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Source: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT) - UMI
Resulting in 9 citations.
1. Brauer, John
Dynamic Skill Development and Labor Market Outcomes
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, University of Wisconsin--Madison, 2019
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79, NLSY79 Young Adult
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Educational Attainment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Labor Market Outcomes; Occupational Choice; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Math); Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Racial Differences; Skill Formation; Wage Gap

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The first chapter investigates the presence of statistical discrimination in the labor market. The Children of the NLSY79 data are used to link early-age home environment measures to educational attainment measures and labor market outcomes. While both black and white children with higher measured home inputs sort into higher levels of educational attainment, this positive sorting pattern is significantly stronger for black children. Estimates also reveal that, after controlling for a variety of skill measures, the residual black-white wage gap is large for high school dropouts and narrows rapidly with additional educational attainment. For college-goers, measured skills can account for the entire black-white wage gap. These patterns are consistent with a scenario in which employers use both race and education credentials to form expectations about elements of worker productivity formed through early-age inputs. Under plausible and partially testable identifying assumptions, the results imply that a portion of the black-white wage gap for low-education workers reflects statistical discrimination in the labor market.

Skill development in college and on the job can depend not only on the quality of investments but also on the order in which these investments are made. The second chapter explores which types of occupational investments complement college best when performed before college entry and which types are more productive after college completion. A learning-by-doing model with both college entry timing and early-career occupation choices produces several key insights. Data from the NLSY79 are linked with abstract and routine occupational task content data, and relationships between college entry timing, early-career occupation choices, and future earnings trajectories are documented. Estimates suggest that abstract-intensive occupations are more beneficial for skill development just after college, whereas routine-intensive occupations are more beneficial for skill development before college. Accordingly, delayed college entrants choose more routine-intensive early-career occupations, and immediate college entrants choose more abstract-intensive early-career occupations. The results also indicate that high school graduates with high levels of abstract skills face the largest penalty for delaying college entry.

Bibliography Citation
Brauer, John. Dynamic Skill Development and Labor Market Outcomes. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, University of Wisconsin--Madison, 2019.
2. Braun, Christine
Essays on Frictional Labor Markets and Measurement
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, University of California, Santa Barbara, 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Crime; Geocoded Data; Job Search; Labor Market Outcomes; Minimum Wage; State-Level Data/Policy; Unemployment Insurance

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The first essay asks the question: How do changes in the minimum wage affect criminal activity? I answer this question by describing a frictional world in which a worker's criminal actions are linked to his labor market outcomes. The model is calibrated to match labor market outcomes and crime decisions of workers from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, and shows that the relationship between the aggregate crime rate and the minimum wage is U-shaped. The results from the calibrated model as well as empirical evidence from county level crime data and state level minimum wage changes from 1995 to 2014 suggest that the crime minimizing minimum to median wage ratio for 16-19 year olds is 0.91. However, the welfare maximizing minimum to median wage ratio is 0.87, not equal to the crime minimizing value.

The second essay, joint with Ben Griffy, Bryan Engelhardt and Peter Rupert, asks the question: Is the arrival rate of a job independent of the wage that it pays? We answer this question by testing how, and to what extent, unemployment insurance changes the hazard rate of leaving unemployment across the wage distribution using a Mixed Proportional Hazard Competing Risk Model and data from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Controlling for worker characteristics we reject that job arrival rates are independent of the wages offered. We apply the results to several prominent job-search models and interpret how our findings are key to determining the efficacy of unemployment insurance.

Bibliography Citation
Braun, Christine. Essays on Frictional Labor Markets and Measurement. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, University of California, Santa Barbara, 2018.
3. Hemez, Paul
Military Service and Entry into Marriage: Comparing Service Members to Civilians
M.A. Thesis, Department of Sociology, Bowling Green State University, 2017
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Event History; Marriage; Military Enlistment; Military Service

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The military offers a springboard to economic stability during a time when it is increasingly difficult for young minority and disadvantaged men to achieve such stability. While enlisting in the armed forces was positively associated with entry into marriage during the first fifteen years of the all-volunteer force, the relationship between military service and entry into marriage among subsequent generations of young adults has been unexplored. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, the present study aims to examine the influence of enlistment on entry into marriage for a contemporary cohort of young men. A specific focus is to consider whether the race and social class marriage gap persists between enlistees and civilians. Event-history analyses reveal that young men who served (between 1997 and 2011) were significantly more likely to marry, than their civilian counterparts. Furthermore, there was no difference in the odds of marriage among Black and White men in the military, while some evidence suggests that Hispanic enlistees were more likely to marry than Whites who also enlisted. These findings offer insights into pathways to marriage for social groups who are disadvantaged in the marriage market.
Bibliography Citation
Hemez, Paul. Military Service and Entry into Marriage: Comparing Service Members to Civilians. M.A. Thesis, Department of Sociology, Bowling Green State University, 2017.
4. Jahromi, Afrouz Azadikhah
Essays on Heterogeneous Treatment Effects in The Labor Market
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Temple University, 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Income; Maternal Employment; Motherhood; Wage Gap

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Chapter 3, titled THE HETEROGENEOUS EFFECTS OF HAVING CHILDREN ON WOMEN'S INCOME, estimates the distributional effects of having children on women's annual income in the United States using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth from 1979 to 2016. Existing work on motherhood penalty shows that while the wage gap among men and women becomes smaller in the United States, the gap between mothers and childless women is increasing (Waldfogel 1998). After childbirth, women usually experience an immediate decrease in their earnings relative to what they would have earned if they had not become a mother. The gap closes somewhat over time though mothers never fully catch up to their counterfactuals. Previous work tried to explain the motherhood wage penalty by estimating the average treatment effect of children on women's earnings, but these effects can be quite heterogeneous across mothers with different observable characteristics. By utilizing the Changes-in-Changes model and distribution regression, I find that around 90% of mothers have lower income after having children. White, married, older, and highly educated mothers with two or more children experience a substantial drop in their income.
Bibliography Citation
Jahromi, Afrouz Azadikhah. Essays on Heterogeneous Treatment Effects in The Labor Market. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Temple University, 2019.
5. Kantenga, Kory
Essays on Wage Inequality Using the Search Framework
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania, 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Current Population Survey (CPS) / CPS-Fertility Supplement; Job Search; Occupational Information Network (O*NET); Occupational Status; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In the second chapter, I present a multidimensional skills search model which accounts for changes in occupational wages, occupational employment shares, and the wage distribution at large.
Bibliography Citation
Kantenga, Kory. Essays on Wage Inequality Using the Search Framework. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania, 2018.
6. Kim, Sun Hyung
Essays in Labor and Information Economics
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, University of Iowa, 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY79, NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Cognitive Ability; College Graduates; Economic Changes/Recession; Labor Market Outcomes; Noncognitive Skills

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

In Chapter 1, I examine how labor market returns to cognitive skills and social skills vary with the business cycle over the past 20 years, using data from the NLSY79 and the NLSY97. Exploiting a comparable set of cognitive and social skill measures across survey waves, I show that an increase in the unemployment rate led to higher demand for cognitive skills in the 2000s. High unemployment also sorted more workers into information use intensive occupations that require computer skills in the 2000s, but it sorted more workers into routine occupations in the 1980s and 1990s. This evidence suggests that recessions accelerate the restructuring of production toward routine-biased technologies. I also find that the returns to social skills increase during periods of high unemployment, though only in terms of the likelihood of full-time employment for experienced workers. Furthermore, an increase in unemployment increases the social skill task intensity of a worker's occupation in the 2000s, while it shows the contrary in the 1980s and 1990s. Based on these results, I argue that routine-biased technological change may not readily substitute for workers in tasks requiring interpersonal interaction, and therefore such technologies demand experienced laborers who have high social skills during recessions.

In Chapter 2, I study the impacts of entry conditions on labor market outcomes to cognitive and social skills for the US college graduating classes of 1979-1989. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, I find that Workers with higher cognitive skills are more likely to be employed, find jobs more quickly and have higher-quality employment, while those with higher social skills voluntarily switch jobs more often. I also show that graduating in a worse economy intensifies the roles of social skills, allowing workers with higher social skills to catch up more quickly from poor initial conditions by switching jobs more often. This could partly explain why wage returns to cognitive skills declines but wage returns to social skills increases from graduating in recessions.

Bibliography Citation
Kim, Sun Hyung. Essays in Labor and Information Economics. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, University of Iowa, 2019.
7. McDaniel, Heather Lasky
Advancing Understanding of Dynamic Mechanisms in Onset to Event Models: Discrete Time Survival Mediation with a Time Variant Mediator
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Experimental Psychology, 2018
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Modeling; Modeling, MIxture Models/Finite Mixture Models; Monte Carlo

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Integrating discrete time survival and mediation analytic approaches, discrete-time survival mediation models (DTSM) help researchers elucidate the impact of predictors on the timing of event occurrence. Though application of this model has been gainful in various applied developmental and intervention research contexts, empirical work has yet to consider how DTSM models operate with a mediator that has a varying effect over time. The importance of examining this situation has important impacts for application of the model, given more complex statistical models are required, and subsequent interpretation of model parameters differ from the basic DTSM model. The overarching purpose of this dissertation was to understand how the addition of a mediator with a time variant effect impacts parameter estimation and fit of the DTSM model estimated in a mixture modeling framework. This investigation was done within the context of an applied example (Study One) to simultaneously inform applied considerations in timing to onset of youth alcohol use, as well as to evaluate statistical performance of the model in a related single-cell Monte Carlo study (Study Two) and an expanded simulation study (Study Three). Results are presented with discussion of future directions for this research and considerations for application of this modeling approach.
Bibliography Citation
McDaniel, Heather Lasky. Advancing Understanding of Dynamic Mechanisms in Onset to Event Models: Discrete Time Survival Mediation with a Time Variant Mediator. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Experimental Psychology, 2018.
8. Mylavarapu, Kumar Anirudh
Probing Factors that Influence Job Satisfaction and Health
Master's Thesis, North Carolina State University, 2019
Cohort(s): NLSY97
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Job Satisfaction; Wages

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The goal of this paper is to study the impacts of rewards such as compensation and benefits as well as other factors such as flexible work schedules and hours worked at a job on job satisfaction, general health and mental health. Using the 2015 data from the National Longitudinal Survey Cohort of 1997, several logistic models were estimated to probe the impacts of seventeen different predictors on the dependent variables of job satisfaction, mental health and general health. The results show that income and flexibility are significant predictors of job satisfaction and have a negative relationship for this particular sample. Additionally, number of employer locations is the only variable that impacts mental health in a negative way. This could be attributed to the fact that Americans have to commute to multiple locations which could add to the mental stress. Lastly, factors such as flexibility, life insurance, income and age are significant and positive predictors of general health while the regressor of weeks worked at a job is found to have a negative impact on the general health. Older workers tend to have better general health than those in the prime of the workforce. The results of this paper aim at providing companies with information that will aid policy implementation and help improve employee retention, attract new talent and reduce turnover. The purpose of this paper is to also identify the significance of the timing of the incentivization and to briefly examine how individuals value company rewards at the entry point (deciding whether or not to work for a company) compared to while they are in the job.
Bibliography Citation
Mylavarapu, Kumar Anirudh. Probing Factors that Influence Job Satisfaction and Health. Master's Thesis, North Carolina State University, 2019.
9. Sanzenbacher, Geoffrey
Essays in Labor Economics
Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Boston College, 2010
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT)
Keyword(s): Job Tenure; Motherhood; Parents, Single; Wage Growth; Welfare

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

The welfare reforms of 1996 were designed to encourage single mothers to become self-sufficient through employment. Yet, these women often end up in unstable, low-paying jobs. In this paper, I quantify the importance of (1) the returns to tenure and experience, (2) job mobility, and (3) job exit in leading to these employment outcomes. I estimate a model of full-time work, part-time work, and welfare use. To allow differences in wage growth between recipients and non-recipients, I incorporate heterogeneity in job offer arrival rates, the returns to experience and tenure, and the rate of job destruction. I show that, for welfare recipients, tenure is a more important source of wage growth than work experience. Thus, policies encouraging lengthy employment spells could encourage wage growth. Policy experiments indicate that a work requirement on welfare receipt encourages longer employment spells and four times as much wage growth for women between the ages of 18 and 33 as a five-year lifetime welfare receipt time limit.
Bibliography Citation
Sanzenbacher, Geoffrey. Essays in Labor Economics. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Economics, Boston College, 2010.