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Author: Zimmerman, Frederick J.
Resulting in 14 citations.
1. Barnes, Andrew James
Zimmerman, Frederick J.
Associations of Occupational Attributes and Excessive Drinking
Social Science and Medicine 92 (September 2013): 35-42.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277953613003079
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Alcohol Use; Gender Differences; Job Characteristics; Occupational Information Network (O*NET); Occupations

Numerous work-related drinking mechanisms have been posited and, oftentimes, examined in isolation. We combined data from over 100 occupational attributes into several factors and tested the association of these factors with measures of alcohol use. We used the NLSY79 2006 wave, a U.S. representative sample of 6,426 workers ages 41 to 49 and the 2006 Occupational Information Network database (O*NET), a nationally representative sample of nearly 1,000 occupations. We conducted exploratory factor analysis on 119 occupational attributes and found three independent workplace characteristics – physical demands, job autonomy, and social engagement - explained the majority of the variation. We then tested the association of these composite attributes with three drinking measures, before and after adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, and a measure of human capital using count data models. We then stratified by gender and repeated our analyses. Men working in occupations with a one standard deviation higher level of physical demand (e.g. construction) reported a higher number of heavy drinking occasions (+20%, p<0.05). Job autonomy was not significantly associated with measures of alcohol use and when the combined association of higher levels of physical demand and lower levels of job autonomy was examined, modest support for job strain as a mechanism for work-related alcohol consumption was found. In our pooled sample, working in occupations with one standard deviation higher levels of social engagement was associated with lower numbers of drinking days (-9%, p<0.05) after adjustment. Physical demand and social engagement were associated with alcohol consumption measures but these relationships varied by workers’ gender. Future areas of research should include confirmatory analyses using other waves of O*Net data and replicating the current analysis in other samples of workers. If our results are validated, they suggest male workers in high physical demand occupations could be targets for intervention.
Bibliography Citation
Barnes, Andrew James and Frederick J. Zimmerman. "Associations of Occupational Attributes and Excessive Drinking." Social Science and Medicine 92 (September 2013): 35-42.
2. Bell, Janice F.
Zimmerman, Frederick J.
Diehr, Paula K.
Maternal Work and Birth Outcome Disparities
Maternal and Child Health Journal 12,4 (July 2008): 415-426.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/w41u402327vjp318/
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: JAMA: Journals of the American Medical Association
Keyword(s): Birth Outcomes; Birthweight; Ethnic Differences; Fertility; Job Characteristics; Maternal Employment; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives: We tested relations between aspects of maternal work and birth outcomes in a national sample and in subgroups known to experience disparities.

Methods: Three indices of work attributes (Status and Recognition, Physical Demands, and Exposure to Conflict) were derived by factor analysis of variables extracted from the Department of Labor's O*Net database. The indices were linked to the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth using occupation codes for the primary jobs held by women who gave birth between 1979 and 2000 and worked during the quarter prior to birth (n = 3,386 births to n = 2,508 mothers). Multiple regression was used to model birth outcomes as functions of the work attribute indices, controlling for several measures of socioeconomic status and risk factors for adverse birth outcomes.

Results: In the full sample, work-related Physical Demands were associated with lower average birthweight and increased odds of preterm birth while Status and Recognition was associated with higher average birthweight and lower odds of fetal growth restriction. In stratified models, Status and Recognition was associated with higher birth weight among women with low (versus high) income and with lower odds of preterm birth among women with low (versus high) education. Physical Demands were associated with higher rates of preterm birth among women with low (versus high) income and education and among African-American mothers (compared to Whites).

Conclusions: The work environment is an important predictor of healthy births. Relations between maternal work attributes and birth outcomes differ by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status and according to the outcome under investigation. Further research with measures of work attributes specific to maternal work experiences is recommended to confirm our findings.

Bibliography Citation
Bell, Janice F., Frederick J. Zimmerman and Paula K. Diehr. "Maternal Work and Birth Outcome Disparities." Maternal and Child Health Journal 12,4 (July 2008): 415-426.
3. Christakis, Dimitri A.
Zimmerman, Frederick J.
Early Television Viewing is Associated with Protesting Turning off the Television at age 6
Medscape General Medicine 8,2 (June 2006): 63.
Also: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/531503_1
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: Medscape
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Home Environment; Children, Preschool; Children, School-Age; Parenting Skills/Styles; Television Viewing; Variables, Independent - Covariate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Background: The effects of early exposure to television remain poorly defined. Although some have speculated that television may be habit-forming, evidence is lacking especially in young children.

Objective: To test the hypothesis that television viewing in the first 4 years of life is associated with protesting having the television turned off at age 6.

Methods: We used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Parents reported how much television their children watched before the age of 4. They also reported how often their children protested having the television turned off at age 6. Their responses to this question were dichotomized to almost never vs other. Multivariate logistic regression was used to test the independent association of early television watching with subsequent protest at turning off the television, controlling for externalizing behavior scores at age 6, parenting style, and other covariates.

Results: Data were available for 1331 children. Sixty-three percent of children protested having the television turned off at age 6. In a logistic regression model, hours of television viewed per day before age 4 was associated with increased odds of protesting at age 6 (1.08 [1.02-1.15]).

Conclusion: Early television exposure is associated with resistance to turning off the television at school age.

Bibliography Citation
Christakis, Dimitri A. and Frederick J. Zimmerman. "Early Television Viewing is Associated with Protesting Turning off the Television at age 6." Medscape General Medicine 8,2 (June 2006): 63.
4. Christakis, Dimitri A.
Zimmerman, Frederick J.
Digiuseppe, David L.
McCarty, Carolyn A.
Early Television Exposure and Subsequent Attentional Problems in Children
Pediatrics 113, 4 (April 2004): 708-713.
Also: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/113/4/708
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); CESD (Depression Scale); Child Health; Depression (see also CESD); Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Self-Esteem; Television Viewing

Objective. Cross-sectional research has suggested that television viewing may be associated with decreased attention spans in children. However, longitudinal data of early television exposure and subsequent attentional problems have been lacking. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that early television exposure (at ages 1 and 3) is associated with attentional problems at age 7.

Methods. We used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a representative longitudinal data set. Our main outcome was the hyperactivity subscale of the Behavioral Problems Index determined on all participants at age 7. Children who were 1.2 standard deviations above the mean were classified as having attentional problems. Our main predictor was hours of television watched daily at ages 1 and 3 years.

Results. Data were available for 1278 children at age 1 and 1345 children at age 3. Ten percent of children had attentional problems at age 7. In a logistic regression model, hours of television viewed per day at both ages 1 and 3 was associated with attentional problems at age 7 (1.09 [1.03-1.15] and 1.09 [1.02-1.16]), respectively.

Conclusions. Early television exposure is associated with attentional problems at age 7. Efforts to limit television viewing in early childhood may be warranted, and additional research is needed.

Bibliography Citation
Christakis, Dimitri A., Frederick J. Zimmerman, David L. Digiuseppe and Carolyn A. McCarty. "Early Television Exposure and Subsequent Attentional Problems in Children." Pediatrics 113, 4 (April 2004): 708-713.
5. McCarty, Carolyn A.
Zimmerman, Frederick J.
Digiuseppe, David L.
Christakis, Dimitri A.
Parental Emotional Support and Subsequent Internalizing and Externalizing Problems Among Children
Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 26,4 (August 2005):267-275.
Also: http://journals.lww.com/jrnldbp/Abstract/2005/08000/Parental_Emotional_Support_and_Subsequent.2.aspx
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; CESD (Depression Scale); Children, Behavioral Development; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Parental Influences; Parenting Skills/Styles

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

This study examined the association between early emotional support provided by parents and child internalizing and externalizing problems, using a nationally representative, longitudinal sample of 1361 children. Parental emotional support was assessed using the Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment, incorporating both parent report and interviewer observation. We found that, controlling for child externalizing problems at age 6 years, parental emotional support at age 6 years was negatively related to child externalizing problems at age 8 years. A developmental model that assessed the timing of the emergence of this relationship was then analyzed by including parental emotional support at ages 2, 4, and 6 years as predictors of child externalizing problems at age 8 years. The developmental model suggested that less parental emotional support as early as age 2 years is associated with later externalizing problems in children. This study discusses the importance of very early parental emotional support in promoting positive child development.
Bibliography Citation
McCarty, Carolyn A., Frederick J. Zimmerman, David L. Digiuseppe and Dimitri A. Christakis. "Parental Emotional Support and Subsequent Internalizing and Externalizing Problems Among Children." Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 26,4 (August 2005):267-275.
6. Strong, Larkin L.
Zimmerman, Frederick J.
Occupational Injury and Absence From Work Among African American, Hispanic, and Non-Hispanic White Workers in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth
American Journal of Public Health 95,7 (July 2005): 1226-1232.
Also: http://www.ajph.org/cgi/content/abstract/95/7/1226
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Absenteeism; Ethnic Differences; Gender Differences; Hispanics; Injuries; Occupational Status; Occupations; Racial Differences

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objectives. We examined how race and ethnicity influence injury and illness risk and number of days of work missed as a result of injury or illness.

Methods. We fit logistic regression and negative binomial regression models using generalized estimating equations with data from 1988 to 2000 on currently employed African American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White participants in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth.

Results. Occupational factors—having a blue-collar occupation, working full-time, having longer tenure, working 1 job versus 2, and working the late shift—were associated with increased odds of an occupational injury or illness. Although racial/ethnic minority workers were no more likely than Whites to report an occupational injury or illness, they reported missing more days of work. African American and Hispanic men missed significantly more days of work than non-Hispanic White men, and African American women missed significantly more days of work than non-Hispanic White women.

Conclusions. Factors associated with occupational health are multifaceted and complex. Our findings suggest that race/ethnicity influences the duration of work absence owing to injury or illness both indirectly (by influencing workers' occupational characteristics) and directly (by acting independently of occupational factors).

Bibliography Citation
Strong, Larkin L. and Frederick J. Zimmerman. "Occupational Injury and Absence From Work Among African American, Hispanic, and Non-Hispanic White Workers in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth." American Journal of Public Health 95,7 (July 2005): 1226-1232.
7. Zimmerman, Frederick J.
Agreeing on More than Chicken Soup: Intra-household Decision-Making and Treatment for Child Psychopathology
Review of Economics of the Household 4,3 (September 2006): 229-252.
Also: http://www.springerlink.com/content/c352jgk213444766/
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: Springer
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Children, Health Care; Children, Mental Health; Divorce; Domestic Violence; Family Decision-making/Conflict; Health, Mental; Household Models; Marital Conflict; Marital Satisfaction/Quality; Sex Ratios; State-Level Data/Policy

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Using a large, U.S. dataset it is shown that children are more likely to receive needed mental health specialty treatment when women have greater decision-making power, as measured by an index of wife-favorable divorce laws and by the sex ratio at the time of marriage. Stratified analyses show that this effect is modified by the degree of marital conflict. Marriages characterized by high conflict conform more closely to the unified household model. The paper then presents a model of household decision-making consistent with these results that incorporates both objective determinants of bargaining power as well as the role of violent coercion in maintaining otherwise unsustainable equilibria. Implications for improving children's access to mental health treatment are offered. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2006
Bibliography Citation
Zimmerman, Frederick J. "Agreeing on More than Chicken Soup: Intra-household Decision-Making and Treatment for Child Psychopathology." Review of Economics of the Household 4,3 (September 2006): 229-252.
8. Zimmerman, Frederick J.
Probability of Children's Treatment for Depression, Conditional on Symptomology, as a Function of Socioeconomic Status
Presented: Philadelphia, PA, American Public Health Association 130th Annual Meeting, November 2002
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: American Public Health Association
Keyword(s): Children; Children, Mental Health; Depression (see also CESD); Health Care; Health, Mental; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Considerable evidence exists to suggest disparities in how individuals with similar symptoms of depression are treated. These disparities in treatment are correlated with the individual's socioeconomic status (SES), viz., income, access to care, education, and race/ethnicity. Such SES-related differences in treatment in treatment are particularly disturbing where they have been shown to exist for children, for whom the long-term effects of untreated depression on subsequent mental health and educational outcomes are especially damaging. However, more research is needed to determine the sources of such differences, which could include individual preferences or perceptions of stigma, individual income- or access-constraints or even disparate treatment by providers. This research uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth's Children and Young Adult supplement to test competing hypotheses about the reasons for disparate treatment for depression in children. The longitudinal quality of the data will be exploited in a multivariate, fixed-effects analysis to develop causal insights into the relationships between SES and treatment for depression. Specifically, the analysis will test whether parental income, education and race/ethnicity are determinative of treatment for depression conditional on symptom level and access to care. This project is currently in the planning stage, and results will be available by November, 2002.
Bibliography Citation
Zimmerman, Frederick J. "Probability of Children's Treatment for Depression, Conditional on Symptomology, as a Function of Socioeconomic Status." Presented: Philadelphia, PA, American Public Health Association 130th Annual Meeting, November 2002.
9. Zimmerman, Frederick J.
Social and Economic Determinants of Disparities in Professional Help-Seeking for Child Mental Health Problems: Evidence from a National Sample
Health Services Research 40,5,Part_I (October 2005): 1514-1533.
Also: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1475-6773.2005.00411.x
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79
Publisher: AcademyHealth
Keyword(s): Attention/Attention Deficit; Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Behavioral Problems; CESD (Depression Scale); Children, Health Care; Children, Mental Health; Ethnic Differences; Health Care; Health, Mental; Insurance, Health

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objective. To test the role of social determinants-including race, education, income, and demographic factors-of child mental health services use, defined as having had a visit to a mental health professional for depression, attention-deficit, or for any reason.

Data Sources/Study Setting. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and the Child/Young Adult supplement, a nationally representative sample of 7-14-year-old children born to women who were 14-22 years old at the start of data collection, in 1979. African Americans and Latinos were over-sampled, and population weights are available to make nationally representative inferences.

Study Design. Indicators of mental health service use were regressed on social and economic determinants, family structure variables, and insurance variables, controlling for need as captured by several different symptom scales.

Principal Findings. Girls are much less likely to obtain needed treatment for externalizing behavior disorders than are boys, and are somewhat less likely to obtain needed treatment for depression than boys. Middle children are less likely to obtain needed treatment for any mental health problem than are oldest, youngest, or only children. The presence of the father inhibits the likelihood that the child will receive treatment, particularly for depression. African Americans and Latinos are less likely than white children to receive treatment. In contrast to these rich results for the social and demographic determinants of children's specialty mental health utilization, the economic and insurance variables (including maternal education and income) seem to hold little predictive power.

Conclusions. These results argue for interventions to sensitize parents-especially fathers-to the need to pay attention to the mental health needs of their children, in particular girls and middle children. The analysis also suggests that the literature on intrahousehold decision making and on the gender dimensions of investment in children is worth extending to mental health treatment decisions.

Bibliography Citation
Zimmerman, Frederick J. "Social and Economic Determinants of Disparities in Professional Help-Seeking for Child Mental Health Problems: Evidence from a National Sample." Health Services Research 40,5,Part_I (October 2005): 1514-1533.
10. Zimmerman, Frederick J.
Bell, Janice F.
Income Inequality and Physical and Mental Health: Testing Associations Consistent with Proposed Causal Pathways
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 60,6 (June 2006): 513-521.
Also: http://jech.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/abstract/60/6/513
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group, Ltd. - British Medical Journal Publishing Group
Keyword(s): CESD (Depression Scale); Depression (see also CESD); Ethnic Differences; Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Hispanics; Income; Racial Differences; Unemployment; Variables, Independent - Covariate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Design: Regression analysis of a large, nationally representative dataset, linked to US census and other county and state level sources of data on ecological covariates. The regressions control for individual economic and demographic covariates as well as relevant potential ecological confounders.

Setting: The US population in the year 2000.

Participants: 4817 US adults about age 40, representative of the US population.

Main outcome measures: Two outcomes were studied: self reported general health status, dichotomised as \"fair\" or \"poor\" compared with \"excellent\", \"very good\", or \"good\", and depression as measured by a score on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies depression instrument >16.

Results: State generosity was significantly associated with a reduced odds of reporting poor general health (OR 0.84, 95%CI: 0.71 to 0.99), and the county unemployment rate with reduced odds of reporting depression (OR 0.91, 95%CI: 0.84 to 0.97). The measure of income inequality is a significant risk factor for reporting poor general health (OR 1.98, CI: 1.08 to 3.62), controlling for all ecological and individual covariates. In stratified models, the index of social capital is associated with reduced odds of reporting poor general health among black people and Hispanics (OR 0.40, CI: 0.18 to 0.90), but not significant among white people. The inequality measure is significantly associated with reporting poor general health among white people (OR 2.60, CI: 1.22 to 5.56) but not black people and Hispanics.

Conclusions: The effect of income inequality on health may work through the influence of invidious social comparisons (particularly among white subjects) and (among black subjects and Latinos) through a reduction in social capital. Researchers may find it fruitful to recognise the cultural specificity of any such effects.

Bibliography Citation
Zimmerman, Frederick J. and Janice F. Bell. "Income Inequality and Physical and Mental Health: Testing Associations Consistent with Proposed Causal Pathways." Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 60,6 (June 2006): 513-521.
11. Zimmerman, Frederick J.
Christakis, Dimitri A.
Children's Television Viewing and Cognitive Outcomes: A Longitudinal Analysis of National Data
Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 159,7 (July 2005): 619-625.
Also: http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/159/7/619
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Medical Association
Keyword(s): Memory for Digit Span (WISC) - also see Digit Span; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Television Viewing; Variables, Independent - Covariate

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Objective: To test the independent effects of television viewing in children before age 3 years and at ages 3 to 5 years on several measures of cognitive outcomes at ages 6 and 7 years.

Design: Using data from a nationally representative data set, we regressed 4 measures of cognitive development at ages 6 and 7 years on television viewing before age 3 years and at ages 3 to 5 years, controlling for parental cognitive stimulation throughout early childhood, maternal education, and IQ.

Results: Before age 3 years, the children in this study watched an average of 2.2 hours per day; at ages 3 to 5 years, the daily average was 3.3 hours. Adjusted for the covariates mentioned earlier, each hour of average daily television viewing before age 3 years was associated with deleterious effects on the Peabody Individual Achievement Test Reading Recognition Scale of 0.31 points (95% confidence interval [CI], –0.61 to –0.01 points), on the Peabody Individual Achievement Test Reading Comprehension Scale of 0.58 points (95% CI, –0.94 to –0.21 points), and on the Memory for Digit Span assessment from the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children of –0.10 points (95% CI, –0.20 to 0 points). For the Reading Recognition Scale score only, a beneficial effect of television at ages 3 to 5 years was identified, with each hour associated with a 0.51-point improvement in the score (95% CI, 0.17 to 0.85 points).

Conclusions: There are modest adverse effects of television viewing before age 3 years on the subsequent cognitive development of children. These results suggest that greater adherence to the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines that children younger than 2 years not watch television is warranted.

Bibliography Citation
Zimmerman, Frederick J. and Dimitri A. Christakis. "Children's Television Viewing and Cognitive Outcomes: A Longitudinal Analysis of National Data." Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 159,7 (July 2005): 619-625.
12. Zimmerman, Frederick J.
Christakis, Dimitri A.
Vander Stoep, Ann
Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Patient: Work Attributes and Depression Disparities Among Young Adults
Social Science and Medicine 58,10 (May 2004): 1889-1901.
Also: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277953603004106
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Elsevier
Keyword(s): Benefits, Insurance; CESD (Depression Scale); Depression (see also CESD); Ethnic Differences; Job Characteristics; Job Status; Racial Differences; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Prior studies have consistently found the occurrence of depression to be higher among persons with lower socio-economic status (SES), but causal mechanisms for this relationship are often not well understood. For example, while depression has been shown to increase during spells of unemployment, little work has been done on job attributes that may be related to depression among employed people early in their careers. This study links the 1992 wave of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort, which included Depression symptom scores on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) instrument, to the US Department of Labor's new occupational characteristics O*Net dataset. The resulting dataset includes information regarding depression, SES, and specific attributes of jobs held by the young adult respondents. Job attributes included measures of social status, interpersonal stressors, and physical conditions. Multivariate analysis revealed that for young men, higher job status is associated with lower CES-D scores. Higher scores on the opposition scale, which measures the extent to which employees are obliged to take a position opposed to others, is associated with higher CES-D scores. For young women, physically uncomfortable or dangerous jobs are associated with more depressive symptoms. Results are stratified by race/ethnicity. For Black men, unlike for White men or Latinos, job security is associated with fewer depressive symptoms; and for Latino men, but not for Black or White men, physically uncomfortable or dangerous jobs are associated with more depressive symptoms. For Black women, job status is associated with fewer depressive symptoms. We conclude that part of the SES-depression relationship may arise from the psychosocial aspects of jobs, which we have found to be significantly and meaningfully associated with depressive symptoms among employed young adults. [Copyright 2004 Elsevier]
Bibliography Citation
Zimmerman, Frederick J., Dimitri A. Christakis and Ann Vander Stoep. "Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Patient: Work Attributes and Depression Disparities Among Young Adults." Social Science and Medicine 58,10 (May 2004): 1889-1901.
13. Zimmerman, Frederick J.
Glew, Gwen M.
Christakis, Dimitri A.
Katon, Wayne
Early Cognitive Stimulation, Emotional Support, and Television Watching as Predictors of Subsequent Bullying Among Grade-School Children
Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 159,4 (April 2005): 384-388.
Also: http://www.commercialalert.org/tvbullying.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Medical Association
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Behavior, Violent; Bullying/Victimization; Children, School-Age; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Memory for Digit Span (WISC) - also see Digit Span; Modeling, Logit; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Television Viewing

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

BACKGROUND: Bullying is a major public health issue, the risk factors for which are poorly understood.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether cognitive stimulation, emotional support, and television viewing at age 4 years are independently associated with being a bully at ages 6 through 11 years.

METHODS: We used multivariate logistic regression, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, to adjust for multiple confounding factors.

RESULTS: Parental cognitive stimulation and emotional support at age 4 years were each independently protective against bullying, with a significant odds ratio of 0.67 for both variables associated with a 1-SD increase (95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.82 for cognitive stimulation and 0.54-0.84 for emotional support). Each hour of television viewed per day at age 4 years was associated with a significant odds ratio of 1.06 (95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.11) for subsequent bullying. These findings persisted when we controlled for bullying behavior at age 4 years in a subsample of children for whom this measure was available.

CONCLUSION: The early home environment, including cognitive stimulation, emotional support, and exposure to television, has a significant impact on bullying in grade school.

Bibliography Citation
Zimmerman, Frederick J., Gwen M. Glew, Dimitri A. Christakis and Wayne Katon. "Early Cognitive Stimulation, Emotional Support, and Television Watching as Predictors of Subsequent Bullying Among Grade-School Children." Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 159,4 (April 2005): 384-388.
14. Zimmerman, Frederick J.
Katon, Wayne
Socioeconomic Status, Depression Disparities, and Financial Strain: What Lies Behind the Income-Depression Relationship?
Health Economics 14,12 (December 2005): 1197-1215.
Also: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/110504817/ABSTRACT
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Income; Income Level; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Prior studies have consistently found the incidence and persistence of depression to be higher among persons with low incomes, but causal mechanisms for this relationship are not well understood. This study uses the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort to test several hypotheses about the robustness of the depression-income relationship among adults. In regressions of depression symptoms on income and sociodemographic variables, income is significantly associated with depression. However, when controls for other economic variables are included, the effect of income is considerably reduced, and generally not significant. Employment status and the ratio of debts-to-assets are both highly significant for men and for women both above and below the median income. Fixed-effects estimates suggest that employment status and financial strain are causally related to depression, but income is not. Instrumental variable estimates suggest that financial strain may not lead to depression. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bibliography Citation
Zimmerman, Frederick J. and Wayne Katon. "Socioeconomic Status, Depression Disparities, and Financial Strain: What Lies Behind the Income-Depression Relationship?" Health Economics 14,12 (December 2005): 1197-1215.