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Author: Katon, Wayne
Resulting in 2 citations.
1. Zimmerman, Frederick J.
Glew, Gwen M.
Christakis, Dimitri A.
Katon, Wayne
Early Cognitive Stimulation, Emotional Support, and Television Watching as Predictors of Subsequent Bullying Among Grade-School Children
Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 159,4 (April 2005): 384-388.
Also: http://www.commercialalert.org/tvbullying.pdf
Cohort(s): Children of the NLSY79, NLSY79
Publisher: American Medical Association
Keyword(s): Behavior Problems Index (BPI); Behavior, Antisocial; Behavior, Violent; Bullying/Victimization; Children, School-Age; Home Environment; Home Observation for Measurement of Environment (HOME); Memory for Digit Span (WISC) - also see Digit Span; Modeling, Logit; Peabody Individual Achievement Test (PIAT- Reading); Television Viewing

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

BACKGROUND: Bullying is a major public health issue, the risk factors for which are poorly understood.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether cognitive stimulation, emotional support, and television viewing at age 4 years are independently associated with being a bully at ages 6 through 11 years.

METHODS: We used multivariate logistic regression, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, to adjust for multiple confounding factors.

RESULTS: Parental cognitive stimulation and emotional support at age 4 years were each independently protective against bullying, with a significant odds ratio of 0.67 for both variables associated with a 1-SD increase (95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.82 for cognitive stimulation and 0.54-0.84 for emotional support). Each hour of television viewed per day at age 4 years was associated with a significant odds ratio of 1.06 (95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.11) for subsequent bullying. These findings persisted when we controlled for bullying behavior at age 4 years in a subsample of children for whom this measure was available.

CONCLUSION: The early home environment, including cognitive stimulation, emotional support, and exposure to television, has a significant impact on bullying in grade school.

Bibliography Citation
Zimmerman, Frederick J., Gwen M. Glew, Dimitri A. Christakis and Wayne Katon. "Early Cognitive Stimulation, Emotional Support, and Television Watching as Predictors of Subsequent Bullying Among Grade-School Children." Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 159,4 (April 2005): 384-388.
2. Zimmerman, Frederick J.
Katon, Wayne
Socioeconomic Status, Depression Disparities, and Financial Strain: What Lies Behind the Income-Depression Relationship?
Health Economics 14,12 (December 2005): 1197-1215.
Also: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/110504817/ABSTRACT
Cohort(s): NLSY79
Publisher: Wiley Online
Keyword(s): Depression (see also CESD); Health, Mental; Health/Health Status/SF-12 Scale; Income; Income Level; Modeling, Fixed Effects; Socioeconomic Status (SES)

Permission to reprint the abstract has not been received from the publisher.

Prior studies have consistently found the incidence and persistence of depression to be higher among persons with low incomes, but causal mechanisms for this relationship are not well understood. This study uses the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort to test several hypotheses about the robustness of the depression-income relationship among adults. In regressions of depression symptoms on income and sociodemographic variables, income is significantly associated with depression. However, when controls for other economic variables are included, the effect of income is considerably reduced, and generally not significant. Employment status and the ratio of debts-to-assets are both highly significant for men and for women both above and below the median income. Fixed-effects estimates suggest that employment status and financial strain are causally related to depression, but income is not. Instrumental variable estimates suggest that financial strain may not lead to depression. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bibliography Citation
Zimmerman, Frederick J. and Wayne Katon. "Socioeconomic Status, Depression Disparities, and Financial Strain: What Lies Behind the Income-Depression Relationship?" Health Economics 14,12 (December 2005): 1197-1215.