers have argued that the underlying mechanisms such as summer camps, popular sport activities, & other types of outdoor activities provided ample opportunities for adolescents to initiate & experience their first sexual encounters. Here, a three-step analytical strategy is utilized to reexamine & challenge this "summer vacation theory." Two-wave data from the multiwave National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) are used to replicate the seasonal patterns of sexual debut reported previously by Rogers et al, supplemented by the more recent, two-wave data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (NLSAH) to cross-validate seasonality of sexual debut among adolescents by exploring possible gender, age, & regional variations. By employing smoothing & other statistical techniques such as regression analysis, the seasonality of sexual debut is reconceptualized, & alternative explanations are developed.
Bibliography Citation
Levin, Martin L., Xiaohe Xu and John Bartkowski. "Seasonality of Sexual Debut: The "Summer Vacation Theory" Reconsidered." Presented: New Orleans, LA, Southern Sociological Society Annual Meeting, April 2000.
5. Reeder, Amy L.
Conger, Rand D.
Educational Attainment of Women: Socialization and Allocation Processes
Presented: Knoxville, TN, Annual Meeting of the Southern Sociological Society, 1980
Cohort(s): Young Women
Publisher: Southern Sociological Society
Keyword(s): Assets; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Educational Attainment; Family Background; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Mothers and Daughters; Parental Influences; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In order to test the hypothesis that mothers have a greater impact on the educational success of their daughters than do fathers, data are analyzed for 428 white and 145 black women. Parent's social background characteristics and encouragement for further education were measured in 1968 and 1971. The young women, aged 14 through 17 years in 1968, were asked what their educational goals were in 1971 and the actual years of schooling they completed was obtained in 1975. Throughout the analysis, mother's occupation is especially salient for the attainments of daughters; however, the findings for the special sex-of-parent effect are mixed. As expected, the limited socialization model employed here operated differently for black women who were less able to convert their parent's social position into assets for their own status attainment. In addition, the effects of the mother are consistently stronger for black than for white women. Implications of the findings for current theory and for future research are discussed.
Bibliography Citation
Reeder, Amy L. and Rand D. Conger. "Educational Attainment of Women: Socialization and Allocation Processes." Presented: Knoxville, TN, Annual Meeting of the Southern Sociological Society, 1980.
6. Reynolds, John R.
Explaining the Gap in Girls' and Boys' Educational Successes: Emulating Role Models or Anticipating Economic Payoffs?
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Southern Sociological Society (SSS), April 2001
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Southern Sociological Society
Keyword(s): Children; Children, Academic Development; Educational Attainment; Family Structure; Gender Differences; National Education Longitudinal Survey (NELS); Parental Influences; Role Models

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Between the 1970s and 1990s, girls and young women began to outshine boys and young men on a wide range of educational indicators. Girls now have higher aspirations, are more serious about education, and outnumber boys among college applicants and enrollees. This paper examines the source of the change in boys' and girls' educational experiences using the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth and the National Education Longitudinal Survey. Pooling cross-sections from these surveys, I estimate the relative influences of family structure, parents' achievements, and local economic context on youths' educational outcomes and the growing gap between boys and girls.
Bibliography Citation
Reynolds, John R. "Explaining the Gap in Girls' and Boys' Educational Successes: Emulating Role Models or Anticipating Economic Payoffs?" Presented: Atlanta, GA, Southern Sociological Society (SSS), April 2001.
7. Roof, Paul D.
Combining Structural and Individual Characteristics: Understanding the Factors Influencing the Process of Adult Welfare Dependency
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Southern Sociological Society (SSS) Conference, April 4-7, 2001
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Southern Sociological Society
Keyword(s): Cognitive Ability; Ethnic Differences; Hispanics; Intergenerational Patterns/Transmission; Poverty; Racial Differences; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Past research dealing with intergenerational poverty has been better suited to predict the attainment outcomes of African Americans than of other racial minorities, such as Hispanic Americans. This research examines three integral components of intergenerational poverty: early childhood resources, adolescent aspirations, and adult welfare dependency. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey and Youth 1979-1996 (NLSY) is extracted for this research and results in a sample of 6,283 female respondents. The intergenerational poverty process is examined through racial variation in the outcomes of Whites, African Americans, and Hispanic Americans. The preliminary results suggest that there are marked racial differences in early resource availability, cognitive ability, and aspirations. The preliminary findings of this study also suggest racial differences in adult welfare dependency.
Bibliography Citation
Roof, Paul D. "Combining Structural and Individual Characteristics: Understanding the Factors Influencing the Process of Adult Welfare Dependency." Presented: Atlanta, GA, Southern Sociological Society (SSS) Conference, April 4-7, 2001.
8. Taniguchi, Hiromi
Kennelly, Ivy
Rosenfeld, Rachel A.
The Effect of Occupational Male Dominance on Women's Employment Exits: Differences among Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Southern Sociological Society (SSS) Conference, April 4-7, 2001
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Southern Sociological Society
Keyword(s): Ethnic Differences; Exits; Hispanics; Industrial Sector; Labor Force Participation; Mobility, Occupational; Occupations, Non-Traditional; Racial Differences; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

A recent study showed that, net of other major characteristics, the % of women in one's occupation significantly reduces the chance of entering managerial positions for women while raising it for men (Maume 1999a). Further, among women, employment in male-dominated occupations diminishes the chance of wage promotion (Maume 1999b), increases joblessness (Maume 1999b), and extends time to find another job after displacement (Spalter-Roth and Deitch 1999). Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we explore the adverse effects of employment in male-dominated occupations on women's employment exits. We focus on racial/ethnic minorities who have been largely ignored in studies of occupational sex segregation. Our preliminary results suggest that occupational male dominance more adversely affects black women's employment, and to a lesser extent, Latinas, than white women. Considering these women's industrial locations mitigates this intergroup variation. We discuss how industry mediates the career depressing effect of occupational male dominance.
Bibliography Citation
Taniguchi, Hiromi, Ivy Kennelly and Rachel A. Rosenfeld. "The Effect of Occupational Male Dominance on Women's Employment Exits: Differences among Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics." Presented: Atlanta, GA, Southern Sociological Society (SSS) Conference, April 4-7, 2001.
9. Wilson, John
Mustillo, Sarah
Intergenerational Transmission of Volunteering: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey
Presented: New Orleans, LA, Southern Sociological Society Annual Meeting, April 2000
Cohort(s): Mature Women, Young Women
Publisher: Southern Sociological Society
Keyword(s): Human Capital; Modeling; Mothers and Daughters; Pairs (also see Siblings); Parent-Child Relationship/Closeness; Role Models; Volunteer Work

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The popular resource model, which accounts for much of the variance in volunteering by citing differences in human & social capital, is argued to be deficient insofar as it ignores the possibility that volunteering is passed from one generation to another. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey make possible an examination of the extent to which mothers transmit volunteer behavior to their daughters, net of any resources they might also bestow. From the Young & the Mature Women\'s Module, a \"matching-pairs\" data set is created in which 1,816 mothers & daughters from the same household were interviewed (the former, 5 times over 10 years & the latter, 4 times over 18 years). Results indicate that a powerful reason why daughters volunteer, net of their own resources, is that they have mothers who acted as role models in this regard. The reasons daughters give for volunteering, however, do not correspond closely to the reasons their mothers give. Various models examining factors that might moderate the tendency for daughters to emulate the philanthropy of their mothers are estimated.
Bibliography Citation
Wilson, John and Sarah Mustillo. "Intergenerational Transmission of Volunteering: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey." Presented: New Orleans, LA, Southern Sociological Society Annual Meeting, April 2000.
10. Yang, Yang
Sectors and Occupations: An Analysis of Wage Growth in Returns from Employer Changes
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Southern Sociological Society (SSS) Conference, April 4-7, 2001
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Southern Sociological Society
Keyword(s): Industrial Sector; Mobility, Occupational; Occupational Aspirations; Occupational Attainment; Occupational Status; Unions; Wage Growth; Work History

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data from 1984 to 1988 on young workers' work histories, this paper examines in early careers (1) the effect of employer changes between industrial sectors on wage growth and (2) the effect of employer changes between occupational statuses on wage growth, net of reasons for employer changes, work characteristics, individual characteristics, and resources. It is expected that employer changes in or to core sectors result in more wage growth than no changes, and moving up in occupational status also brings more wage growth. Multivariate regression analyses show that changing employers across structural boundaries play a significant role in explaining wage growth. Employer shifts across sector and across occupational boundaries do not have the same effects on subsequent earnings. Moving within and into the core sector increases wage growth, while moving out of this sector or moving within the periphery sector do not. In addition, stayers in core sectors do not earn more than employer changers in core sectors, but they do gain more than those who stay in periphery sectors. Both high initial occupational status and occupational advancement have strong and positive effects on wage growth. Moves from a higher status to a lower status in occupation, on the other hand, depress wage gains.
Bibliography Citation
Yang, Yang. "Sectors and Occupations: An Analysis of Wage Growth in Returns from Employer Changes." Presented: Atlanta, GA, Southern Sociological Society (SSS) Conference, April 4-7, 2001.