Search Results

Author: Reynolds, John R.
Resulting in 6 citations.
1. Baird, Chardie L.
Reynolds, John R.
Employee Awareness of Family Leave Benefits: The Effects of Family, Work, and Gender
Sociological Quarterly 45,2 (Spring 2004): 325-353.
Also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1533-8525.2004.tb00015.x/abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Benefits; Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA); Family Studies; Gender Differences; Leave, Family or Maternity/Paternity; Women

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The 1993 Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) was intended to help employees meet short-term family demands, such as caring for children and elderly parents, without losing their jobs. However, recent evidence suggests that few women and even fewer men employees avail themselves of family leave under the Family and Medical Leave Act. This paper examines the organizational, worker status, and salience/need factors associated with knowledge of family leave benefits. We study employees covered by the FMLA using the 1996 panel of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to ascertain what work and family factors influence knowledge of leave benefits. Overall, 91 percent of employed FMLA-eligible women report they have access to unpaid family leave, compared to 72 percent of men. Logistic regression analyses demonstrate that work situations more than family situations affect knowledge of family leave benefits and that gender shapes the impact of some work and family factors on awareness. Furthermore, work and family situations do not explain away the considerable gender difference in knowledge of family leave.
Bibliography Citation
Baird, Chardie L. and John R. Reynolds. "Employee Awareness of Family Leave Benefits: The Effects of Family, Work, and Gender." Sociological Quarterly 45,2 (Spring 2004): 325-353.
2. Reynolds, John R.
Explaining the Gap in Girls' and Boys' Educational Successes: Emulating Role Models or Anticipating Economic Payoffs?
Presented: Atlanta, GA, Southern Sociological Society (SSS), April 2001
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Southern Sociological Society
Keyword(s): Children; Children, Academic Development; Educational Attainment; Family Structure; Gender Differences; National Education Longitudinal Survey (NELS); Parental Influences; Role Models

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Between the 1970s and 1990s, girls and young women began to outshine boys and young men on a wide range of educational indicators. Girls now have higher aspirations, are more serious about education, and outnumber boys among college applicants and enrollees. This paper examines the source of the change in boys' and girls' educational experiences using the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth and the National Education Longitudinal Survey. Pooling cross-sections from these surveys, I estimate the relative influences of family structure, parents' achievements, and local economic context on youths' educational outcomes and the growing gap between boys and girls.
Bibliography Citation
Reynolds, John R. "Explaining the Gap in Girls' and Boys' Educational Successes: Emulating Role Models or Anticipating Economic Payoffs?" Presented: Atlanta, GA, Southern Sociological Society (SSS), April 2001.
3. Reynolds, John R.
The Gender Gap in College Expectations: Further Evidence of Boys Falling Behind
Working Paper, Department of Sociology, Florida State University, Tallahassee FL, September 2001
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: Department of Sociology, Florida State University
Keyword(s): College Degree; College Education; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Gender; Hispanics; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This paper examines changes in the college expectations of adolescent girls and boys from 1976 to 1999. During this time period, girls became more certain than boys that they would complete a college degree or attend professional/graduate school. The new gender gap in college expectations is most pronounced among Whites. For Hispanics and Blacks, girls' expectations have risen faster than boys' except in lower income families. One proximate cause of these trends is that girls who make good grades no longer hold themselves back from planning to pursue post-secondary education.
Bibliography Citation
Reynolds, John R. "The Gender Gap in College Expectations: Further Evidence of Boys Falling Behind." Working Paper, Department of Sociology, Florida State University, Tallahassee FL, September 2001.
4. Reynolds, John R.
Baird, Chardie L.
Is There a Downside to Shooting for the Stars? Unrealized Educational Expectations and Symptoms of Depression
American Sociological Review 75,1 (February 2010): 151–172.
Also: http://asr.sagepub.com/content/75/1/151.abstract
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Sociological Association
Keyword(s): CESD (Depression Scale); Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Educational Attainment; Health, Mental; National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Despite decades of research on the benefits of educational expectations, researchers have failed to show that unrealized plans are consequential for mental health, as self-discrepancy and other social psychological theories would predict. This article uses two national longitudinal studies of youth to test whether unrealized educational expectations are associated with depression in adulthood. Negative binomial regression analyses show that unmet expectations are associated with a greater risk of depression among young adults who share similar educational expectations. The apparent consequences of aiming high and falling short result, however, from lower attainment, not the gap between plans and attainment. Results indicate almost no long-term emotional costs of “shooting for the stars” rather than planning for the probable, once educational attainment is taken into account. This lack of association also holds after accounting for early mental health, the magnitude of the shortfall, the stability of expectations, and college-related resources, and it is robust across two distinct cohorts of high school students. We develop a theory of “adaptive resilience” to account for these findings and, because aiming high and failing are not consequential for mental health, conclude that society should not dissuade unpromising students from dreams of college.
Bibliography Citation
Reynolds, John R. and Chardie L. Baird. "Is There a Downside to Shooting for the Stars? Unrealized Educational Expectations and Symptoms of Depression." American Sociological Review 75,1 (February 2010): 151–172. A.
5. Reynolds, John R.
Boyd, Emily
Burge, Stephanie
Harris, Brandy
Robbins, Cheryl
Does Being Planful Always Pay Off? Agency, Economics, and Achievements by Midlife
Working Paper, Department of Sociology, Florida State University, May 2004.
Also: http://garnet.acns.fsu.edu/~jreynold/nlsy.pdf
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Department of Sociology, Florida State University
Keyword(s): Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Educational Attainment; Life Course; Occupational Aspirations; Occupational Attainment

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Drawing from life course research on agency and structural constraint in the transition to adulthood, this paper measures the influences of planful competence and labor market conditions on adolescents' educational and occupational plans, changes in their career plans over three years, and their achievements at midlife. Adolescents with a purposive orientation toward life combined with general and practical knowledge have more ambitious career plans, more stable plans in young adulthood, and greater educational and occupational achievements by early midlife. Local labor markets are not strongly associated with plans or achievements, though poor local economic conditions do decrease the positive impact of planful competence on early plans for schooling and on occupational attainment at midlife. Important incongruities between early expectations and achievements at midlife exist across race/ethnic groups and between women and men; however, the benefits of adolescent planful competence are comparable across race, class, and gender....This study uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), a multistage, stratified, national random sample of non-institutionalized young men and women living in the United States who were ages 14 to 22 years in 1979....We use data from the 1979, 1982, and 1992 waves to study planful competence and career expectations in late adolescence, changes in career expectations from late adolescence to early adulthood, and achievements in work and schooling by early midlife.
Bibliography Citation
Reynolds, John R., Emily Boyd, Stephanie Burge, Brandy Harris and Cheryl Robbins. "Does Being Planful Always Pay Off? Agency, Economics, and Achievements by Midlife." Working Paper, Department of Sociology, Florida State University, May 2004.
6. Reynolds, John R.
Pemberton, Jennifer
Rising College Expectations Among Youth in the United States: A Comparison of the 1979 and 1997 NLSY
Journal of Human Resources 36,4 (Fall 2001): 703-726.
Also: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3069639
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
Keyword(s): College Degree; College Education; Educational Aspirations/Expectations; Ethnic Differences; Family Background and Culture; Family Resources; Family Structure; Gender Differences; High School Curriculum; Labor Market, Secondary; Local Labor Market; Modeling, Probit; Peers/Peer influence/Peer relations; Racial Differences

We examine the rise in college expectations among 15- and 16-year-olds in the 1979 and 1997 NLSY. Probit models estimate the effects of gender, race/ethnicity, family characteristics, and local economic conditions on the probability of expecting a college degree. Race/ethnic differences and the influences of family resources and county economic conditions declined between 1979 and 1997. In contrast, girls became more likely to expect a college degree than boys, and family structure grew in importance over time. Family resources and structure appear to shape expectations largely through differences in school peers, teacher quality and interest, and past academic performance.
Bibliography Citation
Reynolds, John R. and Jennifer Pemberton. "Rising College Expectations Among Youth in the United States: A Comparison of the 1979 and 1997 NLSY." Journal of Human Resources 36,4 (Fall 2001): 703-726.